5 The theory of successful integration by Friedrich Heckmann in:

Lilija Wiebe

Rethinking Social Integration, page 59 - 82

Comparing Martha Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach and Friedrich Heckmann's Theory of Integration for the Context of Refugees

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4434-6, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7448-0,

Series: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag: Sozialwissenschaften, vol. 93

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
59 5 The theory of successful integration by Friedrich Heckmann 5.1 Introduction The sociologist Friedrich Heckmann developed the Theory of Successful Integration for the German context, which is widely used and applied. Starting with his doctoral thesis (Die Bundesrepublik: Ein Einwanderungsland?, (Heckmann 1981) he focused his research and teaching activities on Migration and Integration Studies. He is also chairman of the expert forum at the Federal Office for Migration and Refugees (BAMF). In this chapter Heckmann’s theory will be introduced and the connections between his theory and the capabilities of refugees will be explored. Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration will be used to sift the literature for conditions, which are regarded as requirements for successful integration into German society. After that, it will be shown how Heckmann’s theory is already being implemented in practice. The literary study will lead to a list of the advantages and limitations of the theory. In conclusion, first results and analysis will be documented. 5.2 Heckmann’s Theory of Successful Integration and its relation to the capabilities of refugees Friedrich Heckmann (Heckmann 2015:289) developed a Theory of Successful Integration. He builds it on the same sociological foundation as Esser (:72), with the difference that Esser pleads for the term assimilation and Heckmann rejects the concept of assimilation and instead prefers the term integration33 (:75–78). 5.2.1 Dimensions of individual integration In Heckmann’s opinion, the individual integration of refugees takes place in four dimensions which are: structural, cultural, social and identificational integration (:72). The objective of structural integration is the acquisition and “quality” of participation in the core structures of social life in the host society. Core structures of social life are the education and training systems, economy and labour market, the social security systems, the housing market and the political community. Heckmann stresses, that to become a member in these structural systems, the immigrants need to undergo a learning and socialization process. 33 For a detailed definition of the term see 1.9 Clarification of key terms. 60 It is similar to cultural integration. According to Heckmann, for cultural integration to happen, immigrants need to go through a process of cultural, cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal related changes. This includes a change of values, norms, attitudes, as well as cultural and communicative skills, notably language acquisition (:72). Cultural integration is acculturation which “[…] is a process of developing cultural commonalties between groups, but borders between the groups and separate identities continue to exist […]” (Heckmann 1995:168). In his opinion, cultural integration is mainly the responsibility of the migrants, although he points out that the host society needs to undertake cultural adaptations and changes for cultural integration of migrants to be possible (Heckmann 2015:72). Jürgen Habermas, professor of philosophy, is, however, of the opinion that a constitutional democracy like Germany can demand only political acculturation from its immigrants, without them having to abandon the cultural life-form of their origin (Habermas 28.05.1993:2). Social integration is defined by Heckmann as the increasingly evolving membership of migrants to the new society, through friendships, inter-ethnic marriages, the structures of partner choice34, social group membership and club memberships. Social integration and the memberships inside social structures changes the feeling of belonging and the readiness to identify with the national, ethnic, regional, and local collective structures of the host society. This process describes the development of identificational integration (Heckmann 2015:73). According to Heckmann identificational integration is a socio-psychological process that has the peculiarity that immigrants already have an ethnic and/or national identity. Through the integration process, this can change to such an extent that a new self-concept is created (:193). He is also of the opinion that the identificational integration, as the cultural integration, involves strenuous individual learning and socialization processes; and, therefore the questioning and change of individual attitudes is necessary (:80). 34 The term ‘structures of partner choice” is translated from the German term “Partnerwahlstrukturen”. 61 5.2.2 Process of integration According to Heckmann, an integrated group of migrants results from the successful integration of many individual migrants. He defines successful social integration of the individual migrant as the possibility and ability to participate in key social institutions (economy, education, culture and politics) which become increasingly independent from the person’s origin. As a result, the participation of immigrants resembles increasingly the general social-structured terms of the host society, involving social class, age and gender; that is, participation becomes more and more independent from the migration background of a person. In consequence, the differences between the host society and the immigrant society dissolve and the former immigrants become the new “locals” (:288–289). Heckmann recapitulates successful integration of the individual in the following figure: (Source: Heckmann 2015:289) 35 Figure 5.1 Theory of Successful Integration by Friedrich Heckmann 35 Translation by the author 62 As seen in the figure, successful integration can happen on the basis of certain influences on the macro, mesa and micro-level. On the macrolevel, integration starts with the openness and support of the societal structures. These have a direct influence of the integration of the individual migrants and successful integration in the society as a whole (arrows 2 and 5). Arrow 2 clarifies that openness and support on the macro-level gives individual migrants opportunities for participation and personal development. Arrow 5 represents the increased number of integrated migrants in the overall society, which in turn promotes further integration of other migrants. The dashed arrow 1 must be interpreted as having only an indirect effect on the increased share of integrated migrants and is realized by the influences of arrows 2 and 5. This increase of integrated migrants in the total population causes an even higher rate of integration, since integrated people are seen as role models for newer immigrants (arrow 6). Arrows 3 and 4 show the other requirements, which Heckmann determines for individual integration to be successful. On the meso-level these are the ethnical colonies36. Ethnical colonies can have positive influence for successful integration as long as they function as bridge to the host society and are not the only contacts of the migrants. The micro-level describes the responsibility that the migrants themselves have for the success of the integration process. Here Heckmann assumes that their personal integration depends on their migration motivation and career aspiration, their social and cultural capital, learning abilities and learning motivations (arrow 4). Since integration is a cross-generational process, it must be borne in mind that the process described by arrow 4 is extended over several generations. Eventually, if the requirements are met on all three levels, not only will the desired integration happen, but structures of the German society as a whole will change (arrow 7). These changed structures are then a condition for this cycle to begin again. It can be concluded that the changes in the overall societal structures generated by the integration of migrants will lead to a changed nation37 over time (Heckmann 2015:289– 290): “This development is characterised by increasing diversity and at the same time increasing commonalities” (:290). The extent to which 36 Heckmann defines ethnical colonies as structures of formal and/or informal selforganization (Heckmann 1992:96). For more details see 7.3 Fusion of the theories, 2 Phase. 37 How Heckmann defines nation see next footnote. 63 the specific role-players of the integration process have an influence depends on the duration− the longer they influence, the stronger their effect. (:289). Successful integration, as the goal of Heckmann’s theory, takes place in the differentiated sub-systems of a society. He divided these sub-systems into the four dimensions of integration, as described earlier (:78–80). According to Heckmann, integration is not just an analytical category to describe a complex process, but also a socio-political goal (Heckmann u.a. 2000:8). In his understanding, it is not sufficient to accept the fact that Germany is an “integration-country”, but a new “we”, which is inclusive, has to develop. A collective definition of membership has to be developed through a process of new “nationbuilding”38 (Heckmann 2014:3). This view is consistent with the argument of the “post-migration“ debate, which was discussed under 3.1. Heckmann, himself, sees his research as part of the reorientation of migration and integration studies in Germany. This reorientation was necessary due to the settlement of the families of the “guest workers” in the 1980s39. By establishing the “European Forum for Migration Studies (EFMS)” at the University of Bamberg in 1993 he was able to pursue his approach in the context of an institute (Heckmann 2013:36– 37). Since then academics in migration and integration studies have been actively participating in political migration discourse and have succeeded in convincing German politicians that Germany is an immigration country (:39–42). The influence of Heckmann’s work on German integration policy and practice can also be seen in the fact that his theory is used as the foundation for political integration concepts; for example, in the integration management and monitoring plans of the Federal State of Hessen (Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015) and several German cities base their integration concept on Heckmann’s theory (Kreis Herford 2014; Landeshauptstadt München 2008; Stadt Kassel 2012). An example is the integration evaluation report that Friedrich Heckmann has created with Anna Lutz for the federal state of Bavaria (Heckmann & Lutz 2010). Here, among others, his four dimensions of integration are taken as an evaluation framework (:19). On the basis of these, the two authors have created integration 38 By nation Heckmann does not mean an inflexible system, instead he pleads for a vital process, which adapts its self-definition to the challenges and changes. The “we” of the new nation does not include only the same people it always has, instead new people are able to join and change the “we” (Heckmann 2015:291). 39 For more details about that time see 2.3.1 under section 1973 – 2000 From foreign labour to immigration policy. 64 indicators that they answer with the help of official German statistics (:44–213). The model of Heckmann theory, explained above, is in principle a summary of his years of work and was published only in 2015. For this reason, it is not yet as widespread as the four dimensions of integration, which are, among others, the basis of this theory. The following sections form part of the positioning of the two theories to each other. For positioning, it is, first of all, explained how Heckmann’s Theory relates to the basic content of Nussbaum’s approach. In the second part, the literature is searched for conditions for integration in order to determine whether these fit the framework of the Capabilities Approach. As frame for the search, Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration are used. As the last point, a presentation of examples that combine the topics of the two theories, closes this section. 5.2.3 Resources of refugees and Heckmann’s Theory of Integration As Dieter Filsinger points out, equal participation in all areas of society is only possible with subjects who are capable of acting. This requires two preconditions: the opportunity and the ability to participate (Filsinger 2008:10). This brings us to a central question of this study: What of importance does Heckmann ascribe to the opportunities and abilities of refugees and migrants for integration to be successful? Basically, he values them as part of the micro-level requirements of social and cultural capital and career aspiration (Heckmann 2015:289). Heckmann distinguishes between economic and social capital. Economic capital helps integration into the economic life in the new country. Social capital refers to relationships that facilitate the integration process. Further to this, Heckmann believes that the human capital may be very different in its applicability. Professional skills can be transferred more easily to a new country than social skills which may have to be learned anew during a new socialization process. Heckmann emphasises that the adaptation and acquisition of the migrant’s capitals takes time. Heckmann assumes that the ability to learn and the cultural capital of migrants are key role-players in the integration process since these determine their ability to participate and keep up with the host society in social life (:284–285). Therefore, Heckmann (:44) concludes that the integration process of highly trained people and their families is easier and quicker than for less trained people. It can be concluded 65 that the level of resources, according to Heckmann, have a positive or negative impact on the integration process of immigrants. Another link between resources of refugees and Heckmann’s theory can be found in the integration programme in the federal state of Hessian. The Hessian Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration built their program on Heckmann’s Dimensions of integration, but they have expanded it by adding the dimension of potential-oriented integration. With this, they plan to build their programmes on the potentials of each individual. Each Member of the society is to bring his/her skills, knowledge and experience as personal contribution to the society (Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015:10). It can be seen that the Hessian Ministry of Social Affairs and Integration in some way acknowledges the potentials and resources of each migrant or refugee. Even so, they do not clearly define what they mean by potentials but they do assume that the existing potential can be useful for integration. 5.2.4 The link between Heckmann’s four dimensions and successful integration In order to be able to answer the question of whether the Capabilities Approach can complement the integration theory of Heckmann, it must first be worked out what are considered conditions for successful integration in the literature. For this purpose, Heckmann’s four dimensions are used as reference frame. In order to have a comprehensive picture of the conditions for successful integration, the publications of integration and migration studies of Heckmann and other academics have been explored. In his paper “Bedingungen erfolgreicher Integration” Dieter Filsinger (Filsinger 2008:9–10) has worked out two basic pillars that he sees as conditions for successful integration. The first pillar constitutes the motivation and the capabilities of the refugees to participate. The second pillar of integration which he regards as more important, is the recognition and inclusion of the “other” by the host community. Participation in society is not only dependent on individual motives, efforts and competencies but, above all, also on the accommodating structures”40. For 40 Translation by the author. Original: “Die „Partizipation an der Gesellschaft“ ist eben nicht nur von individuellen Motiven, Anstrengungen und Kompetenzen abhängig, sondern auch bzw. vor allem von entgegenkommenden Strukturen.“ 66 this reason, it is important to analyse the conditions of inequality, dominance and exclusion that hinder or obstruct the access to the resources and participation opportunities of societies. The following will give a brief description about what the literature describes as conditions for integration. Social integration Social integration is the affiliation of new people to society. Social Integration is about the way immigrants belong to the German society. This becomes visible through inter-ethnic relationships and memberships in German clubs. Social integration also becomes apparent in the frequency of contacts with nationals. Hartmut Esser is of the opinion that social assimilation41 is based on the decision of the individual migrant and on the receiving structures. He reasons that social integration only happens if the migrants have no ethnic alternatives, such as returning to their home country or to where they can integrate themselves into an ethnic community nearby (Esser 2001:25). In contrast Dieter Filsinger does not see migrants’ contact with their own ethnic community as, necessarily, a hindrance to integration. These communities can, at the beginning, be helpful for local orientation and political articulation; however, he also points out that social segregation is definitely a hindrance to integration. It is crucial that there are enough inter-ethnic exchanges that can enable connections with German society (Filsinger 2008:26–27). The importance of social contacts for integration is explained by Dorothee Geiger. She conducted an empirical study based on the Agency Concept about the capacity to act by migrants with temporary suspension of deportation (Duldung)42“ refugees. One of her results is that, especially for the postarrival period, social contacts are an important resource for the production of capacity to act (Geiger 2016:126). A joint research project of the Expert Council of German Foundations (SVR) and the Robert Bosch Foundation was conducted to describe the current situation of refugees in Germany from the perspective of the refugees themselves (Schiefer 2017a:2). Their results point to the desire of the refugees to form relationships on a par with Germans. This would lead to mutual support and increase the capacity of all to act (:5). Social contacts with 41 Hartmut Esser prefers the term assimilation instead of integration. For more details s.1.9 Clarification of key terms. 42 For a detailed description about “Duldung” see Legal framework. 67 the host society are also considered important for integration at European level. One of the Common Basic Principles for Immigrant Integration Policy in the European Union (CBP) reads: “Interaction between immigrants and Member State citizens is a fundamental mechanism for integration.” In conjunction with this, the CBP call on the European countries to reduce discrimination and popularise the positive aspects of a diverse society (Council of the European Union 2004:22). In their annual expert report of 2016, the SVR illustrates the relationship between inter-ethnic social contacts and discrimination. They conclude that frequent contact between people with and without a migration background43 leads to a perceived good integration climate on both sides and fosters an optimistic view on social coexistence. On the other hand, discrimination promotes a negative atmosphere and hinders integration (SVR 2016:23). In conclusion, social integration is the opportunity to participate in all areas of social life. The more the refugees become respected as full members with dignity and rights, the more discrimination is prevented. The more discrimination is prevented and inter-ethnic relationships are established, the more the new members can integrate into German society. Furthermore, it should be considered that not only the refugees have to integrate themselves socially into German society but also that German society has to incorporate the new people into their communities. This includes openness to those who are different. In an interview, Alexandra Rojkov expressed it as follows: “Real integration would be to seek out friends who are different from yourself”44 (Rönicke 27.04.2017). For integration to be successful the German society has to become friends on an equal level with the refugees. Cultural integration Language acquisition is a central part of cultural integration. Jochen Oltmer, professor of history of migration, ascribes the responsibilities of it in large parts to the German State. Furthermore, he advocates for opportunities to practice language skills, which need to happen outside the classroom and in the community (Gehrs 2016:8). Viewed from the capabilities approach, this statement indicates the following structure: 43 For a detailed definition on people with a migration background see 1.9 Clarification of key terms. 44 Translation by the author. Original: “Echte Integration wäre: sich Freunde zu suchen, die anders sind“. 68 For one thing Oltmer pleads for a combination of the internal capability (the ability and willingness to learn German) and external social and political conditions (German language course, openness from the German citizens to refugees as well as promotion of intercultural encounters stemming from the local governments). For another thing, these social and political conditions need to be suitable for the particular situations of the migrants. A single man needs different structures to practice and develop his language skills than a mother of small children which means that several variables need to be applied. In other words, for cultural integration to take place appropriate combination factors should be considered. In addition, for cultural integration the concept of integration (“real” integration vs. assimilation) plays an important role. It is essential that all cultural forms of life must be able to coexist and be equally accepted (Habermas 28.05.1993:2). To reach an appreciation between the host nation and the migrants, concerning the different forms of cultural lifestyles45, the integration effort should be undertaken with all parts of society, in particular the local population (Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015:32). Rudolf Leiprecht’s approach should be considered here. Leiprecht describes a diversity-conscious perspective as more than “celebrating differences”. The aim is to make everyone aware of the diverse positions of the citizens and how they relate to each other. It is particularly important to clarify the responsibility of all parties and not project blame onto minorities. This process does not happen by chance in a society. Instead it needs support and help from external sources (Leiprecht 2010:218–219) which is represented in the second pillar of the conditions of successful integration according to Filsinger46 as described earlier (Filsinger 2008:9–10). Structural integration According to Hartmut Esser, the placement47 of the new person is the most important key to integration, since it is the precondition for integration as a whole (Esser 2001:17). To obtain a placement in existing societal structures, there needs to be a certain “door opener”. A place in 45 This is based on a lifestyle that does not oppose the political fundamental laws of Germany. 46 See description at the beginning of this chapter. 47 With placement, Esser means the participation in various structural systems of a society, like the education system, but especially the labour market and the utilisation of rights (Esser 2001:22). 69 a kindergarten, school, access to higher education, recognition of work experience, social contacts, etc. can be door openers. A study of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) and the Institute for Labour Market and Employment Research (IAB) the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW) calculated that, in 2013, about half of the “door openers” for labour market integration of migrants and refugees were social contacts (Eisnecker & Schacht 2016:759). Refugees and migrants did have work permits, but these had to be combined with the job opportunity which half of them got through their social contacts. Access to higher education can be another “door opener” which, according to some experts, has a lasting effect on successful integration. (Filsinger 2008:15; Filsinger 2008:15). For the German economy it is seen as important to make use of the refugees” and migrants” untapped potentials for the labour market (Worbs, Bund & Böhm 2016:293)(:311). This is also supported by Dieter Hundt, Ex-President of the Federation of German Employers’ associations (BDA). He appeals for structural integration of young migrants by building on their potential while they are still in primary and secondary school (Schmidt 2010:8). These potentials or capitals vary from person to person which makes approaches necessary that are adapted to their potentials (Woellert u.a. 2009:8). Besides this, the SVR points out that structural integration can only come about if the way is free of integration hindrances such as discrimination and insufficient chances to participate (Sachverständigenrat 2014:40). There are a lot of circumstances that can turn out to become integration hindrances. For example: lack of information, insufficient housing, cultural insensibility, and so on. For this reason, the recommendation of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) to develop carefully targeted programmes for the structural integration of refugees, makes sense (OECD 2017:11–12) and ideally this is to be customised to the individual situation of the refugees. Identificational integration Hartmut Esser refers to identificational integration as emotional integration. He assumes that the emotional dimension of integration happens last but, in any case, always after social integration (Esser 2001:22). For an immigrant to be able to identify with the German people both pillars of integration, as described by Dieter Filsinger48, are 48 See 5.2.4. 70 necessary. On the one hand, the migrant needs to identify with the German society and possibly change some of his or her beliefs or customs49 and, on the other hand, the host society, as well, must enable identificational integration by allowing “the other” to become German. Hartmut Esser (:22) is also of this opinion that: Identificational integration can and will only happen as far as the host society allows it. If the host society is very open, a strong identificational/emotional integration is possible. In contrast, if the host society does not provide the migrant with the space to identify, the emotional integration will turn out accordingly. Therefore, Germany needs more than just a “welcome-culture”. The requirement is a “recognition-culture” which allows for committed establishment in Germany and considers a cherished attitude towards the people with migration background already living here. A “recognition-culture” values their abilities and potentials, and recognises their contributions to society (Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015:18). Another condition for identificational integration can be found at Misu Han-Broich. Based on Esser, Han-Broich has established a theory which is modified to Esser´s assertion. She developed the integration indicators “mental-emotional”, “cognitive-cultural” and ‘social-structural”50 (Han-Broich 2012:125–126; Han-Broich 2012:125–126). The indicator “mental-emotional”51 is the closest to identificational integration. On the basis of these indicators, she conducted qualitative interviews and researched the influence of volunteer work on integration (Han-Broich 2012:125). The most important result she discovered was that voluntary integration assistance for refugees is, contrary to what is widely assumed, not mainly contributing to the social integration of refugees, but rather to the, as she calls it, “mental-emotional” integration. In her view, (1) the condition for “mental-emotional” integration is positive social contacts and (2) this “mental-emotional” integration is the pre-stage to and a requirement for integration in whole (:184–186). 49 These refers to norms and values that are in contradiction to the German legal system. 50 Translation by the author. Original: ‘seelisch-emotional, Kognitiv-kulturell und Sozial-strukturell“. 51 Han-Broich defines mental-emotional integration as a balanced internal state which, in case of refugees can only adapt after they have overcome their mental damage and are coping with their past and present problems (Han-Broich 2012:186). 71 Another aspect of identificational integration is described by Dieter Filsinger (Filsinger 2008:12) who is of the opinion that citizenship can be a feature of identificational integration which should be promoted; and, that no unnecessary difficulties should be put in the way of naturalization. The following demonstrates how Germans sometimes fail to give migrants the opportunities for identificational integration: In the book “Wir neuen Deutschen”52 three German women with migration experience report how it feels to them being perceived as a foreigner. Especially the question: "Where do you really come from?" is perceived as hurtful. This question, sometimes simply asked out of curiosity, indicates to them that “Germans” do not perceive them as Germans and that they do not really belong to Germany (Bota, Pham & Topçu 2012:30– 32). 5.2.5 Examples of the application of Heckmann’s integration theory in practice The theory of Friedrich Heckmann is applied mainly as a theoretical basis. It is used in the framework of Expertise-Reports (Johansson 2016) and as a basis for studies with qualitative interviews (Institut für Sozialarbeit und Sozialpädagogik e. V. 2015). As mentioned under 5.2 his theory is used as the foundation for political integration concepts. Heckmann’s theory is also applied in interdisciplinary research. For example, Anastasia Kharitonova-Akhvlediani, from the department of media science of the Technical University Berlin, investigated the relation between Russian-language print media and integration and bases her work on the integration concept of Friedrich Heckmann (Kharitonova-Akhvlediani 2011:44). Another example takes Heckmann’s theory as part of the foundation for a quantitative survey (Bechhaus u.a. 2016:14; Bechhaus u.a. 2016:39; Bechhaus u.a. 2016:14). The results of the survey served as the foundation for a project concept with the objective to optimise the integration of refugee children with regard to the educational aspect (Bechhaus u.a. 2016:40). A homework-care project was started that has shown that the adults in the refugee accommodation also have a strong interest in learning the German language. (:57). 52 In English the title of the book would be: ”We new Germans’. 72 My relevant research has not revealed any study, drafting or any project that links the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Integration Theory. 5.3 Strengths and limitations of Heckmann’s Integration Theory for the integration of refugees in Germany In this chapter the strengths and limitations of Heckmann’s Integration Theory are discussed. The list of strengths and limitations is part of the positioning of the two theories to each other. Knowing these helps to identify problem areas in the theories which may contain complementary solutions. 5.3.1 Strengths The contents of the theory are comprehensive Heckmann’s definition of integration is detailed. The picture he draws testifies to his expertise in the migration/integration issue. He captures the whole picture of migration and integration by incorporating all aspects of life into his integration theory. As a basis his definition of integration is decisive: “[…] integration stands for the approximation of life situations and the cultural and social convergence between locals and migrants. In this sense, integration is not only an analytical category for describing a complex process, but also a political-societal goal”53 (Heckmann u.a. 2000:7–8). In his explanation of how integration practically proceeds, he considers a wide range of stakeholders as seen in the division in micro-, meso- and meta-level stakeholders (Heckmann 2015:289). Heckmann includes all levels of stakeholders und gives them the responsibility for action. He clarifies that the host society has a duty to be open to the immigrants and concludes that societal structures will change over time (:290). He is of the opinion, that Germany’s self-conception as an immigration country is insufficient if this does not lead to a new nation forming (Heckmann 2014:3). At the same time, he takes the view that this nation-building has continuously taken place since the end of the World War II (Heckmann 2015:291). 53 Translation by the author. Original: “Zusammenfassend formuliert steht Integration also für die Angleichung von Lebenslagen und die kulturelle und soziale Annäherung zwischen Einheimischen und Migranten. In diesem Sinne ist Integration nicht nur eine analytische Kategorie zur Beschreibung eines komplexen Prozesses, sondern auch ein politisch-gesellschaftliches Ziel.“ 73 The four dimensions of Heckmann’s theory are holistic By classifying integration into the four dimensions (social, cultural, structural and identificational integration) Heckmann does not only make the integration theme workable for putting into practice, but he also displays its holistic scope. Integration has heterogeneous facets that are interrelated. The four dimensions of Heckmann’s theory, which are drawn from the four dimensions of social integration from general sociology (:72), cover the broad spectrum of human life. The OECD and the European Union also plead for a multidimensional view of integration. Although, they are of the opinion that a multidimensional view of integration does not simplify the measurement of integration, they still promote it: “Integration is, and must be, a multidimensional process. Failure in any one field is likely to severely jeopardise progress in others” (OECD/European Union 2015:19). This holistic description of integration enables differentiated integration goals, as can be seen in the examples from the practice under 5.2.3. Social integration is integration of the individual person Another advantage of Heckmann’s theory is that it defines social integration as the integration of the individual: ‘social integration focuses on individuals and searches for ways in which they can be linked to the existing socio-economic, legal and cultural system and institutions”54 (Heckmann 2015:70). When handled in this way, the integration process can be started individually for each person. This would include appropriate and individualised integration assistance and policies. 5.3.2 Limitations In Heckmann’s theory the responsibility for successful cultural integration lies mainly with the migrants In his definition about cultural integration this point becomes very clear. He emphasises that cultural integration is mainly done by the new population and only partly by the host country (Heckmann u.a. 2000:8). He defines cultural integration as cultural, cognitive, behavioural and adjustment-related changes. This includes a transformation of values, norms, attitudes, as well as cultural and communicative skills including 54 Translation by the author. Original: ‘sozialintegration nimmt Individuen in den Blick und bezieht sich auf die Art und Weisen, wie diese als Hinzukommende mit dem bestehenden System sozioökonomischer, rechtlicher und kultureller Beziehungen und Institutionen verknüpft werden.“ 74 notably, language acquisition (Heckmann 2015:72). When the main responsibility for integration remains, as Heckmann describes here, with the migrants, there is a risk of a demand for assimilation and not an offer of integration. If the duty of the migrant is to adapt to the cultural, cognitive, and behavioural values, norms, and attitudes he/she has no other choice but to assimilate into the existing cognitive, cultural, and behavioural system if he/she wants to belong. On the other hand, reading Heckmann’s definition about cultural integration as acculturation, another view seems to appear. “Acculturation is a process of developing cultural commonalties between groups, but borders between the groups and separate identities continue to exist […]” (Heckmann 1995:168). This definition sounds as if the two cultures can coexist in the same way and commonalities can be sought or created. By studying Heckmann’s texts an imbalance has been noticed. The following quotation should illustrate this: “From the viewpoint of the majority society, however, acculturation can be practised as an invitation, exchange, appeal for the acquisition and emergence of new cultural patterns”55 (Heckmann u.a. 2000:15). He gives the majority society the right to canvass the migrants, which means that the migrants are again the ones who need to adapt. German scientists criticise this point as well. They stress that, in general, German society misconceives integration to be the onus on immigrants only (Foroutan 2015:3–4). Assimilation is still widely demanded, but it is not associated with readiness to grant full and equal participation (Schneider, Crul & Lelie 2015:102). It is not that Heckmann has not considered openness and change in society. He deems openness of the society as a necessary condition for successful integration and a change in society as a consequence of integration (Heckmann 2015:290). However, it makes a difference whether change in the social structures of the majority society is a consequence or a condition for successful integration. Furthermore, it also makes a difference whether the majority society is open to migrants and, in consequence to this openness, also willing to question and change their own norms and values. This does not mean that Germany must give up its cultural and social values or that immigrants are not allowed to change their cultural or social capital. Rather, it means that other cultural values 55 Translation by the author. Original: ”Aus Sicht der Mehrheitsgesellschaft kann Akkulturation dagegen als Einladung, Austausch, Werbung um Übernahme und Herausbildung neuer kultureller Muster praktiziert werden.“ 75 are recognised as respectable and correct, even if different from the ones familiar to oneself… as long as they do not violate the human rights or the German constitution. This would bring respect and value to the people who represent and live according to those cultural and social goods. Besides this, a pilot study on the integration indicators commissioned by the European Services Network (ESN) and the Migration Policy Group (MPG) (Huddleston, Niessen & Dag Tjaden 2013:4) proves that the actions of the migrants do not have the ultimate impact on the outcome of integration. The study concludes that the characteristics of the receiving society are a key factor that influences integration and the effectiveness of integration policies (:40). Dieter Filsinger comes to the same conclusion and therefore pleads for an analysis of inequality-, dominance-, and exclusion-structures in order for integration to be successful (Filsinger 2008:10). In Heckmann’s theory the social and cultural capital/capabilities of the migrants have no decisive role By speaking of social and cultural capital, Heckmann refers to the theory of Bourdieu (Heckmann 2015:143). He assumes that “[…] the incorporated cultural capital of many immigrant families is already relatively low in the country of origin. In addition, it is further invalidated by the migration process56 (:144)”. In his opinion this aggravates the integration process, which can be seen in lower education chances for migration children compared to German pupils. Following Heckmann’s arguments regarding social capital, he indicates that the migrant’s social capital can be distinguished based on the migrant’s social contacts. Some social contacts foster the integration process and lead to social participation. Others, in his opinion intra-ethnic relationships, may hinder integration (:144). In Heckmann’s theory it is obvious that he places value on the importance of the internal capabilities/capitals of migrants, but it happens in the form of an “inventory”. The capital/capabilities are accepted as fact and it is not questioned whether the existing capitals/capabilities are sufficient to promote integration, or whether they need to be supplemented, in order to foster integration. Furthermore, the capitals/capabilities of the immigrants are part of Heckmann’s integration 56 Translation by the author. Original: “[…] das inkorporierte kulturelle Kapital vieler Migrantenfamilien ist bereits im Herkunftsland vergleichsweise gering; zusätzlich wird es durch den Migrationsprozess weiter entwertet.“ 76 theory, but they are neither crucial to it, nor its starting point. Under 6.3.1 the advantages of starting an integration theory with the capabilities of the migrant will be explored. 5.4 Conclusions 5.4.1 Immigrants have capabilities Heckmann and other authors acknowledge that immigrants have capabilities and recognise the value these have for the integration process. To recognize the potential alone is not necessarily adequate. For some immigrants it is necessary to add the potentials with opportunities in order to develop the existing potentials. This is made clear in an example: Refugee women have approximately the same level of integration motivation as male refugees but since refugee women frequently have different family responsibilities, learning experience, etc. than men, this potential cannot be accessed as easily (Worbs & Baraulina 2017:12– 13). To get the potentials unlocked they may need expanded approaches that will combine the potential (or internal capability) with a social, economic or political condition. In the situation of the refugee women, Worbs and Baraulina suggest that the potential of these women should be recorded as soon as possible to develop appropriate opportunities for each one of them. The opportunities may be low-key integration courses, childcare courses and offers of social participation (:12–13). Through these means, the existing internal capabilities can be combined with political, social and economic conditions that can enable the integration process to take place. 5.4.2 The condition of successful integration in all four dimensions is the participation of migrants and the host society in the integration process Literature constantly supports that for successful integration in all four dimensions the active participation of both parties, migrants and the host society, is required. In the following sections, the individual dimensions are analysed more closely. Social integration: Experiences in social communities can serve as basis There are different views whether contacts with ethnic colonies hinder or foster integration. Heckmann sees ethnic colonies as potential bridges to society but he also stresses that ethnic colonies can also turn out to be in integration hindrances if they are the only social contacts 77 the immigrants maintain (Heckmann 2015:286). It is not surprising that, especially in the beginning, social contacts are important for gaining capacity of action. This, however, contains an important conclusion. As shown under 5.2.4, social contacts promote the capacity of action which is based on the social capital of the immigrants. This social capital is triggered by the social contacts and leads to action. If this thesis is applied to Nussbaum’s approach, it reads: The experience of being part of a society is the internal capability that is combined with a social condition which is the social contact that helps the migrants to learn about German habits, norms and values etc. and gives them the chance to reflect and possibly adapt their social capital/capabilities. From the fact that immigrants desire relationship on an equal footing (Schiefer 2017a:5) it can be deducted that they see themselves capable of a relationship with Germans. All of them used to be members of a society, although the society may have been very different from the German society; but, still they do have the experience of belonging and community. This creates the question: How can this experience be built upon so that it can promote the social integration process? Cultural integration: Both the migrants and the host society need help to be able to contribute to the integration process Language acquisition is a central part of cultural integration and seen as a precondition for successful integration. In Germany, participating in language courses is part of the duties immigrants have to fulfil. Gabriele Rosenstreich criticises the courses for using German as an assimilation symbol and not serving as the empowerment tool for the refugees. She sees the opportunity in these language courses to strengthen the existing potential of the participants, for example, to educate them about their rights and to empower them against racism (Rosenstreich 2010:236–237). This kind of approach would focus on the immigrants and their potential (:239) and looks out for where migrants need support to be able to successfully integrate. In addition to successful cultural integration of immigrants, the intercultural openness of the German society has to be promoted by the state. “Interculturality refers to the clash of two or more cultures, in which, 78 despite cultural differences, there is a reciprocal influence”57 (IKUD n.y.)). Through the encounter of a different culture the host culture can be reflected and one becomes conscious about one’s own perspective. This awareness ought to lead to an acknowledgment of the other and not to a judgment of the other. In this way the different cultures enter into a productive relationship of mutual exchange. Gradually the strange becomes familiar and can be integrated into the host cultural experience (IKUD n.y.). Looking at it this way, for successful integration to become possible, the Germans must be alert to interculturality. If certain persons or groups of persons are unable to integrate successfully, it should be discovered how intercultural acceptance can be promoted. What this means is explained as follows: discrimination and prejudices are the opposite of intercultural openness. If discrimination and prejudices are predominant, the German government should, for example, invest in NGOs that offer opportunities for the German host society to dismantle prejudices by making positive social encounters possible with immigrants. The inhibition threshold can also be reduced by the media, for example, through honest and realistic articles or films by or about migrants. The final aim is to empower German society and the immigrants to make an anxiety- and prejudice- free decision for or against intercultural openness58. Structural Integration: Diverse “door openers” are needed The legislative power, as well as the German society, have to function as “door openers” for structural integration. An example that originates from my own experience as an integration assistant shows what kind of integration barriers exists and what “door opening” can look like. It becomes clear that it is not always enough to only give or to have an opportunity/ internal capability. An eighteen-year-old Syrian refugee woman was in the process of getting her secondary school qualifications. Since her parents could not pay for school transportation she travelled without paying and got caught several times by the ticket collector which made her stop going to school. After several phone calls I found 57 Translation by the author. Original: “Unter Interkulturalität versteht man das Aufeinandertreffen von zwei oder mehr Kulturen, bei dem es trotz kultureller Unterschiede zur gegenseitigen Beeinflussung kommt.“ 58 Of course it is assumed that a decision against intercultural openness is always in line with the German laws. 79 out that she has the right to get a bus ticket from the job-centre, but she did not know this and nobody had told her. In her case the German Government had already given the necessary conditions for structural integration to take place and the young woman was very willing to obtain education, but the omission to convey crucial information turned out to became an integration hindrance. The possibility (of getting education) and the right (to education and participation in Germany) needed a combination of information about this right and where to claim it. The questions: “Which potentials, capabilities, options, laws and regulations are present and which do the refugee have? Do these promote the integration process or is there something missing? How do these have to be combined for successful integration to take place?” should be asked by an integration theory. These questions focus on the capabilities, rights, and strengths of the refugee and lead to an individual answer. The results of a study based on qualitative interviews with refugees and integration workers in the city of Erlangen (Bendel 2016:20– 21) approves these conclusions. It says: “Individual advice and recognition of personal skills should be the focus. The early discussion of the interests and abilities of each person can meet possible expectations. A holistic and basic consultation also helps to satisfy the need for enlightenment and information. A clear communication regarding chances and opportunities for personal access to the labour market is the wish of the interviewed refugees”59 (Younso & Borkowski 2016:275). This is confirmed by a study by Mülich et al. The authors have, through a study with qualitative interviews (Mülich, Bungardt & Meineke 2003:14), found out that one prerequisite for successful integration is the recognition and inclusion of the resources, strengths and abilities of the immigrants. They are also of the opinion that this would empower them to become role-players of their own life (:101). The ways to get a placement in society should be opened for each person irrespective of 59 Translation by the author. Original: “Eine individuelle Beratung und das Erkennen von persönlichen Fertigkeiten sollten im Vordergrund stehen. Durch die frühzeitige Erörterung der Interessen und Fähigkeiten einer jeden Person kann einer eventuell aufgebauten Erwartungshaltung gerecht begegnet werden. Eine ganzheitliche und grundlegende Beratung trägt auch dazu bei, das Bedürfnis nach Aufklärung und Informationen zu befriedigen. Eine klare Kommunikation bezüglich Chancen und Möglichkeiten des persönlichen Zugangs zum Arbeitsmarkt ist der Wunsch der interviewten Flüchtlinge.” 80 their age, sex and ethnic belongings. As this example illustrates, sometimes integration can only be realized through a combination of social, political and/or economic conditions and not just because of a possibility or a right that an immigrant has. Identificational Integration: mutual respect is required Whether a person can identify with a society depends on him/herself but also on the “space” which, he/she gets to identify him/herself with. Precisely the absence of this “space” is criticized by Naika Foroutan. She describes it as a “German inconsistency”. For one thing, Germans understand themselves as tolerant and diverse, but the outcome of these norms do not seem to change established norms like national identity or religious attachment to nationality (Foroutan Januar 2016:291). This leads to the point about nation building by Friedrich Heckmann, which has already been outlined under 5.2.2. A new nation would define a new inclusive “we” and a collective definition of affiliation. For Germany, this means that Germans are not only those who descend from German parents, but that the status of “being German” is also compatible with different origins (Heckmann 2014:3). To sum up, it can be said that the dimension of identificational integration shows that, for successful integration, different aspects have to be brought together. The immigrant may be willing to change, to any extent, his/her norms and values and becomes willing to identify with the German society. This is only possible if the society gives him/her space to become part of it without having to assimilate. For this space to arise, the German society has to change some structures, norms and values. These changes have to be promoted by the acting government. All these can only happen on the basis of mutual respect and the recognition of the human dignity of the other. 5.4.3 Heckmann’s theory lacks the potential-oriented dimension of integration Through reflecting on the practical application of Heckmann’s theory, the following finding has come to my notice: The Federal State of Hessen builds their integration management and monitoring plans on Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration, but sees the need to expand it with a “potential oriented” dimension. Friedrich Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration are respected as helpful frame, but supplementation with a potential-oriented dimension is considered necessary. The justification for it is the assumption of the Federal State that integration 81 needs to focus on the potentials of each individual person. The goal is to enable each member of the community to contribute his or her skills, knowledge and experience and thus make his/her personal contribution to society (Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015:10; Hessisches Ministerium für Soziales und Integration 2015). The Hessian ministry has seen that in Heckmann’s theory the human capital of migrants matters, but does not have a decisive significance. The reason for this is that the capital/capabilities of the immigrants are viewed as a kind of “inventory” in Heckmann’s theory. It is all about: What kind of abilities/knowledge/education does the migrant have? Does he/she have relationships outside his/her ethnic community? These are the “facts” which Heckmann’s theory works with. The theory does not ask the questions: “Where do these capital/capabilities need to be complemented so that obstacles to integration can be removed?”; and, “How can the greatest profit for integration be won out of these capital/capabilities?” 5.4.4 Summary In summary, it can be said that Heckmann’s Integration Theory is a comprehensive and holistic theory. Its four dimensions of integration include all areas of social life. It is therefore logical that his theory is used as a basis in German integration policy and practice. Since this research study would like to find out whether Heckmann’s Integration Theory can be combined with the capabilities approach of Martha Nussbaum, the weaknesses of Heckmann’s theory were also looked into. It has been found that Heckmann, although he considers the individual migrant and his capital important for the integration process, he does not consider them as starting point or “kick-off” of his theory. All these aspects give rise to the questions: What would an integration theory look like in which the capabilities of the immigrants form the starting point? What should happen if the existing potential, capital and capabilities do not lead to integration because there is still something missing? To be able to answer this question, the next chapter will look into the Capabilities Approach according to Martha Nussbaum.

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This book is a reaction to the “refugee-crisis” in 2015 and the ensuing demand of science and practice for a stronger focus on the potentials and abilities of refugees in the integration process. To direct the focus of integration theories away from the weaknesses and towards the capabilities of the refugees, Heckmann’s Integration Theory – based on a comparative analysis – is related to Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach via interlinking both theories. The results show that an integration theory with the focus on the capabilities of the refugees empowers the individual immigrant to become a valued and active participant in the integration process. This study was researched using the situation in Germany as an example, but the results are transferable to social integration contexts in other countries as well and may give non-governmental organisations, social workers and government agencies an orientation for their future aid programming.