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Lilija Wiebe

Rethinking Social Integration, page I - XXII

Comparing Martha Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach and Friedrich Heckmann's Theory of Integration for the Context of Refugees

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4434-6, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7448-0, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828874480-I

Series: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag: Sozialwissenschaften, vol. 93

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe Sozialwissenschaften Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe Sozialwissenschaften Band 93 Lilija Wiebe Rethinking Social Integration Comparing Martha Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach and Friedrich Heckmann’s Theory of Integration for the Context of Refugees Tectum Verlag Lilija Wiebe Rethinking Social Integration. Comparing Martha Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach and Friedrich Heckmann’s Theory of Integration for the Context of Refugees Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe: Sozialwissenschaften, Bd. 93 © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2020 ePDF 978-3-8288-7448-0 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-4434-6 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) ISSN 1861-8049 Gefördert von der Plansecur Stiftung Umschlagabbildung: © CVJM- Hochschule Alle Rechte vorbehalten Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum-verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. V Acknowledgments I would like to express my sincere thanks to all those who have made this research study possible. First of all, I thank my family. Gerhard, Hannah Joy, Liah Kolab and Levi Samuel, you encouraged me, supported me, prayed for me and believed in me. Then I would like to thank God the Almighty, who has put loving and supportive people at my side. Among these people is my supervisor Dr Thomas Kröck. Thank you for your patience and your helpful comments. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to my colleagues Prof Dr Germo Zimmermann, Prof Dr Florian Karcher and Kirsten Kretzschmar at the YMCA University of Applied Sciences (CVJM-Hochschule). I would also like to thank Susan Wall and Tanya Heid, who corrected my English with an angelic patience. Without all of you this would not have been possible! This research study is recognized as a Master of Arts in Development Studies at the University of South Africa (UNISA). VII Abstract This research study is a reaction to the “refugee-crisis” in mid-2015 and the ensuing recommendation of science to use experiences and approaches from development work to reach sustainable refugee and integration policies. The goal was to compare the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Theory of Integration in order to direct the focus of integration theories away from the weaknesses and towards the capabilities of the refugees in Germany. To achieve this, the Theory of Successful Integration is, based on a comparative analysis (Schneider 1999), related to the Capabilities Approach by Nussbaum via interlinking both theories. The most important results are that the two theories can be combined and that an integration theory with the focus on the capabilities of the refugees could empower the individual immigrants for the integration process. The result may give Non-Governmental Organisations and government agencies in Germany an orientation for their future aid programming. KEYWORDS: Capabilities Approach, Martha Nussbaum, Friedrich Heckmann, Coordinated Theory approach, refugees, migration, integration, Germany IX Foreword Today it is hard to imagine, that in the 1990s German politicians could claim that Germany was not a country of immigration. Even then, with the “Gastarbeiter” (guest workers) of the 1960s and 1970s and their children and grandchildren, “boat people” from Vietnam, ethnic German immigrants from Russia and Romania and former contract workers from the GDR, migrants had become an important part of German society. Today, in day-care centres and schools, shopping areas and workplaces, it is obvious that Germany is a country of immigration. We cannot deny that we live in a post-migration society and have to deal with the changes caused by migration and adapt our social structures and institutions to this reality. When the German Chancellor in August 2015 made the widely acclaimed statement "Wir schaffen das!” (We can do it!), the focus was certainly on the initial accommodation, care and registration of refugees mostly from Syria and Iraq. The euphoria of the welcome culture of these weeks and months was overwhelming and many citizens mobilized help for the new arrivals. This euphoria has now largely vanished, but the task remains, not so much to provide for the basic needs of our guests as to support them in becoming recognized members of our society. This is not a task of weeks or months, but of years and generations. Some people see the associated changes as a threat, because Germany will not remain as it was. Others see immigration, especially in view of the demographic developments, as an opportunity for our country to remain fit for the future. In any case, it will be a long and challenging process, which will show that integration is not a one-sided adaptation of migrants to German culture, but that they can make important contributions to the development of our society and enrich our culture. In this discourse about the future of our post-migration society, Lilija Wiebe's work is an important contribution. She shows that refugees are not just recipients of aid that burden our social systems, but people with skills and resources that can enrich our society. Her research encourages us to focus not so much on the deficits of the migrants, but on their strengths and competences. The study is a conversation of approaches X from two worlds. The capabilities approach developed by the American philosopher Martha Nussbaum and the Indian economist Amartya Sen is a concept for understanding poverty and human development, widely applied in international development cooperation. The integration theory of the German sociologist Friedrich Heckmann, on the other hand, is a well-recognized approach in migration research. Lilija Wiebe is familiar with these two worlds. She lived with her family for several years in Asia where she was involved in development projects and she has subsequently obtained a master's degree in Development Studies. She is also experienced in accompanying refugees in Germany, helping them to orientate and settle in a new environment. With her research, she has brought theories from these two worlds together with the intention to foster the recognition of the resources of migrants and to promote their integration in Germany and other countries. This study is not a purely academic exercise but an endeavour to improve the practice of government agencies and voluntary organizations working with migrants. I hope that this book will receive the due attention of both academics, as well as practitioners engaged in this field, and that the theory will stimulate a change of practice, so that refugees and other migrants will be encouraged to find a home in Germany and use their skills and strengths for the development of our society. Dr. Thomas Kroeck1 1 Director of Studies, Academy for Christian Leadership (AcF), Research Fellow in the Department of Development Studies, University of South Africa (Unisa) XI Acronyms ANKER- Einrichtungen Aufnahme-, Entscheidungs-, und Rückführungseinrichtungen (Reception, Decision-making and Repatriation facilities) AsylG Asylgesetz (Asylum law) AufenthG Aufenthaltsgesetz (Residenz law) AWO Arbeiterwohlfahrt (Workers’ Welfare Association) BAFl Bundesamt für die Anerkennung ausländischer Flüchtlinge (Federal Office for the recognition of foreign refugees) BAMF Bundesamt für Migration und Flüchtlinge (Federal Office for Migration and Refugees) BDA Bundesvereinigung der Deutschen Arbeiterverbände (Federation of German Employers’ associations) BMI Bundesministerium des Inneren (Federal Ministry of the Interior) CBP Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union CIDOB Barcelona Centre for International Affairs XII DIW Deutsches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung (German Institute for Economic Research) DQR Deutscher Qualitätsrahmen (German Qualification Framework) efms Europäisches Forum für Migrationsstudien (European Forum for Migration Studies) ER Environmental Refugees ESN European Services Network EU European Union GDP Gross Domestic Product HDI Human Development Index IAB Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (Institute for Labour Market and Employment Research) IMIS Institut für Migrationsforschung und Interkulturelle Studien (Institute for Migration Research and Intercultural Studies) LDCs less-developed countries LGBT lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender people MDCs more-developed countries MDG Millennium Development Goals XIII MIPEX Migrant Integration Policy Index MPG Migration Policy Group NGO Non-Governmental Organization OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development QCF Qualifications and Credit Framework RCO Refugee Community Organization SDG Sustainable Development Goals SIDA Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency SOEP Sozio-Ökonomischen Panels (German Socio-Economic Panel) SVR Sachverständigenrat deutscher Stiftungen (The Expert Council of German Foundations) TIES The Integration of the European Second Generation UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNDESA United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner of Refugees XIV UNO- Flüchtlingshilfe United Nations Organisation- Flüchtlingshilfe (The German UNHCR) UNRWA United Nations Relief and Work Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East XV Table of contents Acknowledgments ........................................................................... V Abstract .......................................................................................... VII Foreword ......................................................................................... IX Acronyms ........................................................................................ XI Table of contents ........................................................................... XV List of figures ................................................................................ XIX List of tables ................................................................................... XX 1 Introduction and background ................................................. 1 1.1 Introduction ................................................................................ 1 1.2 Background to the research problem ......................................... 2 1.3 Problem statement ..................................................................... 5 1.4 Research Objectives .................................................................. 5 1.5 Scope and limitations of the study ............................................. 5 1.6 Importance of the study ............................................................. 6 1.7 Research methodology .............................................................. 7 1.8 Ethical considerations ................................................................ 8 1.9 Clarification of key terms ........................................................... 8 1.10 Chapter layout.......................................................................... 12 2 Migration and forced displacement worldwide and in Germany ................................................................................. 15 2.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 15 2.2 Migration and forced displacement worldwide ......................... 16 2.2.1 Migration in history ....................................................... 16 2.2.2 Latest history ................................................................ 19 2.3 Migration in German history ..................................................... 20 2.3.1 History of migration to Germany .................................. 20 2.3.2 Latest history of migration to Germany ........................ 26 XVI 2.4 Integration policies and programmes in Germany ................... 27 2.4.1 Critical review of European regulations ....................... 27 2.4.2 Critical review of Germany’s policies and programmes 29 2.5 Conclusion ............................................................................... 35 3 Theoretical framework .......................................................... 37 3.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 37 3.2 Integration ................................................................................ 37 3.2.1 Academic approaches to integration in Germany ........ 39 3.2.2 Integration indicators and barriers ............................... 41 3.2.3 Critique of Integration Theories .................................... 42 3.3 Empowerment .......................................................................... 44 3.3.1 Dimensions, elements and degrees of empowerment . 45 3.3.2 Empowerment to action ............................................... 47 3.3.3 Critique of the Empowerment Approach ...................... 47 3.4 Conclusion ............................................................................... 49 4 Methodology ........................................................................... 51 4.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 51 4.2 Theory Comparison ................................................................. 51 4.2.1 Approaches to theory comparison ............................... 51 4.2.2 Coordinated Theory Comparison ................................. 53 4.2.3 Characteristic of the comparison ................................. 54 4.3 Use of literature sources for the comparison ........................... 56 4.4 Ethical consideration ................................................................ 57 4.5 Conclusion ............................................................................... 57 5 The theory of successful integration by Friedrich Heckmann ............................................................................... 59 5.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 59 5.2 Heckmann’s Theory of Successful Integration and its relation to the capabilities of refugees .................................................. 59 5.2.1 Dimensions of individual integration ............................ 59 XVII 5.2.2 Process of integration .................................................. 61 5.2.3 Resources of refugees and Heckmann’s Theory of Integration .................................................................... 64 5.2.4 The link between Heckmann’s four dimensions and successful integration .................................................. 65 5.2.5 Examples of the application of Heckmann’s integration theory in practice .......................................................... 71 5.3 Strengths and limitations of Heckmann’s Integration Theory for the integration of refugees in Germany .............................. 72 5.3.1 Strengths ...................................................................... 72 5.3.2 Limitations .................................................................... 73 5.4 Conclusions ............................................................................. 76 5.4.1 Immigrants have capabilities ........................................ 76 5.4.2 The condition of successful integration in all four dimensions is the participation of migrants and the host society in the integration process ......................... 76 5.4.3 Heckmann’s theory lacks the potential-oriented dimension of integration ............................................... 80 5.4.4 Summary ...................................................................... 81 6 The Capabilities Approach according to Martha Nussbaum ............................................................................... 83 6.1 Introduction .............................................................................. 83 6.2 The Capabilities Approach and its relation to the integration of refugees ............................................................................... 83 6.2.1 The basics of the Capabilities Approach ...................... 83 6.2.2 Links between the capabilities of refugees and integration of immigrants .............................................. 92 6.2.3 Application of the Capabilities Approach with the refugee issue................................................................ 98 6.3 Strengths and limitations of the Capabilities Approach as the basis of an integration theory ................................................. 100 6.3.1 Strengths .................................................................... 101 6.3.2 Limitations .................................................................. 104 XVIII 6.4 Conclusions ........................................................................... 107 6.4.1 Refugees have capabilities and dignity ...................... 107 6.4.2 The Capabilities Approach and the concept of integration share important contents .......................... 107 6.4.3 The recognition of the personal capabilities of the individual refugee supports integration ...................... 108 6.4.4 The Capabilities Approach is suited to serve as the basis of an integration theory ..................................... 108 6.4.5 Summary .................................................................... 109 7 Interconnection of the theories .......................................... 111 7.1 Introduction ............................................................................ 111 7.2 Basis for the interconnection ................................................. 111 7.2.1 Problem area which needs a complementary solution ....................................................................... 111 7.2.2 Connection between Affiliation and social integration 114 7.2.3 Connection among “Practical reason”, “Senses, imagination, and thought” and cultural integration ..... 115 7.2.4 Connection between “Control over one’s environment” and structural integration ........................................... 116 7.2.5 Connection between ”Emotions” and identificational integration .................................................................. 117 7.3 Empowerment as framework of the interconnection.............. 118 7.4 Interconnection of the theories .............................................. 120 7.5 Justification of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and Recommendations .......................................................... 128 7.5.1 Justifications of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory ........................................................................ 128 7.5.2 Recommendations ..................................................... 131 7.6 Conclusion ............................................................................. 137 Bibliography ................................................................................. 139 XIX List of figures Figure 3.1 Four varieties of acculturation according to Berry ............... 38 Figure 4.1 Three steps of theory comparison according to Greshoff .... 53 Figure 5.1 Theory of Successful Integration by Friedrich Heckmann ... 61 Figure 6.1 The Capabilities-Approach according to Martha Nussbaum ............................................................... 85 Figure 6.2 The dynamic nature of capabilities .................................... 100 Figure 7.1 The Capabilities-Approach according to Martha Nussbaum ............................................................. 121 Figure 7.2 Theory of Successful Integration by Friedrich Heckmann . 121 Figure 7.3 Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory ............................ 122 XX List of tables Table 6. 1 Comparison of integration definition of the BAMF and the capability “Affiliation” ..................................................... 94

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Abstract

This book is a reaction to the “refugee-crisis” in 2015 and the ensuing demand of science and practice for a stronger focus on the potentials and abilities of refugees in the integration process. To direct the focus of integration theories away from the weaknesses and towards the capabilities of the refugees, Heckmann’s Integration Theory – based on a comparative analysis – is related to Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach via interlinking both theories. The results show that an integration theory with the focus on the capabilities of the refugees empowers the individual immigrant to become a valued and active participant in the integration process. This study was researched using the situation in Germany as an example, but the results are transferable to social integration contexts in other countries as well and may give non-governmental organisations, social workers and government agencies an orientation for their future aid programming.