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Chapter V Fighting for People’s Interests: Party Agenda in:

Ridho Al-Hamdi

Indonesian Political Ideology, page 155 - 178

Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998-2015

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4058-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6884-7, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828868847-155

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Chapter V Fighting for People’s Interests: Party Agenda This chapter continues the empirical analysis by exploring the effectiveness of the party agenda for PDIP, PAN and PKS in coping with education and health issues in Yogyakarta Municipality. As an introduction, some concepts will be explored here such as what is “effectiveness” and, what is “agenda”? Effectiveness could be defined as the judgements about whether an organisation is functioning satisfactorily or not (Narayanan & Nath, : p. ). An agenda is “a collection of problems, understanding of causes, symbols, solutions and other elements of public problems that come to the attention of members of the public and their governmental officials”. Hence, an agenda like a list of bills means a list of problems that should be addressed by governance actors (Birkland, : p. ). In this context, the party agenda could be defined as a set of actions to be pursued by the party. It is typically more specific and operational than policy, used to measure the performance and actions carried out by those three parties since until . To measure the party agenda effectiveness, Narayanan and Nath ( : p. ) proposed four criteria: the clarity of goals; the linkage between input and output; the nature of coupling between inputs, process and outputs; and the ease of establishing criteria. Moreover, this study applies three steps for organisational effectiveness developed by Hall ( : pp. – ) and Narayanan and Nath ( : p. ). It begins with the input step. In this context, the input consists of human and natural resources owned by Yogyakarta Municipality, i.e., elected legislators and political officials in five years, bureaucrats and civil servants, the local revenue each year and existing systems which were established earlier. These inputs will be brought together in the second process: conversion. In this step, the DPRD legislators will play their roles in the process of legislating, budgeting and controlling the gov- 155 ernment performance which are part of their major duties as the legislative wing. The last step is output (goal) which comprises two tangible proofs: well-implemented municipal governance particularly in education and health sectors and the achievement of external recognition whether nationally or internationally. This process is depicted in Figure . . The effectiveness of the party agenda in this chapter will be elaborated in two main sections. First is the party involvement in five DPRD’s tool fittings: the DPRD board, the commission of social welfare, the legislation body, the budgetary body and the special committee. Second is the party attitude towards local regulation drafts known as Raperda related directly to education and health issues. The former demonstrates the structural while the latter indicates the functional way. The Effectiveness Process of the Party Agenda Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings The tool fittings, known also as Alkep, group the parliamentary duties into some bodies. In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPRD has seven kinds of tool fittings: The DPRD board, the commissions, the consultative body, the legislation body, the budgetary body, the honorary body and other necessary tool fittings established by the DPRD plenary session, such as the special committee. This study describes party involve- Figure . 1. Chapter V 156 ment in five tool fittings: the DPRD board, the commission of social welfare, the legislation body, the budgetary body and the special committee. The others are not relevant for this study. Involvement could be defined as participation of political parties in the structure of those five tool fittings including their positions. In the post-New Order regime, the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality experienced four election cycles in line with the national electoral circulation. Table . reveals that PDIP steadily earned the top position in the DPRD board except in the second period which was led by PAN. Unlike in other periods, regulation in the period – did not automatically decide which ruling party would reach the DPRD head as this position was decided through the voting mechanism. In addition to PDIP, PAN always gained DPRD board seats whether as the head or as the deputy head. PKS reached the board only once in the second cycle ( – ). These positions imply that parties which have a high number of votes and seats will obtain board positions. With an ability to gather more votes than others, PDIP and PAN always achieved a DPRD board seat. The DPRD Board in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Period Name of Board Party Origin Position – Bahtanisyar Basyir, SE PDIP Head Ir. Sukardi Yani, MM PAN Vice Head Nanda Irawan, SH PBB Vice Head H. Muhammad Wahid, SE PKB Vice Head – Arif Noor Hartanto, SIP PAN Head R. Andrie Subiantoro PDIP Vice Head I Dwi Budi Utomo, S.Pt PKS Vice Head II – Henry Koncoroyekti, SH PDIP Head Agus Prasetio AS, ST Democrat Vice Head I Muhammad Ali Fahmi, SE., MM PAN Vice Head II – Sujarnoko, SE PDIP Head Muhammad Ali Fahmi, SE., MM PAN Vice Head I Ririk Banowati Permanasari, SH Gerindra Vice Head II Source: compiled by the author. Table . 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 157 The Commission of Social Welfare After the legislative candidates were decided as the elected members of the DPRD, they have to create the parliamentary duties based on commissions. The commissions are permanent tool fittings in the DPRD, established for the first time in a five year period and usually divided based on sectors: government, economy, finance, development and social welfare. Each member of the DPRD except the board has to involve itself in one of the commissions. It is useful to explain here that each period of the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality has had different numbers of commissions: five commissions in – , three commissions in – and four commissions in – and – . The commissions are divided based on existing sectors, but in other periods, some sectors are grouped into one commission. With regard to commission duties, there are ten types. First is implementing local government responsibilities in line with legislation. Second is discussing local regulation drafts and the parliamentary decision drafts, depending on the commission’s duties. Third is supervising local regulation drafts and local budgets depending on the commission’s duties. Fourth is assisting the DPRD board in solving problems, whether from the report of the mayor or society. Fifth is receiving, accommodating, discussing and following up on society’s aspirations. Sixth is increasing social welfare. Seventh is making a field visit after receiving the DPRD board’s approval. Eight is organising internal meetings and hearings. Ninth is giving suggestions or proposals to the DPRD board based on its commission duties. Tenth is providing a written report on its commission programmes which have been implemented by the DPRD board (Sekretariat DPRD Kota Yogyakarta, : p. ). The social welfare commission commonly comprises some issues related to education, health, woman empowerment, family planning and welfare family, social labor transmigration, youth and sport, library, food security, culture and religion. Table . depicts that there are five structural replacements in the commission of social welfare. During this period, PDIP usually had more delegates than others. 1.1. Chapter V 158 Parties’ Involvement in the Commission of Social Welfare, – Period Total of Dele-gates Number of the Party Delegates PDIP PAN PKS – - – – – – Source: compiled by the author. For the key positions, Appendix demonstrates that PDIP gained three times as the chairperson, once as the vice chairperson and once as the secretary. Moreover, PAN obtained the chairperson and the vice chairperson twice respectively. In the meantime, PKS was the vice chairperson once. PDIP and PAN repeatedly have a significant role in each process of policy-making related to education and health issues. Firstly, they always obtain vital positions so that their roles are more considerable than ordinary members. Secondly, their delegates in each period dominate more than others. Legislation Body The legislation body known as Balegda in the DPRD of Yogyakarta Municipality is permanent and, therefore, a party’s role in the legislation could be represented by its involvement in this body. Each DPRD fraction has to decide who can and how many members are involved in this body. The legislation body in Yogyakarta Municipality was officially established in . In two earlier periods of the DPRD, each regulation draft had to be discussed in the consultative committee (Panmus) which, at the time, was still provisional. Based on the Keputusan DPRD Kota Yogyakarta No. /DPRD/ on the Standing Orders (tata tertib), Article , the legislation body in the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality has some duties. First is drafting local legislation programmes. Second is coordinating the Table . 1.2. 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 159 drafting of local regulation programmes between legislative and executive wings. Third is preparing the local regulation draft proposed by the DPRD based on the priority programme. Fourth is harmonising and finishing the local regulation draft proposed by parliaments, commissions, joint commissions or society before being presented to the DPRD board. Fifth is providing suggestions and considerations for each local regulation draft proposed by parliaments, commissions, joint commissions or society. Sixth is discussing, correcting and completing the local regulation draft commissioned by the consultative body. Seventh is following recent developments and evaluating the contents of the local regulation draft through coordination with commissions or the special committee. Eighth is giving suggestions to the DPRD board on the local regulation draft proposed by society. Ninth is making a performance report and legislation problem lists at the end of the DPRD period. Parties’ Involvement in the Legislation Body, – Period Total of Dele-gates Number of the Party Delegates PDIP PAN PKS – – – Source: compiled by the authorc Because the legislation body in – was not formed yet, no data can be displayed here. Table . portrays that there were three structural replacements in the legislation body between and . PDIP had the most delegates. For key positions, as seen in Appendix , PDIP was the chairperson once and twice the vice chairperson, PAN was the chairperson once and PKS was the vice chairperson once. Broadly, the three parties have played crucial roles in making regulations in Yogyakarta Municipality. Numerous local regulations (perda) were executed to ensure the basic needs of people who live inside the municipality. Between – , there were perdas related to government affairs, retributions and taxes, municipal development and governance, infrastructure and licenses. Between and , there Table . Chapter V 160 were perdas in which were joint local regulations (perda bersama) and seven were initiative local regulations (perda inisiatif). The former is discussed and executed between the DPRD and the municipal government whereas the latter is executed only by the DPRD. During this period, the DPRD issued seven perdas each year. Major issues included the municipal budget, government, retributions and taxes, license, health and education. From to , there were perdas in which were perda bersama and six were perda inisiatif. These were related to issues of municipal budget, government and politics, health, license, manpower, enterprises, poverty alleviation, environment and garbage, disaster, retribution and tax, motor vehicle and The Number of Local Regulations Issued by the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Year Number of Perdas TOTAL Source: compiled by the author. Table . 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 161 parking, trading and tourism. Between and there were ten perdas related to municipal budget, spatial, advertisement, enterprises, bank, tourism, child-friendly city and simple flats. Table . shows that for years, the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality has produced slightly under perdas in which the most productive year was with perdas and the least productive in with only one perda. In general, because Yogyakarta Municipality is located in an urban area and used as the centre of trading, business and tourism, most perdas are always related to retributions and taxes, licenses as well as municipal governance. There was a positive improvement from period to period on how the DPRD governs local governance affairs. Between and , the produced regulations were still focused on infrastructure and government affairs. Five years later, the regulations attempted to address basic human needs such as education and health. Since until the present, the regulations have been associated with manpower, enterprises, poverty alleviation, environment, garbage, disaster, spatial, advertisement, child-friendly city and simple flats. As a result, the effectiveness of those perdas can be seen in various appreciations nationally and internationally earned by Yogyakarta Municipality. Between and , it obtained recognitions in government and public service affairs, appreciations in environmental affairs, acknowledgments in public facilities and infrastructure affairs, recognitions in health affairs, five acknowledgments in education affairs and five awards in tourism affairs (Retno, : pp. – ). Numerous provincial awards were also collected (Pemerintah Kota Yogyakarta, : pp. – ). Not surprisingly, Yogyakarta Municipality was recognised as the country’s cleanest city from corruption by Indonesia’s International Transparency in and by the Bung Hatta Anti-Corruption Award (BHACA) in . Subsequently, the municipality was considered Indonesia’s most livable city in and by the Ikatan Ahli Perencanaan Indonesia (Expert Association for Indonesian Planning). The Human Development Index (HDI) in this municipality has increased continuously over three years, from . in into . in ; HDI scores above in the international scale are high. By , it was appointed by the Kemitraan as the country’s best city among select- Chapter V 162 ed districts and municipalities, reaching the highest standard of the Indonesia Governance Index (IGI). In , it ranked first in the Indeks Kota Islami (Islamic City Index, IKI) amongst Indonesia’s selected municipalities, researched by the Maarif Institute. Budgetary Body The budgetary body known as Banggar is part of the permanent tool fittings, established in the first period of the DPRD. Based on the Keputusan DPRD Kota Yogyakarta No. /DPRD/ on the Standing Orders (tata tertib), Article , the budgetary body in Yogyakarta Municipality has seven duties. Firstly, the body together with the municipal government creates main policies on the municipal revenue and budget as guidance for the municipal agencies in proposing the budget. Secondly, the body alongside with the city mayor decide the municipal budget by considering proposals from the relevant commission. Thirdly, the body with the mayor discuss the local regulation draft on the municipal budget by referring to the session decision between the commission and the mayor. Fourthly, it synchronises the discussion results in the commission on the work and budget plans in the municipal agencies. Fifthly, it discusses the realisation and prognosis related to the municipal budget. Sixthly, it discusses the explanation of the local regulation draft on the accountability of the municipal budget realisation. Seventhly, it discusses the financial report of the mayor, including the verification result of the BPK. Between – , the name of this body was the budgetary committee known as Panggar and, at the time, it was provisional. The term “Banggar” has been used officially since until present. In general, the board of Banggar is usually the board of the DPRD. Table . demonstrates the budgetary body has been replaced six times over two decades. Like other tool fittings, PDIP has more delegates than other parties although in certain periods, the number of delegates between PDIP and PAN was the same. In two periods between and , PKS had no delegate in this body with only one seat. For vital positions, PDIP was the chairperson four times and twice the vice chairperson. Moreover, PAN was the chairperson once, three times the 1.3. 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 163 vice chairperson and twice the secretary. Meanwhile, PKS was the vice chairperson once. These three parties have vital contributions in the process of budgetary making. The annual budget in Yogyakarta Municipality has continuously improved from year to year. The municipal income in was billion IDR. In , it rose to billion IDR, then in and it increased to billion IDR and billion IDR respectively. By , it improved drastically to . trillion IDR. In the same vein, the municipal budget for education and health sectors has also increased from year to year. By , the budget for education sectors was still under five percent, it rose to . percent in and increased to . percent in . Moreover, it improved spectacularly to . percent in . The budget for this sector in was more than a third of the total annual budget of the municipality. This was the biggest budget of all sectors, followed by the issues related to regional autonomy and health in second and third ranks respectively (see Table . ). Yogyakarta Municipality can be recognised as the country’s city of education. Likewise, the municipal budget for health sectors from to was continuously increasing as well. The budget in was . percent, in was percent and in was . percent. Parties’ Involvement in the Budgetary Body, – Period Total of Dele-gates Number of the Party Delegates PDIP PAN PKS – - – - – – – – Source: compiled by the author. Table . Chapter V 164 The Income and Expenditure Budget in Yogyakarta Municipality No Description Amount (IDR) A MUNICIPAL INCOME , , , , Municipal-owned Revenue , , , Balance Fund , , , Other Legal Municipal-owned Revenues , , , B MUNICIPAL EXPENDITURE , , , , . Compulsory Affairs , , , , . Education , , , . Health , , , . Public Works , , , . Housing , , , . Room Planning , , , . Development Planning , , , . Transportation , , , . Environment , , , . Defense , , , . Population and Civil Registration , , , . Women Empowerment and Children Protection , , , . Family Planning and Welfare Family , , , . Social , , , . Labour , , , . Cooperative Small and Middle Enterprises , , , . Investment , , . Culture , , , . Youth and Sport , , , . Nation Unity and Domestic Politics , , . Regional Autonomy, General Government, Municipal Finance Administration, Municipal Device, Employee Affairs and Coding , , , . Food Security , , , . Social Empowerment , , , . Table . 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 165 Statistic , , , . Archival , , , . Communication and Informatics , , , . Library , , . Optional Affairs , , , . Farming , , , . Forest - - Energy and Mineral Resources - - Tourism , , , . Marine and Fisheries , , . Trade , , , . Industry , , , . Transmigration , , . C MUNICIPAL FUNDING , , , Financing Revenue , , , Financing Expenses , , , Source: Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / . Table . reveals that the municipal expenditure in was approximately . trillion IDR. The municipality’s income was around . trillion IDR while the deficiency was covered mainly by the remaining balance budget in the previous budget year with roughly billion IDR. Table . also portrays that the expenditure for education and health sectors were prioritised. If both expenditures, . percent and . percent, are totalled, the amount was . percent. The budget for education and health sectors in was more than half the total budget. Therefore, it is not surprising that the municipality obtained many prizes in the field of education and health from various credible institutions. Special Committee The special committee known also as Pansus is a provisional body, established by the DPRD plenary session based on parliamentarian proposals and the consultative body (Bamus) considerations. It has a spe- 1.4. Chapter V 166 cific duty relying on particular issues and restricted by a certain time as well. For instance, a pansus for the health insurance issue, the time restriction is from January to November . The pansus for local regulation drafts which will be discussed in this study is related directly to education and health issues. Between and , there were eight pansuses for eight raperdas as displayed in Table . . Of them, seven are on health issues and one is on education. The education system in Yogyakarta Municipality is more stable than the health system and, hence, it requires little regulation. Meanwhile, serious attention was paid by the municipal government to govern the health system and, thus, many regulations were produced. Broadly, the members of the special committee represent all parliament fractions and, thus, each fraction has delegates in each special committee. Unfortunately, two kinds of pansus could not be displayed here given unfixed and unreliable data. Table . portrays that PDIP delegates were higher than others although there were similar delegates between PDIP and PAN in some raperdas. For board positions, as displayed in Appendix , PDIP was the chairperson twice and once the vice chairperson. Furthermore, PAN was the chairperson once and twice the vice chairperson. In the meantime, PKS was the chairperson once and twice the vice chairperson. Parties’ Involvement in the Special Committee for Raperda, – Year Raperda/Issues Total of Delegates Number of the Party Delegates PDIP PAN PKS Retribution of health services atRSUD - - - - Retribution of health services atPuskesmas - - - - Retribution of health services atPuskesmas License in operating health facilitiesand workers Education system Table . 1. Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings 167 Retribution of health services atPuskesmas Health insurance Exclusive breastfeeding Source: compiled by the author. It is quite important to explain here that especially the pansus of exclusive breastfeeding included members of the commission of social welfare at the time. There is also no different number of members and board between the commission and the pansus. This local regulation draft was initiated by the executive wing so this draft was a joint effort between the municipal government and the DPRD. Establishing a special committee in this raperda is not needed at all. Party Attitudes towards Raperda The local regulation draft known as raperda is the initial concept related to a particular public issue which rules all interrelated stakeholders in a certain district/municipality/province prior to being decided together by executive and legislative wings as an official binding regulation. Meanwhile, the party attitude can be defined as an official decision made by a political party in responding to particular issues. To trace back the source of the party attitude, this study is going to explain it in two ways. First is a personal view delivered by elites and legislators of the party towards the raperda. Second are pemandangan umum (general statements) which refer to the report made by the party’s fraction and presented in the DPRD plenary sessions in responding to a particular raperda. These two sources are employed to figure out the political attitude of PDIP, PAN and PKS towards the policymaking process of the local regulation draft related to education and health issues in Yogyakarta Municipality. 2. Chapter V 168 Education System There is one raperda which regulates the education system, later being the Local Regulation (Perda) of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Education Organising System. The scope of the regulation is for early childhood education (PAUD), primary and secondary education as well as non-formal education which are part of the municipal government’s responsibility. This regulation aims to realise the equalisation of qualified education and to ensure access expansion and affordable education for society. The target is that children are faithful and devout humans by having good morals, health, intelligence, are creative, independent and self-confident so that children can be democratic and responsible citizens in society. PDIP argues that public schools have to be prioritised for poorer people who are classified in the KMS-Group. This party will safeguard and control the implementation of this regulation because children from poorer families are still dealing with financial problems in the school. They do not know how to solve their own problems. It frequently shall be found in not only public schools but also private schools. PDIP strongly advocates for these isolated people until they earn back what is part of their rights. “We strive for problems not only related to BOSDA and KMS, but also tiny problems such as the inability in paying uang gedung (expenses for school’s building construction and renovation) and baju seragam (school uniform). Our party has a task force to deal with these issues”, Sutaryo (interview, Sept. ) confirms. Therefore, this party does not mind if many people outside Yogyakarta Municipality want to be a part of the city’s citizens due to this pro-poor people policy. PAN advocates poor people to register their children in public schools. Such people will be subsidised fully by the municipal budget through the JPD programme. If each public school has the quota of seats for pupils of poorer families, a lot of such pupils earn qualified education. Moreover, this party supports the municipal government to subsidise the poorer pupils who have a good performance to continue studying at the university level. The municipal government should provide special scholarships for pupils who have good intelligence and also scholarships for teachers. Because there are so few of these kinds 2.1. 2. Party Attitudes towards Raperda 169 of pupils and teachers, it means it is easy for the municipal government to execute it. Furthermore, PAN always strives for similar financial subsidies between private and public schools, as the high payment will be found in private schools. In addition to public schools, many private schools inside the city have significant contributions in educating young generations. Nevertheless, the municipal government has no authority to ban private schools from “financial extortion”. Moreover, this party also advocates for a financial subsidy for poor citizens within the city who study outside the city and a subsidy for schools under the DE- PAG system through the budgetary body sessions. Regarding the establishment of the Taman Pintar, this party claims to be part of the initiator in creating this programme, as the idea first appeared in the Zudianto regime. Meanwhile, PKS believes that to realise free education, particularly in public schools, the municipal government should subsidise it fully as long as central and provincial governments still subsidise the city as well. For private schools, this party advocates them through the budget. Consequently, public schools are banned from conducting financial extortion while private schools are expected to decrease such extortion. Moreover, struggling for additional scholarship for pupils, the improvement of school facilities and the increase of the teachers’ wages are also part of the party’s agenda. However, although PKS has already discussed with the related agencies to implement this universal coverage for education affairs, in fact, many barriers must be dealt with. One of the vital barriers is the willingness of the mayor to execute this policy or not. If the mayor and the related agencies are willing, everything can be reached easily. If the head of the education agency and headmasters have numerous innovative programmes, but less encouragement from the mayor and vice mayor, the innovation will proceed slowly. Moreover, this party always asks the municipal government to design that all schools have similar quality. It is to attract people to apply to any school. One of the PKS’ original agendas which have been applied by the municipal government under the Suyuti administration is Kampung Ramah Anak (Child-friendly Village). It aims to create a kelurahan as a comfortable place for children to play and grow. Chapter V 170 Retribution of Health Services7 There are five interrelated raperdas linked to the issue of the retribution of health services in public health centres in Yogyakarta Municipality. Those raperdas later being the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Retribution of Health Services at the RSUD, the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Retribution of Health Services at the Puskesmas, the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Retribution of Health Services at the Puskesmas, the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on License in Operating Health Facilities and Workers and the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Retribution of Health Services at the Puskesmas. These five local regulations aim to ensure the health service system within the municipality, including the technical procedure and the price of health services. There are no significant differences among these regulations except related to the adjustment of the price of health services due to novel economic situations. One of the most important things is that PDIP, PAN and PKS in concur that citizens in Yogyakarta Municipality will obtain a reduction of percent for common treatment services and percent for health action services. PDIP has three main views in responding to this issue. Firstly, the municipal government has an obligation to finance public health, as it is part of the government’s responsibility. Secondly, most people who come to the Puskesmas are lower and poorer-class who have no money to go to a hospital or a private health centre. Thirdly, the existing local budget is still not optimised for increasing the quality of health services in the Puskesmas or the RSUD. Therefore, the municipal government could optimise the existing budget for health before deciding on this regulation. In addition, PDIP has some basic questions: “It is a vital question for us, will the municipal government make the health sector as a resource to increase the income?”, “We need recent data regarding the customer of health services in all Puskesmas in Yogyakarta 2.2. Some views of parties in this part are also compiled from “Pemandangan Umum Fraksi PDIP, PAN, PKS ( )”, in: Risalah Rapat Paripurna DPRD Kota Yogyakarta II, October ; Risalah Rapat Paripurna DPRD Kota Yogyakarta No. /RIS/ , January . 2. Party Attitudes towards Raperda 171 Municipality?”, “Could the municipal government explain us concerning the user of all budget allocations for the health sector?”. Moreover, PAN points out some its own views. Firstly, although the promotion of free healthcare services is our common hope, it cannot be realised totally due to the limitation of the municipal budget. If the DPRD tries to execute free healthcare services, it will take the budget of other sectors. Hence, PAN prioritises free care for poorer people while rich people have to pay the retribution. Secondly, people have to be educated to use their income firstly for vital needs, such as health. Thirdly, we do not agree that customers who come to the Puskesmas are merely poorer people, because, as a matter of fact, most rich people also take advantage of the services in the Puskesmas as well. Fourthly, PAN can understand the government’s desire to increase the retribution price in order to improve the quality of public health centres. Nevertheless, is it realistic or not to charge the public? Fifthly, PAN agrees Yogyakarta citizens would be subsidised by the municipal budget for this issue. Sixth, if the municipal government increases this retribution each year, it should explain its indicators and why the price has to be raised. Meanwhile, according to PKS, when the regulation is going to be discussed, the municipal government should follow up with any complaints reported by society on the worst public health services. It shall be an evaluation for the municipal government to behave better than before. There are three main views of PKS. Firstly, the regulation should list in detail the price of all sorts of retribution in order to calculate the price for each health service. Secondly, the municipal government has to subsidise Yogyakarta citizens fully while citizens who come from outside the city have to pay the retribution as listed in the regulation. Thirdly, it is good if the subsidy is no longer for health centres, but for people directly. For instance, if the subsidy is , IDR Pemandangan Umum of the PDIP Fraction was delivered by Suwarto of PDIP, in the DPRD plenary session, October . This party agreed with the Raperda before decided by the session, January . This attitude is strengthened by interviews with PDIP elites. Pemandangan Umum of the PAN Fraction was delivered by Iriawan Argo Widodo of PAN, in the DPRD plenary session, October . This party also agreed with the Raperda before decided by the session, January . This attitude is strengthened by interviews with PAN elites. Chapter V 172 per person per month and there are , citizens multiplied by months, the result is . million IDR per year. This subsidy is smaller than the subsidy for health centres. Fourth, it is important that we should differentiate the retribution between for social services and for professional business. The retribution for social purposes should be lower than business taxes. The increase of fuel oil followed by the increase of other basic needs must be considered prior to deciding the regulation. Health Insurance Regarding health insurance in Yogyakarta Municipality, there is one Perda namely the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Health Insurance Organising System. It is also well-known as the local regulation regarding JAMKESDA. This regulation aims to provide protection for decent health for people within the municipality, particularly coming from poorer families so that they can live in a cozy situation financially. During the discussion process in making this regulation draft, each party has its own views. PDIP argues that it is the initiator in creating this regulation because it encouraged the municipal government between and to conduct an initial trial of JAMKESDA in five kelurahans randomly. This programme seems to be an effective way to cope with health issues. Therefore, JAMKESDA is an effort to protect people’s health inside the municipality, particularly poorer families. More technically, when Yogyakarta citizens go to any hospital inside the city whether public or private as well as the Puskesmas for medical checks or treatments, they merely register themselves with an ID-Card or Kartu Keluarga (Family Identity Certificate). If they want to stay in the third class, 2.3. Pemandangan Umum of the PKS Fraction was delivered by Muhammad Zuhrif Hudaya of PKS, in the DPRD plenary session, October . This party also agreed with the Raperda before decided by the session, January . This attitude is strengthened by interviews with PKS elites. For more detail on the explanation related to the classification of the participant in this program, the payment mechanism and the service standard, see two mayoral regulations in Yogyakarta Municipality No. / and No. / , both on the organising of JAMKESDA. 2. Party Attitudes towards Raperda 173 no payment will be charged to them. In other words, it is free of charge as was regulated by the local regulation. Before the implementation of JAMKESDA, PDIP already assisted these poorer people to gain decent health services in the hospitals or other healthcare centres. Poorer people would be assisted by PDIP volunteers to have so-called “Surat Keterangan Tidak Mampu” (a certificate which states that a person has no ability to pay the bill). This certificate usually will be obtained if someone asks the head of RT and also the head of RW where he/she lives. If a person has such a certificate, similar to the JAMKESDA system, he/she will not be charged. Furthermore, PAN claims it too is also part of the architect of JAMKESDA. Nothing is wrong in this matter, as at the time the mayor was a PAN cadre. Therefore, the party tried to increase the municipal budget for JAMKESDA so that all kinds of diseases could be paid fully by the municipal government. PAN has already calculated the budget and estimated how much the municipal government has to pay with the number of existing citizens. This party believes that the municipal budget can cover all expenses. Nevertheless, by , the central government issued a new regulation whereby all people within the country have to join the BPJS system where health insurance is also governed inside. Consequently, JAMKESDA which was established by the municipal government has to join with BPJS, and, in turn, it is not working anymore. The party views that in the context of Yogyakarta Municipality, although the implementation of BPJS seemingly is an unprepared system, it should be reserved for not only poorer people but also all people within the city, poor or not. If the BPJS is merely for poorer people, some Yogyakarta citizens will lose their rights which were covered previously by JAMKESDA. In the meantime, PKS argues that addressing health issues cannot be separated from access and quality. The party believes that as one of the basic needs, the municipal government should cover this matter entirely. Consequently, this party always faces this concern in the budgetary and legislation sessions. Each citizen within the municipality Compiled from the interviews with PDIP elites, some of them are Danang Rudiyatmoko, Sutaryo and Sujarnoko. Compiled from the interviews with PAN elites, among of them are Heroe Poerwadi, Muhammad Ali Fahmi and Rifki Listianto. Chapter V 174 will not be charged if they come to health centres as long as they want to be nursed in the third class, rooms for lower-class patients. Afterwards, this party supports improving health centre facilities, because it receives a lot of complaints and critiques from society on how bad the public health centre services are. Hence, the basic problem in health insurance is financing and the municipal government has to solve this issue. In addition, PKS is one of the parties which strongly encourages the establishment of “a hospital without classes”. It argues that although the central government has a new regulation on BPJS, it still believes that JAMKESDA is the spectacular way the municipal government protects society in health sectors. This party continuously tries to improve the best system for serving people. For now, according to PKS, the third class service is not too bad. Exclusive Breastfeeding There is one raperda directly related to the issue of the importance of full breastfeeding for infants, the Local Regulation of Yogyakarta Municipality No. / on Exclusive Breastfeeding. The emergence of this regulation was caused by the fact that formula milk is used instead of bresatfeeding, or mix of these two. Thus, this regulation has three main objectives. First is to protect the infant’s rights in obtaining breastfeeding fully for six months without any formula milk. It is, of course, for the infant’s growth. Second is providing protection for mothers in exclusive breastfeeding for their babies. Third is increasing the role and support of family, society and the municipal government to this agenda. Furthermore, before the draft will be decided as a regulation, each party has its own views. PDIP has four main views. Firstly, it must synchronise between the regulation on the freedom of information and this perda in Article related to the ban on the health centres, hospitals and the Puskesmas in giving data about pregnant mothers, baby’s mothers and babies to any manufacturers and distributors of food or milk. Article verse 2.4. Compiled from the interviews with PKS elites, some of them are Muhammad Syafi’i, Dwi Budi Utomo and Muhammad Fauzan. 2. Party Attitudes towards Raperda 175 could be changed with this sentence: “Each health worker is banned from giving the data of pregnant mothers, baby’s mothers and babies to the distributors of box milk and baby food products which can hamper this programme”. Secondly, concerning the reward to anyone or any institutions which support this programme as was stated in Chapter XI Article , the party argues that the municipal government should give the reward based on qualified conditions, as many volunteers in villages have a good ability in assisting pregnant mothers. Thirdly, with regard to Chapter VI Article on the breast milk aids, the party needs an explanation related to medical reasons, religious values and social-cultural values on this concern due to various perspectives among society. Fourthly, the party supports this draft becoming a regulation, as it can strengthen the role of health volunteers in assisting the pregnant mothers at the RW levels. Moreover, this regulation has to be socialised amongst society, especially young generations, such as pupils and students inside the municipality (Pemandangan Umum Fraksi PDIP, ). Further, PAN believes that to gain better health, the public health centres have to provide not merely rehabilitative services, but also preventive actions and a healthy lifestyle. One of the preventive services is exclusive breastfeeding to infants in order to have better growth and life. Thus, the party really encourages this draft, as the draft also includes the provision that exclusive breastfeeding is the infant’s right. It is compulsory for each mother who has given birth. Nonetheless, the party is afraid if there is no punishment for people who do not abide by this regulation, everything is useless. If the punishment does not seem effective, formulating ethical rules in this regulation is a must so that if people do not obey this, they suffer the loss. In addition, this party tends to doubt the seriousness of the municipal government in executing a sanction for health centres, manufactures and distributors of formula milk/baby foods if they violate the regulation. The following is a question: is this punishment effective for them? Most importantly, the real commitment and the budgeting support of the municipal government is a necessity to educate society on the importance of exclusive breastfeeding for infants (Pemandangan Umum Fraksi PAN, ). Chapter V 176 Lastly, PKS argues that exclusive breastfeeding is a right which should be earned by each infant. According to Muhammad Syafi’i (interview by phone, May ) of PKS, his party delivers encouragement for this regulation based on a fourfold reason. First is a religious reason based on Islamic teachings, that each baby under two should have exclusive breastfeeding. Second is a health reason that each mother has to feed her baby up to six months. Third is an educational reason that when the infants can grow in a healthy way, the development of their brain grows very well. Fourth is a psychological reason that exclusive breastfeeding will positively affect the personal and emotional relationship between the mother and her baby making a close and harmonious relationship amongst of them. In addition, most medical literature posits that exclusive breastfeeding will support the child’s immune system, as it is the best food endowed by Allah or God for the child’s growth. In short, by realising exclusive breastfeeding, there is insurance that each infant can grow mentally and in a healthy way. Concluding Remarks The party agenda can be viewed in two distinctive ways: structurally and functionally. The former describes the party’s involvement in the DPRD’s tool fittings. With many seats in parliament, PDIP, PAN and PKS have already contributed with different positions in the DPRD tool fittings. The more seats held by a party in the DPRD means it has more roles in various agendas related to legislation and budgeting. These three parties have proven their vital contributions structurally in legislating, budgeting and controlling. The latter describes the parties’ attitude towards local regulation drafts related to education and health issues. The attitude can be traced back to the parties’ pemandangan umum and the personal views of the party elites. The three parties have their own attitudes in responding to four issues: education system, retribution of health services, health insurance and exclusive breastfeeding. Although there are different expressions and stresses in delivering their responses, the points of view broadly are very similar and support each other. 3. 3. Concluding Remarks 177 With those ways which played by the three parties, the positive growth in education and health sectors within the municipality is plain. The municipal budget in these two sectors has grown each year. The annual budget for both sectors in was more than half the budget total. All local regulations (perda) since until were officially discussed and issued by the DPRD through consultative and deliberative ways and its tool fittings are encouraging each other as well. This development demonstrates that all political parties are fighting for people’s interests so that the party agendas are working effectively. Chapter V 178

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Abstract

This book examines the influence of political ideology in Indonesia’s political parties to address governance issues during the democratic era, 1998–2015. Further, it investigates the policy, agenda and strategies of three ideological parties in Yogyakarta Municipality in coping with public service issues. The three parties are the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Justice and Prosperous Party (PKS).