Content

Titelei/Inhaltsverzeichnis in:

Cansu D. Burkhalter

Legal and Regulatory Framework of European Energy Markets, page I - XXXVIII

Competition Law and Sector-Specific Regulations

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4429-2, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7440-4, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828874404-I

Series: Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag: Rechtswissenschaften, vol. 127

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe Rechtswissenschaft Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe Rechtswissenschaft Band 127 Cansu D. Burkhalter Legal and Regulatory Framework of European Energy Markets Competition Law and Sector-Specific Regulations Tectum Verlag Abdruck der der Rechtwissenschaftlichen Fakultät der Universität Zürich vorgelegten Dissertation. Cansu D. Burkhalter Legal and Regulatory Framework of European Energy Markets. Competition Law and Sector-Specific Regulations Wissenschaftliche Beiträge aus dem Tectum Verlag Reihe: Rechtswissenschaft; Bd. 127 Zugl. Diss. Universität Zürich 2019 © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2020 ePDF 978-3-8288-7440-4 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-4429-2 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) ISSN 1861-7875 Alle Rechte vorbehalten Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum-verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.d-nb.de abrufbar. Foreword It is impossible to name all the people who have contributed to this thesis. I am very grateful to my main supervisors Prof. Dr. Rolf Weber and Prof. Dr. Andreas Heinemann who have guided and supported this project from the start. Their supervision and comments on the various drafts of chapters are greatly appreciated and have improved the final product markedly. I must express my very profound gratitude to Hélène Koller for providing me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement. This accomplishment would not have been possible without her. Her valuable input and rich experience have truly made this thesis a viable and original piece of academic work. I also would like to thank my mother, Prof. Dr. Emine Koban, for patiently answering all of my queries on how to write a better PhD thesis. I reserve a very special note of thanks to my husband (Tim Burkhalter) for his extensive support, encouragement and unconditional love. My special thanks are extended to my parents (Emine and Engin Koban), parents-in-law (Theres and Thomas Burkhalter) and friends as well as colleagues for their support and endless patience. V Inhaltsverzeichnis List of Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIII Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 The Fundamentals of Energy Markets and Energy Companies . . . . . . . . . . . .Part 1 7 Distinction of Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 1. 7 Coal Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 8 World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 8 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 9 Oil and Natural Gas Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 11 Oil Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 11 World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 11 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 14 OPEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 14 Natural Gas Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 16 World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 16 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 17 Electricity Market . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 19 World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 19 Europe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 21 Organisational Distinction of Energy Undertakings. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 2. 22 Public Undertakings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 22 State-owned Undertakings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 22 Municipal Utilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 25 Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 27 Privately Held Undertakings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 30 VII The European Union’s Energy Acquis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part 2 31 Origins of the Energy Acquis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 3. 31 European Coal and Steel Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 31 Euratom Treaty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 36 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 37 Energy Acquis on Sectoral Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 4. 42 Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 42 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 42 Expiry of the European Coal and Steel Community Treaty . . . . . .1. 42 State-Aid Regulations for Coal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 44 Directive 2009/31/EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 48 Carbon Capture and Storage Technologies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 48 The CCS Directive. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 50 Natural Gas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 51 Directives concerning Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 51 Directive 91/296/EEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 51 Directive 98/30/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 52 Directive 2003/55/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 56 Directive 2009/73/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 59 Regulations Concerning Natural Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 62 Regulation 1775/2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 62 Regulation 715/2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 63 Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 65 Directives concerning Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 65 Directive 90/547/EEC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 65 Directive 96/92/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 66 Directive 2003/54/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 72 Directive 2009/72/EC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 76 Regulations concerning Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 80 Regulation 1228/2003 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 80 Regulation 714/2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 81 Renewable Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV. 83 Directive 2001/77/EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 83 Directive 2003/30/EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 84 Directive 2009/28/EC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 85 Inhaltsverzeichnis VIII Competition Law and Sector Specific Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part 3 89 Relations between Competition Law and Sector-Specific Regulations . . . . . .§ 5. 89 The General Notion of Competition and Competition Law. . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 91 The Concept of Competition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 91 The Concept of Competition Law. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 93 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 93 Competition Law in the EU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 94 The General Notion of Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 98 The Concept of Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 98 The Concept of Sector-Specific Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 102 Differences between Competition Law and Sector-Specific Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III. 103 Structural Differences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 103 Institutional Differences. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 107 Allocation of Competencies between Competition Authorities and Sector-Specific Regulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IV. 111 Exclusive Jurisdiction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 112 Concurrent Jurisdiction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 114 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 116 Application of Competition law in Regulated Sectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 6. 118 Deutsche Telekom. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 119 TeliaSonera. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 123 Telefónica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 125 Orange Polska . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV. 128 Competition in the European Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part 4 133 Sector-Specific Rules for Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 7. 133 Unbundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 134 Unbundling in Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 137 Ownership Unbundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 137 Independent System Operator (ISO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 140 Independent Transmission Operator (ITO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 141 Unbundling in Distribution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 143 Accounting Unbundling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 143 Functional Unbundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 144 Inhaltsverzeichnis IX Legal Unbundling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 145 Third-Party Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 146 Types of Third-Party Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 148 Regulated Third-Party Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 148 Access to Upstream Pipeline Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 150 Negotiated Third-Party Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 151 Refusal of Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 151 Exemption of Third-Party Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 154 An Overview of the EU Competition Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 8. 156 European Anti-Cartel Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 156 Article 101 TFEU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 156 Article 102 TFEU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 158 State Aid Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 161 Merger Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 164 Decisional Practice (Jurisprudence) in Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 9. 167 Article 101 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 167 Joint Selling: GFU. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 167 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 167 Preliminary Assessment and Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 168 Joint Marketing: DONG/DUC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 170 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 170 Preliminary Assessment and Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 171 Market Sharing: E.ON/GDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 173 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 173 Preliminary Assessment and Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 174 Non-Competing: EPEX Spot and Nord Pool Spot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. 177 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 177 Preliminary Assessment and Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 177 Article 102 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 179 Exclusionary Abuses (Network Related Foreclosure) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 179 Capacity Hoarding: RWE, ENI and ČEZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 179 Long Term Capacity Booking: GDF Suez and E.ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 191 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 199 Exclusionary Abuses (Customer Foreclosure). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 206 Distrigas. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 206 EDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 209 Inhaltsverzeichnis X Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 212 Exclusionary Abuses (Destination Clauses) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 214 BEH. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 214 Gazprom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 216 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 220 Exploitative Abuses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. 223 E.ON Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 223 Swedish Interconnectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 226 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 230 Article 107 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .III. 234 PreussenElektra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 234 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 234 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 235 EDF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 237 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 237 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 237 Merger Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IV. 241 ENI/EDP/GDP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A. 241 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 241 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 242 E.ON/MOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B. 243 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 243 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 244 GDF/Suez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C. 247 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 247 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 248 EDF/British Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .D. 249 Subject Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 249 Decision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 250 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Part 5 253 Liberalisation of EU Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 10. 253 Development of the Regulatory Framework. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .I. 253 Assessment on the Current State of the Liberalisation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .II. 259 Sector-Specific Regulations and Competition Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 11. 262 Competition in Energy Markets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .§ 12. 266 Inhaltsverzeichnis XI List of Abbreviations ACER Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators bcm billion cubic metres BER Block Exemption Regulation CCS Carbon Capture and Storage CDM Clean Development Mechanism CFI European Court of First Instance CHP Combined Heat and Power Generation CJ Court of Justice (European Court of Justice) CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CO2 carbon dioxide CRM Capacity Remuneration Mechanism DG COMP Directorate-General for Competition DSO Distribution System Operator EC European Community EC Treaty Treaty establishing the European Community ECSC European Coal and Steel Community EEA European Economic Area EEA European Environment Agency EEC European Economic Community ENISA European Union Agency for Network and Information Security ENTSO-E European Network of Transmission System Operator for Electricity ENTSO-G European Network of Transmission System Operator for Gas ERG European Regulators Group ERGEG European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas ESA Euratom Supply Agency ESTEP European Steel Technology Platform EU European Union EURACOAL European Association for Coal and Lignite EURATOM European Atomic Energy Community EUREL Convention of National Associations of Electrical Engineers of Europe GBER General Block Exemption Regulation XIII IAEA International Atomic Energy Agency IAR International Authority for the Ruhr ICN International Competition Network IEA International Energy Agency IEM Internal Energy Market IGC Intergovernmental Conference InterEnerStat Intersecretariat Working Group on Energy Statistics ISO Independent System Operator ITO Independent Transmission Operator LNG Liquefied Natural Gas MCR Merger Control Regulation NGLs Natural Gas Liquids NOx Nitrogen oxides NRAs National Regulatory Authorities NTPA Negotiated Third-Party Access OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development OPEC Organisation of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OU Ownership Unbundling Para. 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Abstract

Since the beginning of the 1990s, Europe has been struggling to establish a competitive as well as a fully integrated internal energy market. Until the early 1990s, the European energy markets consisted of national monopolies possessing vertically integrated structures. They were also still nationally segregated. Since, the EU has made the decision to open European energy markets to competition and subsequently establish an internal energy market.

The European energy markets are currently controlled by a dual structure consisting of two different regulatory frameworks: competition law and sector-specific regulations. The primary goal of these legal instruments is the establishment of an internal energy market.

This book aims at analysing the development of the European energy markets and policies from the perspective of competition law as well as sector-specific regulations and, hence, identifying the problems regarding the introduction of competition into the energy markets.