7 Interconnection of the theories in:

Lilija Wiebe

Rethinking Social Integration, page 111 - 138

Comparing Martha Nussbaum's Capabilities Approach and Friedrich Heckmann's Theory of Integration for the Context of Refugees

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4434-6, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7448-0,

Series: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag: Sozialwissenschaften, vol. 93

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
111 7 Interconnection of the theories 7.1 Introduction In the earlier chapters the two theories, the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Integration Theory, aimed to be combined in this study, were presented. Their advantages and limitations as well as similarities and alternatives have been worked out in order to make a complementation possible. The goal of the combination of the Capabilities Approach with a German integration theory is to reach a different emphasis in terms of the integration theory and supposedly a new perspective on the capabilities of the refugees. The combination of the theories will be completed in this chapter. Before the actual interconnection is done the basis and the framework of the interconnection will be described. After the two theories have been combined the new combined theory will be explained. In the findings, the justification and positioning of the combined theory in Development and Migration Studies will be presented. The recommendations show what an implementation of the combined theory could look like. Finally, a conclusion of the whole study follows. 7.2 Basis for the interconnection The basis for the interconnection of both theories is the content overlap, the existence of a problem area in one theory and the probable solution contained in the other theory. At the beginning of this section the problem area in Heckmann’s Integration Theory − the absence of emphasis on immigrant’s capabilities − will be discussed. Both theories and their connection to integration were presented in the previous two chapters and now the following section describes the overlap between the core capabilities according to Nussbaum and the four dimensions of integration according to Heckmann. The capabilities of Nussbaum’s list, which are most clearly consistent with Heckmann’s theory, are: “Affiliation”, “Control over one’s environment”, “Practical reason”, “Senses, imagination, and thought”, and “Emotions”. 7.2.1 Problem area which needs a complementary solution The focus of the Coordinated Theory Analysis is to identify problem areas and complementary areas in theories that will provide the solutions required. The aim of this study is to find out whether a combined theory of the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Integration The- 112 ory can direct the focus of integration theories away from the weaknesses and towards the capabilities of the refugees. This “missing emphasis on the capabilities of immigrants” in Heckmann’s theory is the problem area in this study to which the Capabilities Approach may offer a complementation or solution. As outlined under and 5.4.3 Heckmann does see the capitals/capabilities of the immigrants as important for the integration process, but that they are neither crucial to it nor its starting point. The problem area is found not only in Heckmann’s integration theory but it is a common problem in the German integration discourse. In the literature it is repeatedly pointed out that integration work should focus on the capabilities, potentials and opportunities of refugees (Mülich, Bungardt & Meineke 2003:68; Slaughter & Leeson 2017:6; Younso & Borkowski 2016:275; Worbs, Bund & Böhm 2016:311; Bröse 2015). Moreover, Böcker et al. describe the current integration concept as discriminating and requiring a change in perspective. They come to this opinion because integration is still cited as the responsibility of migrants yet “the Whites”75 dictate the norms of integration (Böcker, Goel & Heft 2013:305–306). The authors refer to Ha and Schmitz (Ha & Schmitz 2006:n.p.) and demand a change in perspective so that the new citizens receive respect as politically and historically active people (Böcker, Goel & Heft 2013:310). The following is a brief description of the problem area by explaining why a focus on the capabilities of the refugees is important and thereby outlining what is missing from Heckmann’s integration theory. There are two reasons why it is especially important for refugees to focus on their basic and internal capabilities. Concentration on the capabilities of the refugees changes both the perspective of the host society about the refugees as well as the refugees’ perception about themselves. Penninx and Garcés-Mascareñas claim that the interaction between the host society and the migrants will determine the direction and results of the integration. It should be noted that the power relations of the two are very unequal. They argue that the reaction of the host society, especially that of the institutional structures, has a much higher impact on the outcome of the integration process than the migrants have themselves (Penninx & Garcés-Mascareñas 2016:17). Reflecting on the 75 By “the Whites’ Böcker, Goel and Heft mean the mainly white skinned dominance society in Germany. 113 German integration process, Dieter Filsinger comes to the same decision. He believes that integration is most dependent on “co-operative structures” (Filsinger 2008:10). This does not mean that the refugee does not have any influence on integration. It should only be shown that the perception of the host society on the immigrants and the existing structures have a strong influence. If these structures are pro-refugees, the integration will be eased for the immigrants. Such change in perception and operations tends to change the perception of immigrants about themselves. Bryant Myers refers to Jayakumar Christian, who describes one of the multidimensional aspects of poverty as a “marred identity”. This arises from the fact that the voice of the poor is considered worthless by the non-poor and that no capabilities are attributed to them. Over time the “marred identity” is internalized by the poor and leads to a sense of worthlessness and humiliation. Once the poor person assumes that he/she does not have the social space or the right to act, a feeling of incapacity arises (Myers 2011:127). This is also confirmed in the studies of the German anti-discrimination authorities. They show that discrimination against refugees leads to resignation and limitations in their own behaviour (Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes 2016:18) which has a negative impact on integration (Uslucan & Yalcin 2012:42). If refugees are seen as human beings with capabilities, rights and values, development of a marred identify can be prevented. In addition, a transformed view, away from the shortcomings of the refugees towards their capabilities refers to their abilities as well as the opportunities to choose from. Such transformation could help bring about change in the meaning of integration concepts as desired by Böcker, Goel and Heft. An example is to be put forward to underline how the focus on migrants’ capabilities promotes integration and to clarify why “the missing emphasis on the capabilities of immigrants in Heckmann’s theory” is the problem area: In the introduction of this study, the example of the employment rates of immigrants demonstrates that refugees are the most vulnerable migrants. Staying with this example of structural integration into the workplace, the same study on the Labour Market Integration of refugees requested by the European Parliament’s Committee on Employment and Social Affairs shows that, according to information of the OECD, the employment rates of immigrants comparative to the native population 114 in other EU Member States are higher in Anglo-Saxon countries relative to Continental-European countries or Scandinavian countries. One possible reason for diverging employment patterns among refugees can be found in the country’s specific skills and vocational qualification systems (Konle-Seidl 2016:25). For example the British skills system based on the Qualifications and Credit Framework (QCF) “assesses and recognises non-certificated learning, and enables this to contribute to recognised qualifications” (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority 2010:5). Compared to the German Qualification Framework (DQR), the British QCF arranges for more opportunities to enter the labour market and is therefore “[…] more accessible for migrants without hostcountry qualifications” (Konle-Seidl 2016:25). To summarise, it can be noted that the openness to recognise, value, and give the opportunity to make use of formal and informal strengths and abilities leads to a higher employment rate of immigrants. This example shows how the implementation of the Capabilities Approach (focus on capabilities and where necessary provide a combination with a political, social or economic condition) can promote integration and this is what Heckmann’s integration theory is missing. By using the Capabilities Approach as the basis of an integration theory, it is possible to extend and widen this focus. In summary it can be said that the problem area in Heckmann’s integration theory, “the missing emphasis on the capabilities of immigrants” limits the impact of his theory. 7.2.2 Connection between Affiliation and social integration Comparing the description of social integration by Heckmann with the capability “Affiliation” one finds that “[…] close relations between migrants and locals”76 (Heckmann 2015:181) and "being able to live with and towards others […]" (Nussbaum 2011:34) are in content the same. Nussbaum’s description "living with and towards others” describes well what a "close relationship" is, as Heckmann calls it. In order to promote social participation, the migrant must be empowered to be able to use and enjoy the capability “Affiliation”. As the study of Wolff and de-Shalit shows, the feeling of belonging to a host society empowers immigrants to stand up for their concerns and promotes their resilience. 76 Translation by the author. Original: “[…] um Beziehungen der Nähe zwischen Migranten und Einheimischen.“ 115 The interviewees compared the capability “Affiliation” with a vaccination that enables them, in case of danger or threats to other capabilities, to still be able to master the situation (Wolff & De-Shalit 2007:139). This shows that the Capability “Affiliation” is fundamental for participation in society. Besides that, the host society also has a task to make social integration possible. The task is to reduce discrimination and prejudices by establishing inter-ethnic contact and meeting opportunities (Heckmann 2015:190), and by combining social, political or economic measures (Nussbaum 2011:22). On the part of the host society it is important to promote the acceptance of the other. Belonging includes acceptance of the other with his or her otherness, which in turn leads to an elimination of discrimination. 7.2.3 Connection among “Practical reason”, “Senses, imagination, and thought” and cultural integration The capabilities “Practical reason” and “Senses, imagination, and thought” corresponds to the content of what Heckmann understands as cultural integration. For Heckmann cultural integration of immigrants is a process of cultural, cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal changes (Heckmann 2015:72) and Nussbaum describes the capability “senses, imagination, and thought” as the ability and opportunity “[…] to use the senses, to imagine, think, and reason […]” (Nussbaum 2011:33). In addition, the capability “Practical reason” is needed to reflect values because, if values, norms and attitudes are to be scrutinised and reflected with the intention of understanding and adapting to a new cultural situation (Heckmann 2015:72), one must be able to evaluate the previous concept of life (Nussbaum 2011:34). In order to possess this internal capability, one needs to be experienced in self-distancing and reflection. Adapting to a new life situation and cultural reality is, in the case of a “voluntary” migration, easier than in the case of “forced” migration due to a crisis as in the case of refugees. For this reason, the training and promotion of the reflective capacity of refugees is important and should be promoted through formal and informal culturally sensitive social and psychological programmes. Furthermore, participation in the cultural life of the host society requires the acquisition of the host language. Here, Nussbaum’s demand in the capability “Senses, imagination and thought” for "[...] adequate education, including, but by no means limited to, literacy and basic 116 mathematical and scientific training” (Nussbaum 2011:33) overlaps with Heckmann’s description of cultural integration (Heckmann 2015:72). If Nussbaum’s demand is applied to the context of integration in Germany, it connotes adequate language acquisition of the German language. To sum up, it can be said that in order to achieve cultural integration, the refugees must be prepared to question their own (cultural) values, behaviours and attitudes, but not necessarily change all. If a complete adaptation of the values, behaviours and attitudes of the refugees to the German society is required, assimilation, rather than integration, would be demanded. Instead, the refugees have, within the legal framework of the Federal Republic of Germany, the freedom to choose their norms and values. This corresponds to the concept of Martha Nussbaum by including the freedom of choice into the capabilities (Nussbaum 2011:25). However, in order to be able to contribute to and share in the cultural life of Germany with their own thoughts and imagination, it is necessary to master a certain level of the German language. At this point the task of the state is to pave the way for legal and practically feasible language acquisition opportunities. In addition, the immigrants must bring the willingness to learn. The help of the civil society is also required here, which should support learners to get language practice through intercultural encounters. 7.2.4 Connection between “Control over one’s environment” and structural integration By providing the refugee the possibilities for control of their own environment in material areas, they are given the chance of participation in the core structures77 of social life (education, labour market, social security, housing and the political community) in the host society. Nussbaum describes the Capability “Control over one’s environment” as: “Being able to hold property […], and having property rights on an equal basis with others; having the right to seek employment on an equal basis with others; […]. In work, being able to work as a human, exercising practical reason and entering into meaningful relationships of mutual recognition with other workers (Nussbaum 2013:34)”. 77 For a detailed description about core structures see 5.2.1 Dimensions of individual integration. 117 This overlaps with Heckmann’s characterisation of structural integration: participation in the education and training systems, economy and labour market, the social security systems, the housing market and the political community (Heckmann 2015:72). In order to enter these core structures of the host society, the immigrants need, as described under, “soft skills”, that are also referred to as social competencies. It can be assumed that the refugee brings social competences from their culture of origin, but they are not always transferable to the German context (SVR 2017:148). The soft skills that are needed for structural integration must be supported in order for the immigrants to acquire place for themselves within the core situations of German society. Another point, proposed by Wolff and de Shalit, concerns the existing structures. In order to prevent discrimination against the refugees on the basis of not-yet-acquired “soft skills”, institutions should consider how far their service operations depend on soft skills capabilities (Wolff & De-Shalit 2007:145). 7.2.5 Connection between ”Emotions” and identificational integration The feeling of belonging and the readiness to identify with the national, ethnic, regional, and local collective structures towards the host society (Heckmann 2015:73), as Heckmann describes identificational integration, is closely related to Nussbaum’s description of the capability “Emotions”: the ability to have an “[…] attachment to things and people outside oneself” (Nussbaum 2011:33). Nussbaum’s further description of the capability “Emotions” includes a close relationship between people and things outside themselves; and concomitantly, to feel one’s own identity connected with the people and the culture of a new homeland also needs a close relationship. This shows that the content of “identificational integration”, according to Heckmann, and the capability “Emotions”, according to Nussbaum, overlap. In order to be able to develop a sense of belonging and a willingness to identify with the host society, immigrants have to encounter positive experiences with social relations that are significant for their lives (Esser 2001:17). In addition, cultural (especially linguistic) skills are necessary, which often depend on structural integration (work and education integration). The role of the host society in identificational integration cannot be ignored. The host society is responsible for an “identification offer” with a membership concept in which people with a foreign ancestry are also included (Heckmann 2015:73). It can be concluded 118 that identificational integration is a result of successful cultural, social and structural integration and is linked to openness and non-discrimination on the part of the host society. If identificational integration is to be promoted, the other three dimensions of integration must also be promoted thereby giving the immigrants the necessary space and the opportunity to exercise, develop and combine their capabilities. Like cultural integration, the identificational integration also builds on individual learning and socialization processes (:80). Therefore the questioning of cultural and individual norms and values may be inevitable. It has become clear that all the objectives of the four dimensions of integration according to Heckmann can be found in certain capabilities on Nussbaum’s list, which she sees as conditions for a “good life”. 7.3 Empowerment as framework of the interconnection The method of this study is to combine two theories to achieve the research goal. However a combination on its own does not yet guarantee that the new theory will work. The combined theory requires a framework within which it will be applied and which makes its success more likely. The framework for this combined integration theory is the Empowerment Approach. The combination of Heckmann’s Integration Theory and Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach can be successful since it will empower the immigrants for the integration process. The empowering element of this connection is the Capabilities Approach. The following two arguments are intended to show how the Capabilities Approach is the empowering element of the interconnection. As described under 3.3 the “prerequisite to empowerment is an opportunity structure that allows people to translate their asset base into effective agency […]” (Alsop 2007:123). This is what an integration theory based on the capabilities approach can be, because as shown in chapter 6 the Capabilities Approach according to Nussbaum does not only see the individual basic and internal capabilities a person has. It also looks at where these have to be combined with a social, political and/or economic condition, which creates an opportunity structure (Alsop, Bertelsen & Holland 2012:10) that is needed for empowerment. If the Capabilities Approach is used as a basis of an integration theory, as proposed in this study, it could promote successful integration since its goal would be to promote and activate the existing capabilities of the individual immigrant so that these are able to contribute to integration. The following example is intended to illustrate that combined capabilities actually lead to empowerment and integration: Schneider et al. 119 have, relying on the TIES78-study, pointed out that the more secondgeneration immigrants are structurally integrated (higher educational level and better job and income) the more they identify themselves with German society. In contrast, identification with German society of unemployed immigrants and non-working women is low (Schneider, Crul & Lelie 2015:89). This shows that people who have the agency/basic and internal capabilities (e.g. education) and the opportunity structure/combined capabilities (e.g. carer opportunity because of ant-discrimination policies) have a high possibility to be empowered to integrate themselves. The second reason why an integration theory on the basis of the Capabilities Approach can lead to successful integration is that through dissolving disadvantages and inequalities empowerment is achieved. Luttrell and Quiroz are of the opinion that empowerment can be achieved if the causes of disempowerment and disadvantages are redressed (Luttrell & Quiroz 2009:6). At the same time the Capabilities Approach is considered as a means to remedying causes of inequality, which makes it an appropriate tool to assess activities targeted at refugees, who often experience diverse disadvantages (Clarke 2013:3). Here, too, an example underpins the argument: The newspaper Spiegel Online tested whether housing seekers are discriminated against because of their name and the associated immigrant background. By using fictitious, foreign and German names they applied to real housing offers. Almost identical application letters were used in understandable, friendly, and error-free German. 20,728 applications were sent out and 8,377 replies from homeowners, administrators and brokers were received. The evaluation of the responses revealed that people with foreign names are discriminated against in the search for an apartment for rent. Particularly for seekers with Turkish or Arab origins. They received invitations to visit a flat 25% less often than German applicants (Elmer u.a. 2017:n.p.). This is also confirmed by a similar study which was conducted from 2006 until 2008 (Auspurg, Hinz & Schmid 2017:29). It revealed that, in Munich, immigrants of Turkish origin had a significantly lower chance of access to the rental housing market compared to German housing-seekers (:33). The study of the German anti-discrimination authority, already mentioned in 6.3.1, can help to interpret these results. The study has demonstrated 78 TIES is the abbreviation of “The Integration of the European Second Generation”. For details about TIES see 3.2. 120 that unfair discrimination is a hindrance for integration (Antidiskriminierungsstelle des Bundes 2016:18). In this example immigrants experience inequality and disadvantages through unfair discrimination when searching for housing. In practice then, disadvantages and inequalities lead to disempowerment for integration. It can be concluded that a combined integration theory can promote successful integration since the enhancement of Heckmann’s integration theory with the Capabilities Approach places the combined theory in the context of the empowerment approach. 7.4 Interconnection of the theories According to the methodology of this work, I presented and positioned the two theories in the earlier chapters. I have worked out that it seems reasonable to combine the two theories which will be done in this section. It is important to me to emphasize that I do sincerely value Heckmann’s theory. I am grateful for his work and my reasoning and wish is to adapt only the focus of his integration theory for the good purpose of improving the needs of German society and migrants. The detailed reasons for this have been drawn up in chapters 5 and 6 and can be read there. In short, it can be said that the main reason is that an integration theory based on the Capabilities Approach may empower migrants and foster integration as explained in 7.2. I consciously use the word “may” because an integration theory based on the Capabilities Approach always includes the freedom of choice of all integration partners. The (untapped) potential of migrants (Worbs, Bund & Böhm 2016:293), which has already been mentioned several times in this study, should be the starting point for the combined integration theory. Furthermore, the combined theory should have a holistic view of integration in the way Söhn and Marquardsen have defined integration in their research report on “success factors for the integration of refugees”. In their opinion, these holistic views should play a part in counteracting institutional participation barriers as well as establishing and strengthening the refugee’s individual resources in order to systematically achieve participation opportunities (Söhn & Marquardsen 2017:35). The combined theory is structured as follows: The basics of the Capabilities Approach (Fig. 7.1) according to Martha Nussbaum (for more details see 6.2) is going to be implemented in Heckmann’s Integration Theory (Fig. 7.2, for more details see 5.2). 121 Figure 7.1 The Capabilities-Approach according to Martha Nussbaum (Heckmann 2015:289) Figure 7.2 Theory of Successful Integration by Friedrich Heckmann The result is shown in Figure 7.3. In a slightly different way all elements of the representation of the Capabilities Approach were taken over into the combined theory. From Heckmann’s integration theory, the three levels (macro, meso and micro) and the goal of the theory (the integration of migrants) are used. A detailed description of how the individual elements of the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Integration Theory are implemented in the combined theory can be read in the description of the three phases. 122 Figure 7.3 Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory consists of three consecutive phases. By starting the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory with the capabilities of the immigrants (micro-level), these are the focus of the theory and thereby valued. In progression of the phases necessary combinations are to be considered. The individual phases are explained below. 123 Phase 1 The objective of the first phase is to discover and determine the existing capabilities of the refugees. Those are the basic and internal capabilities of Nussbaum’s list of ten central capabilities, which are necessary for social, cultural, structural and identificational integration. According to this study these are the capabilities “Affiliation”, “Control over one’s environment”, “Practical reason”, “Senses, imagination, and thought”, and “Emotions”. Besides the capabilities of the immigrants, the motivation to learn and to socially and economically advance is also necessary for the integration process. This phase takes place on the microlevel with and by the individual immigrant. A method to identify and document capabilities should be used to determine the capabilities of the individual migrant. This is further explored under Recommendations for the implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. Since every migrant has very different starting conditions, it is important to focus on each individual person. The focus on the individual migrants has already been tested by the German state for education-related integration and has proven itself there (BAMF 2013a:3). Phase 2 In the second phase the social, political and/or economic conditions have to be shaped in a way which allows the immigrants to use their capabilities. The combination is carried out by the openness and support of the social, political and/or economic structures and the help of the ethnic colonies. “Because the immigrant groups had different starting conditions and have a different level of education, differentiated programmes should be set up to meet the respective needs”79 (Woellert u.a. 2009:8). The individual immigrant needs an individual combination of his/her basic and internal capabilities. This does not mean that every immigrant needs only his/her own integration programs. Certain groups of migrants (e.g. mothers of small children) could, but do not necessarily, face the same barriers to integration and may therefore be helped with the same combination of capabilities. The combination of capabilities takes place on the macro and meso-level, since it is implemented by the societal, political and economic structures as well as the ethnical 79 Translation by the author. Original: “Weil die betrachteten Zuwanderergruppen unterschiedliche Startbedingungen hatten und verschieden gut gebildet sind, sollten differenzierte Programme aufgelegt werden, die den jeweiligen Bedürfnissen entgegen kommen.“ 124 colonies. The openness and support of the societal, political and economic structures on the macro-level results in two situations. Firstly, as this theory intends, it combines the internal capabilities of the immigrants with the condition that is required to empower the immigrant to integrate. This is to be illustrated by the next example: For people who are not or are no longer in the asylum process but have a “certificate of temporary suspension of deportation” (Duldung80) it was, in the past, difficult to get an apprentice position for vocational training, because they could be deported at any time. As a consequence, the training efforts of these young people were low and the training companies were not willing to invest in the training of a person with the legal status of “temporary suspension of deportation” (Boockmann 2017:64). The new German Integration Law of July 2016 has changed this situation so that apprentices are not allowed to be deported during the duration of the training. In addition, in the case of employment after the training that is appropriate for the profession, the “temporary suspension of deportation” is extended to two years (Bundestag 2016)81. This is an example of a political condition that leads to a combination of internal capabilities to promote structural integration. By guaranteeing the suspension of deportation during training period and up to two years later, young people will have a perspective for structural integration. In addition, this change in law helps training companies to employ “geduldete” people for training. Secondly, the openness and support offered by the societal, political and economic structures German society as a whole; and, and at the same time society and structures must change so that openness and support becomes possible, as described further under Phase 3. The way that German society as a whole can change is that its politicians and individual German people open up the German structures as well as themselves to the immigrants. As the immigrants “enter” the open structures, the society as a whole changes. This openness is the precondition of integration as described by Dieter Filsinger as the “forthcoming structures”82 (Filsinger 2008:10). Considering the example above, the “forthcoming structures” are the opening up of the training market to “refugees with a certificate of temporary suspension of deportation”. 80 For a detailed definition about “geduldete” persons see Legal framework. 81 Integrationsgesetz Bundestag 2016:article 5 section 4 & 8. These are a change of the German Residence Act (Aufenthaltsgesetz) §18a and §60a. 82 For more details see 5.2.2. 125 By being an apprentice and having the possible chance to work as a professional, the self-image of the “refugees with a certificate of temporary suspension of deportation” changes83 and the view of society on the young person as well – namely, away from being a recipient of assistance towards being a valuable member of society. This example shows how refugees, through a combination of capabilities (ability and willingness to learn a profession combined with a training opportunity and the legal opening), can become part of the structural society. At the meso-level, the ethnic colonies are the ones that can enable a combination of capabilities. Friedrich Heckmann defines ethnic colonies as the following: “Ethnic colonies are, on the one hand, forms of ethnic self-organization that emerge as an institutional response to the needs of migrants in the migration and minority situation; on the other hand, they are a “transplant” and continuation of social relations that already existed in the society of origin”84 (Heckmann 2015:286). Ethnic colonies consist of relatives, associations, religious communities, cultural-regional organizations, political organizations, informal social circles and meeting points, ethnic media and an ethnic economy. “The concept of the ‘colony’ is linked to the conceptual traditions of early immigration research: socio-cultural, religious and political organizations, common residential districts as well as the immigrant group themselves were, in classical immigration countries, referred to as Immigration Colony”85 (Heckmann 1992:97). Heckmann is of the opinion that these ethnic colonies can be an important stabiliser for the new situations and information sources for immigrants, especially at the beginning. At the same time, he emphasises that ethnic colonies foster integration only when they function as a “bridge” to the host society 83 See marred identity 6.3.1 Advantages. 84 Translation by the author. Original: “Ethnische Kolonien – die Mesoebene der Analyse – sind zum einen Formen ethnischer Selbstorganisation, die als institutionelle Antwort auf die Bedürfnisse der Migranten in der Migrations- und Minderheitensituation entstehen; zum anderen sind sie eine » Verpflanzung « und Fortsetzung sozialer Beziehungen, die bereits in der Herkunftsgesellschaft existierten.” 85 Translation by the author. Original: “Das Konzept der “Kolonie” knüpft an begrifflichen Traditionen der frühen Einwanderungsforschung an: sozial-kulturelle, religiöse und politische Organisationen, gemeinsame Wohnbezirke wie auch die Einwanderungsgruppe selbst wurden in klassischen Einwanderungsländern als Einwanderungskolonie bezeichnet.“ 126 and do not offer an “alternative society” (Heckmann 2015:286). In this combined theory the ethnic colonies function as a source of information, stabiliser and as “bridge” to the host society in order for them to enable the combination of the internal capabilities of the immigrants. It is important to ensure that the ethnic colony does not replace the tasks of the German civil society. This may be achieved when the State cooperates with the ethnic colonies as a competent player in the integration process. Phase 3 Phase 3 is the result of Phase 1 and 2. The goal is that refugees get the opportunity to use and enjoy the capabilities that correspond to the four dimensions of integration according to Heckmann. The capabilities that are needed for integration, according to Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration, have been worked out in 7.2. If immigrants get the possibility and/or opportunity to use the capabilities that are needed for integration they will have a life worthy of human dignity according to Martha Nussbaum86. In the case of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory this would become visible as the participation of individual immigrants in German society. It should be emphasised that the participation of immigrants has to be in the way the individual migrant considers it valuable. This implies that this freedom of action and choice must be within the German legislation. In the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory, favourable political, social and economic structures are deliberately defined as conditions of integration because they are the outcome of the capability combination. Integration is only possible if the structures are open and supportive and therefore they have to be changed in some cases. This is slightly different from Heckmann’s opinion. In his point of view the structures of the whole society will change when integration has happened already87 (:290). In my conclusion of the literature study, the changed structures are necessary for integration to happen at all. In some way Heckmann shares this opinion, by saying that the changed structures, once they are established, are also a condition for new cycles of the integration process. Since this combined integration theory is developed on the basis of Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach, whose basis is the combination 86 The final purpose of the Capabilities Approach is, through combining the individual capabilities of a person, to enable him/her to live a life worthy of human dignity (Nussbaum 2011:32). 87 Arrow 7 in Figure 8. 2 Theory of Successful Integration. 127 of the capabilities through social, political and economic structures, it would not be sufficient to assume that the structures will change through integration and then will foster new integration processes. In spite of this point, Heckmann’s opinion is not wrong because changed structures, which, in my opinion, are a condition to integration, will, in the long run, also change the structures of the whole German society as described in Phase 2. The capabilities approach may also be applied to the capabilities of German nationals. As explained under 5.488, as well the migrants, the resident society may need help to be able to contribute to integration. For example: the resident society may possibly resist intercultural openness. Prejudices and fears about strangers can prevent them from using and enjoying the capability “Affiliation”; that is, “Being able to live with and toward others, to recognize and show concern for other humans, to engage in various forms of social interaction; to be able to imagine the situation of another” (Nussbaum 2011:33). Through the combination of the host community’s capability “Affiliation” with a political or social condition, intercultural openness may be achieved. A widespread intercultural openness in German society could lead to changed structures and therefore favour the integration of immigrants. Phase 3 could also be seen as the final goal, but this integration theory is a cycle that has to be restarted again and again until it is completed one day for the individual migrant. The combination of the capabilities does not always have to be a “formal” action, as it is highly probable that many missing combinations will be determined informally during the integration process. For this, it is important that all those involved in the integration process are aware that the process does not end with a one-time determination of the capabilities and the necessary combinations. Instead, the capabilities-oriented integration process has to take place over and over again. Sometimes the missing combinations will be solved with little effort and quickly (e.g. obtaining missing information) and at times only with very elaborate effort and over a long period of time (e.g. changing a law). 88 See Cultural integration: Both the migrants and the host society need help to be able to contribute to integration. 128 7.5 Justification of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and Recommendations The first secondary objective of this study was to outline the challenges for the integration of refugees in Germany. This was done in chapter 2. The second secondary objective has been fulfilled by discussing Heckmann`s Theory of Integration in Chapter 5. The characterization of the Capabilities Approach in terms of its application to refugees was completed in chapter 6. In this chapter the fourth secondary objective of this study was accomplished by exploring ways of interlinking both theories to foster the integration of refugees in Germany. Therefore the basis and the framework for the interconnection of the theories has been presented. Subsequently the theories have been interconnected with the result of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. In this section the justification of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and recommendations for the implantation and further research will be outlined. 7.5.1 Justifications of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory is similar to Heckmann’s Integration Theory The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory, as presented here, includes all the components of Heckmann’s Integration Theory and is based on the Capabilities Approach. Actually, it is not fundamentally different from Heckmann’s theory. This is because the goal of the chosen methodology, the Coordinated Theory Comparison, is not to dissolve one of the theories, but to fill any gaps in the two theories when compared (Schneider 1999:290). The most important difference is that the capabilities of immigrants are placed at the start of the integration process and then the further integration progress is built on them. The detailed capabilities, which are needed for the integration of immigrants into German society, have been developed under 7.1 by comparing Heckmann’s four dimensions of integration and Nussbaum’s list of ten central capabilities. Friedrich Heckmann has years of experience in research with migrants and my endeavour to find an integration theory with a focus on the capabilities of migrants does not, in any way, discredit his work. It is therefore said at this point that the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory is not seen isolated from other Migration and Integration Re- 129 search results. Integration principles such as the four dimensions of integration, intergenerational migration, etc., of course also apply to the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory has its justification in the Empowerment Approach The concept of empowerment has been described in chapter 3 as a theoretical framework of this study. “Empowerment is defined as a group’s or individual’s capacity to make effective choices, that is, to make choices and then to transform those choices into desired actions and outcomes” (Alsop, Bertelsen & Holland 2012:10). In this study empowerment is meant to be a mechanism for social transformation for the life situation of the refugees in Germany. The comparison of Nussbaum ten central capabilities and Heckmann four dimensions of integration has shown that both concepts have many overlaps. It also shows that recognition and promotion of certain capabilities can stimulate integration. This process of improvement of capabilities is the combination of capabilities as Martha Nussbaum defines it: an internal capability (Phase 1) is combined with a social/political/economic condition (Phase 2) whereby functioning can be chosen (Phase 3) (Nussbaum 2011:22). This process is an opportunity structure, as described by Alsop, which allows people to translate their assets or capabilities into effective agency or functioning (Alsop 2007:123). Consequently it can be concluded that a combination of capabilities with supporting conditions empowers the individual immigrant for integration. The individual immigrant becomes empowered through the combination of the capabilities since the combination is personalized to his/her internal capabilities. In concrete terms, this means that every individual immigrant should receive those social, political or economic conditions that he/she needs to able to integrate into German society. This should lead to the conclusion that an integration theory with the emphasis on the capabilities of the immigrants can be successful. The Capabilites-oriented Integration Theory meets what is required by practice and literature As mentioned, the aim of this theory connection is a changed view of immigrants and their capabilities in the integration discourse. The demand for a stronger focus on the potentials and abilities of immigrants is again and again heard in literature and practice. Three examples are 130 given to show how the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory meets these demands. Firstly, a qualitative survey involving 116 young migrants conducted in the city of Marburg (Mülich, Bungardt & Meineke 2003) came to the conclusion that a changed view on the potential of the immigrants is essential. Based on the results of the study the researchers are of the opinion that for integration to be successful it is important to concentrate on the resources and opportunities of immigrants in order to expand their possibilities to actively integrate themselves into German society. The focus is to be directed away from their shortcomings, towards their capabilities. Furthermore, the emphasis should be on the empowerment of migrants for them to be able to operate within German society (:68). The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory offers an integration theory in which all this is possible: concentration on the capabilities and empowerment of immigrants to be able to be active members of German society. Secondly, the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory also meets the Recommendations of the Refugees Study Centre on self-reliance. Here is an excerpt of what the authors suggest (Slaughter & Leeson 2017:6) and thereafter a proposal on how the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory could meet these demands: The focus of livelihood aid programming should shift to an approach, which considers capabilities in the sense of real opportunities, which enable people to achieve the kind of life they value. This is the exact focus of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. Integration assistance should be based on an analysis of integration obstacles and of the existing support system. This is done in phase 2. Assistance for refugee’s integration should consist of interlinked projects with a focus on the social, political, and economic needs of refugees. This is also a requirement of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and will be further explored under recommendations. Systemic integration hindrances, such as barriers to work or a lack of legal representation, that lead to challenging work and living conditions for refugees, should be addressed by someone other than the refugees themselves, such as humanitarian and political roleplayers. In the second Phase of the Capabilities-oriented Integration 131 Theory German society and ethnic colonies should enable the combination of the immigrant’s capabilities by dealing with the challenging conditions that the refugees struggle with. The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory also meets the idea of the Federal Government of Germany that successful integration policy needs to awaken and build on the potentials of the immigrants. It should include the migrant and supports him/her in the process of participation. Furthermore, the policies have to consider that integration can only happen if social structures are open for migrants and barriers are removed that complicate participation in the society (Die Bundesregierung 2007:13). The focus on potentials of the immigrants can be achieved through strong emphasis on the Capabilities; the inclusion and support of migrants can be reached through a method that identifies and documents the capabilities of each migrant individually in Phase 1; and, the openness of social structures can be achieved through elimination of integration barriers by combining capabilities with necessary conditions in the Phase 2. 7.5.2 Recommendations The following recommendations concern, on the one hand, the implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and, on the other hand, questions for further research. Recommendations for the implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory In an integration report of the non-profit public company Phineo, the lawyer Andreas Schmidt proposes that integration offers should be targeted and resource-oriented, that each migrant should be individually supported and that all role-players involved in integration assistance should cooperate (Schmidt 2010:12). These proposals match the possible implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory and therefore the following recommendations will be guided by it. Individual support In my opinion, the implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory should be done through individual partnerships between locals and migrants for the following three reasons. Firstly, social relations between local people and immigrants promote the integration of individuals and their ability to participate. This is also supported by different studies (Geiger 2016; Mülich, Bungardt 132 & Meineke 2003; Schiefer 2017a). All three empirical studies conclude that social relationships are important for integration. Schiefer stresses that social contacts and mutual support are crucial to make people feel comfortable and capable of action (Schiefer 2017a:5). Geiger shows that, especially in the post-arrival period, social contacts are an important resource for refugees to find their way around. Furthermore, social contacts promote the refugee’s capacity to act (Geiger 2016:126). One of the points of the action proposal of Mülich et al. is the suggestion that new immigrants should get an integration partner, as quickly as possible, who will help them personally and individually in everyday life of the new society (Mülich, Bungardt & Meineke 2003:66ff). Secondly, a single partner or a group of people can work more precisely with the individual migrants to ensure that the migrant can use and enjoy the capabilities he/she views as important for integration. It is important that the supporters have a good network, which helps them to help the refugees. This is discussed in detail under the section “integration cooperation”. A refugee woman from Ghana who had lived and worked in Italy for several years before coming to Germany, expressed it as follows: “In Germany, the system is very tough and everything is very complicated. As you have no chance to manage all the administrative things by yourself, you are totally dependent on local people helping you voluntarily” (Rukaya 2015:54). The OECD and Younso & Borkowski recommend that the support for labour market integration should be individually and personally tailored with a focus on the personal skills and abilities of the refugees (Younso & Borkowski 2016:275). This recommendation, related to structural integration, should be extended to the other dimensions of integration as well. A specifically tailored integration plan based on the personal capabilities of the individual immigrant can promote integration. This is confirmed by Schiefer who suggest that asylum seekers, especially in the early stages of their stay, should have a central and reliable contact for advice and support for all life contexts (Schiefer 2017b:87–88). Thirdly, social contacts between the host society and the immigrants contribute to a positive evaluation of the integration climate. Integration partnerships lead to people being in contact, getting to know and appreciating each other. Frequent contact between the host society and immigrants results in a reduction of prejudices and a good integration climate on both sides (SVR 2016:23). In this sense, partnerships 133 between nationals and immigrants could contribute to a good integration climate in the long term. Also, the integration process can only be sustainable if relationships on a par are part of it. It is important, therefore, that in these relationships the refugee is not perceived as the “needy” person and the German as the “helping” person (Schiefer 2017a:5). There are already a number of integration-partner projects. Some are limited to one area of integration such as “housing-search” ( and some are for all areas of life (; The structure of an integration-partner program based on the Capabilitiesoriented Integration Theory, should be based on the possibilities and opportunities (capabilities) of the individual immigrant. After identifying and documenting the capabilities of the individual immigrant in Phase 1 the integration partners should develop an individual integration plan for all four dimensions of integration on the basis of the method described earlier. During this action it will become obvious which conditions are needed to act out these capabilities (Phase 2) in order for the immigrant to be able to use and enjoy these for the integration process. Targeted and resource-oriented support The application of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory should be implemented through a targeted and resource-oriented support. In my opinion, a method to identify and document the capabilities of the immigrants is the requirement and should be the starting point of the integration process. The advantages of starting the integration process with valuing and identifying the capabilities of immigrants, and especially those of refugees, were discussed in detail in 7.2. A method of identifying and documenting the capabilities of the refugees should involve the refugees as experts of their own situation (Erler & Gottstein 2017:164). Furthermore, it should include all dimensions of integration and all capabilities that are necessary for integration, as worked out in this study. Those can be used to formulate the target state, which in turn results in the measures. The actual state is reflecting the existing capabilities. In the target state, the refugee defines the way of life he/she currently considers valuable. The relation between the actual and target state illustrates the missing capabilities. The concrete measures demonstrate how the internal capabilities can 134 become a real possibility through a social, political or economic condition. The measures should, as far as possible, consist of feasible objectives. In this way, all four dimensions of integration could be gone through. For example, questions on structural integration can deal with the educational and professional experience of the refugees. Questions on social integration, for example, explore recreational activities, non-professional skills and relations with the indigenous population. In order to find out what the refugee considers and needs for cultural integration, questions should be asked about language skills and language learning opportunities. The questions on identificational integration should provide information concerning how he/she feels to be in Germany. It is also possible to draw on existing methods for the determination of skills such as the “KompAS”, which will be described later. Once the method has been practised, it can be carried out in an informal manner by the integration partners, together or individually. If the integration partner lacks information or opportunities to implement the measures, an information network by all the role-players involved in the integration process should be available to them. This point is discussed under integration cooperation. An example how a targeted and resource-oriented support for integration into a workplace is implemented is in the project “KompAS”. The project was initiated by the BAMF and is conducted by social service providers (BAMF 2017a:2). “KompAS” is an extended integration course, which is intended for a specific group of migrants, refugees and asylum seekers. The objectives of “KompAS” are quick placement of the participants into the labour or training market or participation in further educational measures, early and detailed determination of the competencies, and, to train in and expand the German language directly in practice (:1). To implement the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory it could be built on the experiences of this kind of resource-oriented support such as “KompAS”. The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory could provide the basis for a resource-oriented support for all four dimensions of integration. Integration cooperation In an integration report, on behalf of the Federal Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs, Söhn and Marquardsen conclude that political integration approaches that connect role-players from different social groups 135 and governmental areas seem to be the most successful (Söhn & Marquardsen 2017:35). OECD (OECD 2017:12) and SVR (SVR 2017) make similar recommendations. Therefore, a single point of contact, in which all information is connected and all role-players from politics, administration, economy, welfare, NGOs and civil society are networked, is recommended (Schiefer 2017b:89). Such a single point of contact would make the efforts of the integration-partners easier. The goal would be to provide the integration-partners with easily accessible and assessable information about regulations, laws, aids, programmes, etc. In the current political and scientific discussion, the Whole-of-Government Approach is discussed as a possible approach to the current German integration and migration policy (Angenendt & Bendel 2017; Ohliger & Mesghena 2017; Erler & Gottstein 2017). It aims for an overarching organization of technical, conceptual and administrative processes in politics, administration and civil society within one policy field. Improved information management and/or organizational-structural changes are intended to achieve better cooperation, coordination and communication (Erler & Gottstein 2017:159). A cooperation between politics, administration (nationwide and communal), labour market (Jobcenter), social security systems, NGOs and civil society, which bundles all information “under one roof”, should be part of the application of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. An already existing approach is to be listed here as an example: at the beginning of 2016 the Federal Employment agency in North Rhine- Westphalia set up 47 “integration points” in which all contact persons and services for the labour market and social integration are bundled (Aumüller 2016:24). The work of the integration points consists of the following elements: identity verification, clarification of residence status, data recording, clarification of language skills, educational qualification check, and labour market profiling (Schüßler 2016:5). The “Integration Points” are a network of the role-players involved in labour market and social integration (assurance of livelihood). For an implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory, this method should be extended to all dimensions of integration. There are still a few important points to take into account when implementing the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. All integration partners (locals and migrants) should be well trained. They should know the fundamentals of German migration and integration laws and 136 be able to apply and use the method to determine capabilities. In addition, it is essential that both integration partners have access to a clear, helpful and fast source of information when they need activate the integration process. Recommendation for further research At this point two recommendations for further research are suggested: The first proposal specifically refers to the implementation of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory. The theory described in this chapter relates to the capabilities of immigrants and not to the capabilities of the resident society. It was also demonstrated in this work that both the immigrants and the resident society are part of the integration process and may need help with the practical implementation of integration (see Therefore the same approach should be applied to the capabilities of the resident society. The question of such a research could be: What capabilities does the resident society need to enjoy and be dedicated to intercultural openness? Are these available for the resident society? If not or insufficient: What kind of social, political and or economic conditions are needed for the German host society to realize positive encounters with immigrants and for prejudices to be dismantled? The second proposal expands the first by researching “integration for all” in the sense of Post-Migration89 and not as researching the integration of immigrants or the integration of the resident society. It is well summed up by Naika Foroutan in an interview with the Süddeutsche Zeitung when she expresses her opinion that disintegration is always destructive for a society, no matter who turns away from the society. She concludes that migration does not necessarily lead to being left behind in society and being German does not necessarily lead to integration in society (Braun 24.01.2018:n.p.). In this sense, further research could be concerned with what “integration for all” on the basis of the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory could look like. A research question could be: What capabilities must be combined with a social, political or economic condition for the individual German person to be able to participate in society or live the life that he/she wishes to live. 89 For more details about Post-Migration see 1.9 Clarification of key terms. 137 7.6 Conclusion This study was started with the question: Can Heckmann’s theory, which is developed for the German context, be complemented by the Capabilities Approach – according to Martha Nussbaum − in order to change the focus toward the capabilities of the refugees? To answer this, the context of the migration was first presented in Chapter 2. Thereafter, the two theoretical frameworks (integration, empowerment) and the methodology of this study, were explained. By presenting the two theories that are to be combined in this work and their respective reference to integration, it became clear which part of Heckmann’s integration theory could benefit from a supplementation with Nussbaum’s approach. By putting Nussbaum’s Theory in relation to the four dimensions of integration it became clear that the Capabilities Approach can serve as a supplementation or basis of an integration theory. It also became evident that the Capabilities Approach can compensate the missing focus on the capabilities of the refugees in Heckmann theory. In addition, an integration theory based on the Capabilities Approach can foster the empowerment of immigrants. In this chapter a possible combination of the two theories has been presented, which can serve as the basis for a changed integration practice. This changed practice would value the refugee and his/her capabilities and at the same time provide conditions required for the integration process. By not looking exclusively at what the immigrant can do but also at what civil society and/or politics have to do in social, political and or economic terms for integration to become possible, the unfair burden of responsibility is alleviated for immigrants. The recommendations on how the Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory could be implemented in practice include references to already existing approaches that go in the same direction. A complementation of the Capabilities Approach and Heckmann’s Integration Theory is theoretically possible. The Capabilities-oriented Integration Theory meets a lot of requirements that are proposed in the Migration- and Integration studies. Furthermore, it has the advantage of empowering the individual immigrant to become a valued and active participant in the integration process. The immigrant himself/herself can define integration goals that he/she considers valuable, which leads to voluntary integration and does not require assimilation.

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This book is a reaction to the “refugee-crisis” in 2015 and the ensuing demand of science and practice for a stronger focus on the potentials and abilities of refugees in the integration process. To direct the focus of integration theories away from the weaknesses and towards the capabilities of the refugees, Heckmann’s Integration Theory – based on a comparative analysis – is related to Nussbaum’s Capabilities Approach via interlinking both theories. The results show that an integration theory with the focus on the capabilities of the refugees empowers the individual immigrant to become a valued and active participant in the integration process. This study was researched using the situation in Germany as an example, but the results are transferable to social integration contexts in other countries as well and may give non-governmental organisations, social workers and government agencies an orientation for their future aid programming.