Content

Titelei/Inhaltsverzeichnis in:

Barış Can Sever

The Role of Non-State Actors for Refugees in Turkey, page I - XX

Local Integration of Syrian Refugees in Mersin

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4497-1, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7533-3, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828875333-I

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Barış Can Sever The Role of Non-State Actors for Refugees in Turkey Barış Can Sever The Role of Non-State Actors for Refugees in Turkey Local Integration of Syrian Refugees in Mersin Tectum Verlag Barış Can Sever The Role of Non-State Actors for Refugees in Turkey Local Integration of Syrian Refugees in Mersin © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2020 eBook 978-3-8288-7533-3I (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-4497-1 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) Alle Rechte vorbehalten Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum-verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. Preface Turkey undertook a leading role in providing international protection to refugees not only from Syria but also from other countries, in particular, located in the MENA region. Consequently, the volume of the flows and the emergency of the situation made the involvement of several actors into migration governance necessary in Turkey, including also various stakeholders of civil society. While designing this study, we believed that these efforts are worth to explore and analyze. Barış Can Sever, as a researcher who has intensive ties with civil society, successfully conducted this research with great motivation. This study is based on the dissertation of Barış Can SEVER, who had dedicated himself to an intensive research process for two years under my supervisorship. I believe, it is a contribution to migration studies by relying on a robust and relevant academic literature and theoretical debate, providing data from the field and analyzing an underrepresented area as part of this field study. Overall, the study addresses both theoretical aspects and also the practical challenges of the refugee integration issue in Turkey. More importantly, there are still only a limited number of studies regarding the role of non-state actors in Turkey about this process. Therefore, his work is one of the prominent efforts to discuss this issue in the related academic literature for the case of Turkey. Assoc. Prof. Dr. Gökay ÖZERİM Jean Monnet Chair on Migration, Yaşar University -Turkey V Abstract THE ROLE OF NON-STATE ACTORS IN TURKEY FOR THE LO- CAL INTEGRATION OF REFUGEES: THE CASE OF SYRIANS IN MERSIN Barış Can Sever Master Thesis, International Relations Advisor: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Gökay ÖZERİM 2017 The Syrian civil war which started in 2011 has brought about one of the most staggering human tragedies in world history. While approximately 11 million refugees had to leave their homes, 13.5 million people still need to have humanitarian assistance under the ongoing war conditions. During the flow of Syrian refugees, the refugees who escaped from the escalating violence of the civil war mostly moved to neighboring countries, particularly Jordan, Lebanon and Turkey. By pursuing an open door policy and accepting more than 3 million Syrian refugees, Turkey became the leading country in respect to the numbers of Syrians refugees within the territory of nation-states. While most of the Syrian refugees have been living in urban and suburban places, a few of them have remained in refugee camps. The prolonged war in Syria and the permanency of Syrian refugees in host countries as undeniable circumstances initiated debates on the future of Syrian refugees in the local communities. Due to the permanency of Syrians in Turkey for a longer term, the integration of Syrian refugees has become prominent topics of debate in both the policy-making and societal levels. In this research, the theoretical and conceptual debates on the local integration of the refugees and the role of non-state actors in the integration take place in the nexus of migration management, the implementation of the states and VII non-state actors on the field. Particularly, as being one of the possible solutions to the migration phenomenon, the local integration will be examined through the understanding of the Syrians’ stay in Mersin which is one of the top ten provinces in Turkey regarding the numbers of Syrian refugees. In the methodology part of this research, semi-structured interviews were applied to 20 non-state actors in Mersin in order to have an idea about the role that they have played in the local integration of Syrian refugees. The data acquired from the interviews were interpreted by both qualitative and quantitative methods. In this way, while the profiles of selected non-state actors in the field were revealed, their participation and contribution to the integration process were interpreted. The results of the fieldwork led the researcher to the analysis that most of the integration activities and strategies of the non-state actors in Mersin were based on the role of complementing state policies and implementation which do not fully meet the expectations due to the high number of refugees and insufficient institutional capacity. Although there is a signal of cooperation among state and non-states actors, it is believed that the enhancement of communication between state and non-state actors would further contribute to the integration process of Syrian refugees. Lastly, the research would be considered as opening a window of opportunity for possible research which could investigate the role of non-state actors in other provinces in Turkey that have accepted numerous Syrian refugees. Abstract VIII Öz MÜLTECİLERİN YEREL ENTEGRASYONUNDA TÜRKİYE’DEKİ DEVLET DIŞI AKTÖRLERİN ROLÜ: MERSİN’DEKİ SURİYELİ MÜLTECİLER ÖRNEĞİ Barış Can Sever Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Uluslararası İlişkiler Danışman: Doç. Dr. Mehmet Gökay ÖZERİM 2017 2011’de başlayan Suriye İç Savaşı, dünya tarihinin en sarsıcı insanlık trajedilerinden birine sebep oldu. Yaklaşık 11 milyon mülteci evini terk etmek zorunda kalırken, 13,5 milyon kişi devam savaş koşulları altında halen insani yardıma ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Savaşın artan şiddeti nedeniyle kaçmakta olan Suriyeli mültecilerin akınları sırasında, pek çok mülteci ağırlıklı olarak Lübnan, Ürdün ve Türkiye gibi komşu ülkelere göç etmek zorunda kaldı. Açık kapı politikası uygulayan ve 3 milyondan fazla Suriyeli mülteciyi kabul eden Türkiye, ulus-devlet sınırları içerisinde kabul ettiği Suriyeli mültecilerin sayısı bağlamında lider ülke konumuna geldi. Suriyeli mülteciler ağırlıklı olarak şehir merkezlerinde ve çeperlerinde yaşarken, geriye kalan az sayıda mülteci kamplarda yaşamaktadır. Yadsınamayan gerçeklikler olarak; Suriye’de uzayan savaş ve Suriyeli mültecilerin ev sahibi ülkelerdeki kalıcılık durumları, yerel topluluklarda Suriyeli mültecilerin gelecekleri konusunda tartışmaları başlattı. Suriyelilerin Türkiye’de uzun dönemli kalıcı olmaları nedeniyle, Suriyeli mültecilerin uyum ve entegrasyonu, toplum ve politika yapıcı çevreler tarafından değerlendirilen önemli konulardan biri haline geldi. Bu çalışmada, göç yönetimi ve devlet-devlet dışı aktörlerin alandaki uygulamalarının kesiştiği noktalar bağlamında, mültecilerin yerel entegrasyonu ve devlet dışı aktörlerin entegrasyondaki rolleri kuramsal ve IX kavramsal tartışmalar içerisinde ele alınmaktadır. Özellikle, göç konusuna sunulan çözümlerden bir tanesi olan yerel entegrasyon, Suriyelilerin en çok yaşadıkları şehirler arasında ilk 10'a giren Mersin örneği ile incelenmektedir. Çalışmanın yöntem bölümünde yarı yapılandırılmış görüşmeler, Suriyeli mültecilerin yerel entegrasyonunda yer alan devlet dışı aktörlerin oynadıkları rol hakkında fikir edinme amacıyla, 20 farklı devlet dışı aktöre uygulanmak üzere kurgulandı. Görüşmelerden elde edilen veri, niceliksel ve niteliksel yöntemler ile yorumlandı. Bu yöntemler ile, görüşülen devlet dışı aktörlerin profilleri hakkında bilgiler ortaya çıkartılırken, entegrasyon sürecine katılımları ve katkıları da değerlendirildi. Alan çalışmasının sonuçları araştırmacıya şunu gösterdi: kurumsal kapasite yetersizliği ve yüksek rakamlara ulaşan mülteci sayısı nedeniyle beklentileri tam anlamıyla karşılayamayan devlet politikaları ve uygulamalarına ek olarak, Mersin’de görüşülen devlet dışı aktörlerin pek çoğu entegrasyona yönelik aktivite ve stratejileriyle tamamlayıcı nitelikte bir rol oynamaktadır. Ayrıca, devlet ve devlet dışı aktörlerin arasında bir işbirliği sinyali görünüyor olsa da, aktörler arasında bir üst seviyeye taşınacak iletişimin, Suriyeli mültecilerin entegrasyonuna katkı yapacağı düşünülmektedir. Son olarak bu çalışma, aynı konu bağlamında Türkiye’nin diğer şehirlerindeki devlet dışı aktörlerin inceleneceği ileriye dönük araştırmalar için bir fırsat penceresi olarak dü- şünülmektedir. Öz X Acknowledgments I would first like to thank my thesis advisor Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Gökay Özerim of Yaşar University. The door to Prof. Özerim’s office was always open whenever I ran into a trouble spot or had a question about my research or writing. He consistently allowed this paper to be my own work, but steered me in the right direction whenever he thought I needed it. I would also like to thank the experts and institutions who were involved in the validation interviews for this research project: Certified Translator N.B., Mersin City Council, Mezitli City Council, Mersin University Regional Monitor and Application Center (BIAMER), Mersin University Migration Studies Application and Research Center (MER-GOC), Mersin Chamber of Medicine, Mersin Chamber of Commerce and Industry, Mersin Catholic Church, Mersin Djemevi, Association for Solidarity with Asylum Seekers and Migrants (ASAM), Mersin 7Renk LGBTI Education, Research and Solidarity Association, Mersin Mediterranean Rotary Club, YUVA Association, MAYA Association, Mersin Users of Organized Industry Zones Association (MOR- SKUD), The Sandal of Liberty Association, Syria Social Gathering, SE- QUA, Social Services Directorate in Mersin Metropolitan Municipality, Mezitli District Governorship Social Assistance and Solidarity Foundation. Without their passionate participation and input, the validation interviews could not have been successfully conducted. I would also like to acknowledge Dr. Ful Uğurhan of the Mersin Chamber of Commerce, Prof. Dr. Gülden Ersöz of Mersin University and Dr. Bediz Yılmaz of MAYA Association as great contributors to my fieldwork and this thesis. I am also gratefully indebted to valuable comments of the jury which consisted of Assoc. Dean Dr. Işık Gürleyen of Academic Affairs at IES Abroad EU Center, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ayselin Yıldız of Yaşar University and Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mehmet Gökay Özerim of Yaşar University. I would also like to thank my former lecturer Donald Dungan of Izmir University of Economics who reviewed XI this thesis in respect to English grammar rules and has always supported me throughout my educational life. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to my dearest family and my lovely friends and to the Munis and Bağcı families who became my second family in İzmir, for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and through the process of researching and writing this thesis. Also, I would like to thank Dr. Mustafa Ersöz who always encouraged me during our conversations toward the publication of this thesis as a book. This accomplishment would not have been possible without them. Thank you. Acknowledgments XII Inhaltsverzeichnis Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . V Abstract. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII Öz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI Figure List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XVII Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Syrian Refugees, Turkey and the International System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 1 7 Migration in International Relations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 7 Turkey and Migratory Movements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 13 Syrian Civil War, Refugees and Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 18 Theoretical and Conceptual Debates on Local Integration and Integration of Refugees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 25 Migration: Concept and Theories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 25 Integration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 30 Models of Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. 32 Integration of Refugees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4. 39 State-Level and Local Level Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.5. 40 Local Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6. 42 XIII Abbreviation List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX Non-State Actors and Their Role in Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 3 47 The Concept of Non-State Actor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. 47 International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.1. 49 Transnational Corporations (TNCs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.2. 50 Civil Society Organizations (CSOs). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.3. 52 Professional Chambers (Trade Associations) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.4. 53 City Councils. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.5. 54 Universities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.6. 54 Business Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.7. 55 Religious Communities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.8. 56 Individuals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1.9. 57 The Roles of the Non-State Actors in Integration of Refugees and Migrants . . . . . . . . . .3.2. 58 Complementary Role of Non-State Actors to the State Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.1. 59 Monitoring Role of Non-State Actors to the State Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.2. 60 Critical Position of Non-State Actors to the State Policies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.3. 62 Humanitarian Assistance to the Refugees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.4. 63 Integration Works in the Living Areas of Refugees. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.5. 64 Strategies and Activities for Medium and Long Term Integration . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.6. 65 The Case of Mersin and Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Chapter 4 67 Historical Background of Mersin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1. 68 Syrian Refugees in Mersin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2. 71 Overall Findings and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. 74 Integration Parameters and The Role of Non-State Actors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4. 85 Housing and Accommodation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.1. 86 Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.2. 87 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.3. 87 Legal Assistance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.4. 89 Language Courses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.5. 90 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.6. 90 Skills development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.7. 91 Social and Cultural Aspect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.8. 92 Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.4.9. 93 Non-State Actors’ Perception on State Policies and Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.5. 95 Inhaltsverzeichnis XIV Non-State Actors’ Perception on the Syrian Refugees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.6. 97 Interview with the Mersin Provincial Directorate of Migration Management (MPDMM). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7. 101 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Inhaltsverzeichnis XV Figure List Figure 1. A Typology of International Regimes 10 Figure 2. A Conceptual Framework Defining Core Domains of Integration 35 Figure 3. Integration as Two Way Processes Across Domains 37 Figure 4. Main Migration Route of the Syrian Refugees from Syria to Mersin 69 Figure 5. The Location of Mersin on the Map of Turkey 69 Figure 6. Syrians Under Temporary Protection (TOP 10 PROVINCES) 72 Figure 7. Profile of Designated Non-state Actors in Mersin in the Field of Migration 74 Figure 8. Types of Non-state Actors in the Research 76 Figure 9. Experience in the Field 77 Figure 10. Number of Staff Working in the Field of Migration 77 Figure 11. Funded by Whom? 78 Figure 12. Any Branches? 79 Figure 13. How to get in touch with refugees? 80 Figure 14. In touch with refugees since when? 81 XVII Figure 15. Why got in touch later than the beginning of the refugee flows? 81 Figure 16. Cooperation with whom? 82 Figure 17. Target Groups of Their Activities 83 Figure 18. What sources are to be utilized? 84 Figure 19. Involved Areas 94 Figure 20. Knowledge about State and Local Governments’ Integration Policies and Actions 95 Figure 21. Opinion on State and Local Governments’ Integration Policies 96 Figure 22. Complementary or not? 97 Figure 23. Opinion on the Refugees’ Future 98 Figure 24. Possible to be integrated? 99 Figure 25. Factors to accelerate the integration process 100 Figure List XVIII Abbreviation List AFA: Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency CSOs: Civil Society Organizations DGMM: Turkish Directorate General of Migration Management EU: European Union EU-ization: Europeanization GCIM: Global Commission on International Migration ICG: International Crisis Group ILO: International Labor Organization IOs: International Organizations INGOs: International Non-Governmental Organizations IR: International Relations ISIS: Islamic State of Iraq and Syria MENA: Middle East – North African MNCs: Multinational Corporations MPDMM: Mersin Provincial Directorate of Migration Management MPI: Migration Policy Institute NGOs: Non-Governmental Organizations OECD: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development OSCE: Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe TP: Temporary Protection TPHFD: Turkish Police Headquarters (Foreigners’ Department) TNCs: Transnational Corporations UN: United Nations UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees US: United States USSR: Union of Soviet Socialist Republic WEF: World Economic Forum WW2: Second World War XIX

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Abstract

In this research, the theoretical and conceptual debates on the local integration of refugees and the role of non-state actors in the integration are brought together. Their investigation take place in the nexus of migration management, the implementation of the states and non-state actors on the field. Particularly, the local integra-tion is examined through the Syrians’ stay in Mersin/Turkey. In the methodology part of this research, semi-structured interviews were applied to 20 non-state actors in Mersin (Summer 2017) in order to have an idea about the role that they have played in the local integration of Syrian refugees. In this way, while the profiles of selected non-state actors in the field were revealed, their participation and contribution to the integration pro-cess were interpreted.

Zusammenfassung

In dieser Studie werden die theoretischen und konzeptionellen Debatten über die lokale Integration von Flüchtlingen und die Rolle nichtstaatlicher Akteure bei der Integration zusammengebracht. Diese werden im Umfeld des Zusammenhangs mit dem Migrationsmanagement, der Umsetzung der Staaten und der nichtstaatlichen Akteure vor Ort betrachtet. Insbesondere wird die lokale Integration durch den Aufenthalt der Syrer in der türkischen Stadt Mersin untersucht. Im methodischen Teil dieser Studie wurden zwanzig nichtstaatliche Akteure in Mersin (Sommer 2017) mit halbstrukturierten Interviews befragt, um eine Vorstellung davon zu bekommen, welche Rolle sie bei der lokalen Integration syrischer Flüchtlinge gespielt haben. Auf diese Weise wurden zwar die Profile ausgewählter nichtstaatlicher Akteure in diesem Bereich aufgedeckt, ihre Beteiligung und ihr Beitrag zum Integrationsprozess interpretiert.