14 Europe Needs to Calculate for the U. S. Military’s Shortcomings in:

Maximilian Terhalle

Strategie als Beruf, page 201 - 208

Überlegungen zu Strategie, Weltordnung und Strategic Studies

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4409-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7409-1,

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
201 14 Europe Needs to Calculate for the U. S. Military’s Shortcomings European governments can either think very hard about the obvious implications stemming from the United States’ inability to fight two major powers at the same time or neglect them altogether. “No, Sir!” replied James Mattis in 2017, when asked if the United States could fight two wars simultaneously. Thereby, he had made it unmistakably clear that America could not fight two major powers at the same time. While America’s strategic limitations have not withered away, a serious debate about the implications has not occurred. This has to be recognized as an urgent problem. Putin’s support for Trump during the 2016 election campaign, the latter’s repeated questioning of NATO’s Article 5, the new trade war against China and other crises, including Iran, have all generated news but obfuscated the most vital and simmering question of today: assuming that Mattis is right, how will the United States, if at all, address the empty strategic space created by its decidedly limited capacity to confront and, if necessary, fight China and Russia at the same time? At the moment, Congress views itself as a bulwark against any softening of U. S. policy regarding Russia. The suspicion that some lawmakers have about Trump’s sympathetic relationship with Putin helps, to some extent, compensate for the loss of White House credibility in the eyes of European NATO partners. In fact, while the alliance has seen squabbles amongst its members about its cohesion and strategy throughout, today attaining such cohesion is about alienating the U. S. President from the Kremlin’s leader. Whether or not Congress, or European allies for that matter, will be successful in that endeavor remains to be seen. But such is the central focus of transatlantic attention for now. However, it may be worthwhile to ask whether this is actually still the most useful way of looking at the world’s main strategic theatre. In fact, given that China has been singled out as the United States’ key strategic rival for years to come, there is an urgent need to envision an increasingly likely and substantively different future of strategic affairs. Not the least because if Trump were to escape impeachment and win re-election, which is not improbable, then domestic in-fighting could fizzle. Significantly, this dominant antagonistic U. S. focus on China will require Europeans to devote serious attention to the strategic meaning thereof regarding Russia, bearing in mind Mattis’s straightforward remark. For their part, European states must astutely anticipate its future implications and start shaping events in their own strategic interest now. More precisely, Trump will soon point to China as the overwhelming challenge to America, economically, militarily and, more generally, in terms of “who is the top dog in world politics.” An ongoing trade war, increasingly probable military accidents and a president fiercely drumming up domestic animosity towards China could convince significant parts of the American public that Beijing’s – undeniable – ambitions have become the greatest threat to national security. Once re-elected, it is not unlikely that the president will receive bipartisan support for his exclusive prioritization of China (over Russia). In fact, Trump will likely argue that, in order to allow America to comprehensively focus on China, a rapprochement with Russia is strategi- 202 Maximilian Terhalle | Richard Barrons cally needed and, while not mentioning Mattis, unavoidable. As for the Europeans, they should immerse themselves rather quickly into the study of the implications of America’s exclusive strategic focus on China. Crucially, they should fully exploit the strategic potential of the available room to maneuver between now and 2021 in order to be able to preserve European security and interests. Russia, though, would first need to accept the idea of a rapprochement. As ever hard-nosed diplomats, it is hard to believe that the Russians, after thirty years of perceived humiliation by the West since losing the Cold War, would be smoothly lured into the American offer and have themselves easily divided from their powerful, more ideologically compatible, Chinese partner. Although, the notion of America being in the much longed-for position of having to bargain for Russia’s help, and agreement, in its competition with Beijing could certainly help change the minds of the Russians. In fact, if they came to view this U. S. realpolitik offer as an opportunity to tighten their grip on Europe, and accepted it at last, they would quite logically attach a price to their agreement. Naturally, the Kremlin would stipulate its terms and would clearly hold strong cards in any negotiations about it; such a price will be higher the more intense the competition between the United States and China has become. Rather uncomfortably for the Europeans, such compensation for Russia’s giving up of its alliance with China would come mainly at their expense. Given the prospect of a free hand over Europe, what exactly would Russia’s price be and how would it aim to claim it? Under Putin, Russia’s perceived geostrategic vulnerability has been powerfully historically charged. He reads 1991 as the imposed loss of the strategic buffer zone, which the Soviet Union claimed as compensation for its contribution to victory in World War II. Keeping in mind the many speeches in which Putin has left no doubt that, to him, the end of the Cold War was the worst geopolitical event in Russia’s recent history. One way 203 Europe Needs to Calculate for the U. S. Military’s Shortcomings of reading his intentions is that the restoration of as much as possible of this Warsaw Pact buffer would be a suitable prize. If so, then Putin will have learned lessons from observing the U. S. and British expeditions in Iraq and Afghanistan. They demonstrated very clearly that although it is possible to win territory with military force, holding on to it in the face of an angry and mobilized population is a formidable, very expensive and enduring undertaking. It costs in blood and treasure abroad and in popular support at home as expenses and casualties escalate, as definitive success seems far off and international opprobrium and sanction mounts. Putin may have concluded that Russia cannot hold on to European territory that it has taken by force, where the population does not naturally cleave to Russia and will actively oppose occupation. So, because Putin still firmly believes that he is entitled to a sphere of influence, he may conclude that there are other states, or parts of states, where, under the new circumstances, occupation may be locally tolerated, even welcome. He may identify Moldova, more of Ukraine, and Belarus as prime targets for such partly forced toleration. Putin would likely add areas of the Baltic states to his prize list, especially to regain direct access to the military enclave of Kaliningrad. He would do so if he believes he has the tacit support of enough of the Russian minorities in those areas and if the Baltic states are individually much smaller than Afghanistan or Iraq – or if at least sections of those states are smaller – and may therefore be more easily brought under the Kremlin’s rule or acquiescence. Putin knows that right now Russia has established a slight comparative military advantage over a distracted and sleepy NATO by investing in modern capabilities, such as air and missile defense, long-range precision conventional fires, cyber, and the manipulation of social media at scale. He may feel he can act decisively, keep NATO (especially without major U. S. support) at arm’s-length, and hold European na- 204 Maximilian Terhalle | Richard Barrons tions’ homelands in real jeopardy. So the Kremlin may already sense the ease with which it could breach Article 5 on a strictly limited basis with the military forces that it has. Perhaps Putin could take advantage of the vastly greater political and military challenge NATO would face in mounting a response and act before the long-term implications of Russia’s declining economy and fragile public opinion diminish his ability to seize a moment in history. As a caveat, while it may be accurately assumed that strategic thinking is largely based on a rational cost-benefit analysis, neuroscience reminds us that emotions, such as fear or pride, are absolutely integral to decision- and strategy-making. Given that Russia would for the first time, after more than seventy years, face a Europe that was militarily speaking no longer dominated by American forces, the possibly vast emotional effect on potential Russian decisions should not be discounted. As much as an effective balance of power possesses important psychological elements (of reassurance), a balance that is in the process of breaking apart will most definitely unlock alternative psychological consequences. In particular, Russia may succumb to its own hubris. Propelled forward by an over-confident understanding of its initial edge over European militaries, it might even be tempted to exploit the U. S. withdrawal by employing the doctrine of “escalate to de-escalate” by threatening or even using tactical nuclear weapons. Undeterred by NATO’s now obsolete tripwire, Russia’s military could thereby advance deep into the chosen parts of Europe. Put briefly, Russia’s relative overall material weakness is no absolute guarantee for a rational cost-benefit analysis, if it invests great hope in the early use of its current military advantages. Anticipating a U. S.-Russia rapprochement, how could Europeans seriously affect Putin’s calculations? In the first instance, they could talk to the Americans once more and remind them of the value that friendly 205 Europe Needs to Calculate for the U. S. Military’s Shortcomings coasts provide for sea-based powers, of the significance of the roughly $ 600 billion of investments on the European continent, and of the value of advocating shared values in what is becoming a contest for the order that defines how the world works. Whether this would alter America’s calculations and perceptions of China and Russia when its primacy is at stake, however, can by no means be safely assumed. After all, the Europeans themselves already largely agree with America’s perception of China. If unwittingly, then they have thereby encouraged the pro-Russia logic underlying a U. S. rapprochement strategy. It is hard to see how the Europeans could realistically oppose and deflect such a strategic move on the part of the U. S. president. Nevertheless, by foreseeing the implications of a U. S.-Russia rapprochement today, European NATO members are by no means doomed to being invaded and blackmailed by Russia. Still, time is of the utmost importance. While Russia might make it its sine qua non that NATO dissolves when the rapprochement is put into practice, Europeans are still able to shape the conditions under which they would have to accept the eventual American decision in favor of Russia. As such a decision is most unlikely to occur before Trump’s re-election in 2021, there is still very valuable time left that must be used properly. In particular, Europeans should pursue a twofold and complementary approach in order to interfere with Putin’s calculations. For this to work, they would have to act swiftly. To begin, while the present Russian edge in anti-access area-denial, conventional missiles, and cyber/ social media manipulation is significant, it can be fairly easily blunted. The key to European nations – restoring their own ability to deter and defeat Russian aggression – lies in modernizing and transforming defense and security by the bold, rapid application of combinations of digital age technology. This means rebuilding air and missile defenses to deal with the threat of hypersonic ballistic and cruise missiles (nuclear, and above all, conventional). It also means moving quickly on from capability that depends on the dwindling number of expensive manned 206 Maximilian Terhalle | Richard Barrons platforms and static bases (maritime, land, and air) that are now highly vulnerable (from space) in a transparent battlespace to precision attack. Indeed, Europe needs its own precision long-range missiles and should build conventional armed forces that are a thoughtful mix of smaller, more numerous and agile manned, unmanned, and autonomous capability. It means harnessing secure cloud, data, artificial intelligence, advanced connectivity and vast Single Synthetic Environments to understand, decide and act faster, better and more decisively than Russia. It also means becoming competitive in hybrid or gray-space confrontation, channeling all means of hard, soft (including cyber and social media) and private sector power to advance European interests and values in the face of daily Russian intrusion and destabilization. In parallel, to effectively influence Russia’s predictably heavy-handed, revisionist approach, Europeans should establish a new common nuclear umbrella. Anticipating the moment when U. S. nuclear security will be gone should lead to the realization that the clearly emerging imbalance in terms of nuclear capabilities must be rebalanced by Europe; otherwise, the gates to political blackmailing will be wide open. The great advantage of this strategy, if duly implemented, is that it would credibly (since Europeans would be averse to losing their way of life) affect Putin’s calculations even before the latter starts thinking more seriously about how to execute his plans of claiming his prize for abandoning China in 2021. The crucial point about the new European nuclear umbrella is precisely that it preserves the psychological element in the balance of power vis-a-vis Russia during a time of uncertainty about Europe’s security. It is critical to understand this, as the point made above about the psychological elements of every balance of power equally pertains to the Europeans. In fact, it may be said that while Europeans could, rationally, be expected to stand ever closer together and muster their strengths in light of the United States’ predicted departure, such a psychological shock might also lead to exactly the opposite result: a 207 Europe Needs to Calculate for the U. S. Military’s Shortcomings rapid process of dissolution. Consequently, some members could defect from NATO early on and even bandwagon with Russia. In fact, Europe might, without its hard military and psychological American shell, turn out to be surprisingly malleable. The nuclear umbrella would fundamentally help pre-empt this process of perforating Europe’s cohesion in the wake of the prospect of an anticipated American withdrawal from Europe. The United Kingdom, Germany, Poland and the European Commission will soon choose new leaders. Together with their fellow European governments they have the choice today to either think very hard about the quite obvious implications stemming from the United States’ inability to fight two major powers, or to neglect them altogether. As Kissinger put it in 1965: “[T]here are two kinds of realists: those who use facts and those who create them. The West requires nothing so much as (wo)men able to create their own reality.” Fifty-four years on, there is still nothing to add to his admonition. General Sir Richard Barrons KCB CBE served as Commander Joint Forces Command until April 2016. He is Co-Chairman of Universal Defence & Security Solutions. 208 Maximilian Terhalle | Richard Barrons

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Thinking and making strategy serve states’ vital interests. Innately bound up with power, strategy devises a future that reflects vital interests, using its willpower to protect them. Unprecedented, “Strategy as Vocation” introduces Strategic Studies while also offering Germany practical strategies.

The book contains articles in German and in English.


Strategisches Denken und Handeln dient vitalen Interessen. Es verlangt den Blick auf die Macht – und in eine Zukunft, die diese vitalen Interessen entsprechend widerspiegeln soll. Dies gilt immer, besonders aber, wenn Weltordnungen im Umbruch sind. Strategie als Beruf widmet sich den zentralen Konzeptionen der hierzulande vernachlässigten, wiewohl von Deutschen mitgeprägten Strategic Studies und bietet strategischem Denken und Handeln damit erstmalig Grundlagen auf dem Stand der internationalen Forschung an. Konkrete Strategievorschläge sind integraler Bestandteil des Buches.

Das Buch enthält deutsche und englische Beiträge.

Prof. Maximilian Terhalle (@M_Terhalle) lehrt Strategic Studies an der Universität Winchester, ist mit dem King’s College London affiliiert und berät das britische Verteidigungsministerium. Zuvor hat er einige Jahre an den Universitäten Columbia, Yale, Oxford und Renmin (Peking) geforscht und gelehrt.

Terhalle's insightful, balanced, and perceptive essays bring the tools of strategic studies to bear on a range of current international issues. Theoretically sophisticated and empirically grounded, the analysis will be of great value to both the scholarly and policy communities.”

Prof. Robert Jervis, Columbia University, New York

Maximilian Terhalle gehört zu den frühen Streitern für eine strategische Ausrichtung unseres internationalen Ordnungsdenkens und der deutschen Außenpolitik. Sein scharfsinniges Buch bietet eine klare Analyse der instabil gewordenen Welt. Und zieht daraus konkrete Folgerungen für die Verantwortung Deutschlands und seiner Partner für westliche Werte und Interessen.“

Prof. Matthias Herdegen, Universität Bonn

Maximilian Terhalle is a refreshing independent voice on European and German security policy. There is a pressing need for systematic, clear-eyed, and realistic thinking about Germany’s role in a rapidly changing world, and this wide-ranging collection of essays is an important contribution to a much-needed set of debates.”

Prof. Stephen Walt, Harvard University, Kennedy School of Government

The Germans have, for very understandable historical reasons, long been reluctant to engage in the kind of strategic thinking that comes naturally to the Anglo-Saxon world. Maximilian Terhalle, who is one of the Federal Republic’s most innovative experts in the field, is rightly dissatisfied with this opting out of the real world. His new book is a must-read for anyone who wants to understand modern German strategy, or rather the lack of it, and the need for a National Security Council in the FRG.”

Prof. Brendan Simms, Cambridge University

Drawing on wide reading and with a nod to Max Weber, this thoughtful collection of essays by Maximilian Terhalle demonstrates the importance of strategic thinking and how it can be applied to the big issues of war and peace in the modern world.”

Prof. Lawrence Freedman, King’s College London

Die NATO ist strategisch nicht hirntot. Vielleicht aber bald eines seiner Mitglieder. Wer auch immer Deutschland führen wird, täte gut daran, sich den von Terhalle vorgelegten strategischen Kompass sehr genau anzusehen. Die eventuelle Wiederwahl Trumps und der unwahrscheinliche Machtverzicht Putins und Xis bedürfen nicht nur einer erkennbar europäischen Hand im Kanzleramt, sondern auch eines völlig neuen, eben strategischen Mindsets. Terhalles Konzepte für Entscheider sowie seine konkreten Ideen für die Zukunft westlicher Sicherheitspolitik bieten genau das.“

Karl-Theodor zu Guttenberg, Bundesminister a.D., New York/München

Strategisches Denken fehlt im Land des Carl von Clausewitz in allen Bereichen. In der Politik, der Wirtschaft und der Entwicklung von Leitlinien, wie Europa in einer Welt im Umbruch gestaltet werden sollte. Prof. Terhalles Buch zeigt Grundlagen auf und gibt Anregungen in wesentlichen Feldern der Politik. Es sollte von Entscheidern gelesen und genutzt werden.“

General a.D. Klaus Naumann, ehem. Vorsitzender des NATO-Militärausschusses und Generalinspekteur, München

Can Germany think strategically?’ Indeed, and more broadly, can the European Union become a strategic actor? These questions lie at the heart of Maximilian Terhalle’s no-holds-barred assessment of Europe’s options as the continent faces mounting challenges from both partners and adversaries East, South and West.”

François Heisbourg, Special Advisor, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris

Terhalle has produced a rich and wide-ranging series of essays on some of the enduring and more recent dilemmas of international security. These subtle but piercing reflections are in the best tradition of strategic studies, from Clausewitz to Freedman.”

Prof. John Bew, War Studies Department, King’s College London

A thought-provoking and illuminating series of essays that grapple with some of the toughest and most important questions facing contemporary Germany, Europe, and the United States, written by one of Germany's most forward-looking strategists.”

Elbridge Colby, Principal, The Marathon Initiative, former US Ass’t Deputy Secretary of Defence, Washington D.C.

Das neue Buch von Maximilian Terhalle, Strategie als Beruf, ist ein wichtiger Baustein bei der Grundsteinlegung für die hierzulande vernachlässigten ‘Strategic Studies’. Der Autor bürstet kräftig gegen den Strich und stellt liebgewordene Denkmuster in Frage. Man muss Terhalle keineswegs in jeder Hinsicht zustimmen. Aber wenn Deutschland und Europa tatsächlich die ‘Sprache der Macht’ erlernen wollen, wie vom EU-Außenbeauftragten Anfang 2020 gefordert, wird man nicht umhinkommen, sich mit seinen Thesen auseinanderzusetzen.“

Boris Ruge, Berlin

For too long, Germany’s deafening silence on strategic matters has struck international academic and policy observers alike. This is about to change. Maximilian Terhalle’s realpolitik-based as well as erudite deliberations on the art of strategy, closing with novel practical ideas for Europe’s future strategic security, betray exactly that.”

Prof. Christopher Coker, London School of Economics/LSE IDEAS

In Strategie als Beruf schreibt Maximilian Terhalle mit außerordentlich klarem Blick über Fragen sicherheitspolitischer Strategie und füllt damit ein Vakuum in Deutschland. Seine Ergebnisse sind unbequem für die von der Friedensforschung dominierten Debatten. Jeder, dem die Strategiefähigkeit des Landes und Europas wichtig ist, sollte seine Ideen kennen.“

Dr. Bastian Giegerich, International Institute for Strategic Studies, London

“For over a decade, Western scholars of strategy have almost exclusively focused on the likeliness of the Thucydides trap to emerge between the US and China. Remarkably, while Prof. Terhalle acknowledges their global strategic importance, he spells out what the potential trajectory of their relationship implies for NATO’s European members vis-à-vis Russia. – Realpolitik reigns.”

Prof. Wu Zhengyu, Renmin University, Peking