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The Implementation of Circumstancial Evidence pursuant to the European Union Competition Law, the German Cartel Law and the Indonesian Competition Law, page 305 - 320

1. Edition 2019, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4127-7, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7337-7, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828873377-305

Tectum, Baden-Baden
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C 326/47) Council Regulation No 2821/71 on application of Article 85 (3) [now 81 (3)] of the Treaty to categories of agreements, decisions and concerted practices (Official Journal L 285, 29.12.1971) Council Regulation (EC) No 1215/1999 of 10 June 1999 amending Regulation No 19/65/EEC on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty to certain categories of agreements and concerted practices (Oficial Journal L 148) Council Regulation EC No 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the Implementation of the Rules on Competition Laid Down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty (OJ L 1, 4.1.2003) Legislations 317 Commission Regulation 773/2004/EC of 7 April 2004 relating to the conduct of proceedings by the Commission pursuant to Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty (OJ L 123/18, 27.4.2004) amended by Commission Regulation 1792/2006/EC of 23 October 2006 (OJ L 362/1, 20.12.2006) and by Commission Regulation 622/2008/EC of 30 June 2008 (OJ L 171/3, 1.7.2008) Commission Regulation 330/2010 of 20 April 2010 on the application of Article 101(3) of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union to categories of vertical agreements and concerted practices (Official Journal L 102, 23.4.2010) Decision 2011/695/EU of the President of the European Commission of 13 October 2011 on the function and terms of reference of the hearing officer in certain competition proceedings (OJ L 275/29, 20.10.2011) Commission Notice on the co-operation between the Commission and the courts of the EU Member States in the application of Articles 81 and 82 EC (OJ C 101/54, 27.4.2004) Commission Notice on the definition of relevant market for the purposes of Community competition law (OJ C 372, 9.12.1997) Commission Notice on agreements of minor importance which do not appreciably restrict competition under Article 81(1) of the Treaty establishing the European Community (de minimis) (OJ C 368/13, 22.12.2001) Commission Notice: Guidelines on the effect on trade concept contained in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty (OJ C 101/81, 27.4.2004) Commission Notice: Guidelines on the application of Article 81(3) of the Treaty (OJ C 101/97, 27.4.2004) Guidance on the Commission's enforcement priorities in applying Article 82 of the EC Treaty to abusive exclusionary conduct by dominant undertakings (OJ C 45/7, 24.2.2009) Guidelines on the method of setting fines imposed pursuant to Article 23(2)(a) of Regulation 1/2003/EC (OJ C 210/2, 1.9.2006) Commission Notice on the handling of complaints by the Commission under Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty (OJ C 101/65, 27.4.2004) Commission Notice on informal guidance relating to novel questions concerning Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty that arise in individual cases (guidance letters) (OJ C 101/78, 27.4.2004) Commission Notice on the rules for access to the Commission file in cases pursuant to Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty, Articles 53, 54 and 57 of the EEA Agreement and Council Regulation (EC) No 139/2004, (OJ C 325/7, 22.12.2005) Commission Notice on the conduct of settlement procedures in view of the adoption of Decisions pursuant to Article 7 and Article 23 of Council Regulation 1/2003/EC in cartel cases (OJ C 167/1, 2.7.2008) Commission Notice on Immunity from fines and reduction of fines in cartel cases (OJ C 298/17, 8.12.2006) Bibliography 318 Council Regulation EC No 1/2003 of 16 December 2002 on the Implementation of the Rules on Competition Laid Down in Articles 81 and 82 of the Treaty Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union (O.J. C 326/391 2012) Federal Republic of Germany Gesetz gegen Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 26. Juni 2013 (BGBl. I S. 1750, 3245), das zuletzt durch Artikel 10 des Gesetzes vom 12. Juli 2018 (BGBl. I S. 1151) geändert worden ist Strafprozeßordnung in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 7. April 1987 (BGBl. I S. 1074, 1319), die zuletzt durch Artikel 12 des Gesetzes vom 18. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2639) geändert worden ist Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 2. Januar 2002 (BGBl. I S. 42, 2909; 2003 I S. 738), das zuletzt durch Artikel 4d des Gesetzes vom 18. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2651) geändert worden ist Zivilprozessordnung in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 5. Dezember 2005 (BGBl. I S. 3202; 2006 I S. 431; 2007 I S. 1781), die zuletzt durch Artikel 11 des Gesetzes vom 18. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2639) geändert worden ist Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 23. Januar 2003 (BGBl. I S. 102), das zuletzt durch Artikel 7 des Gesetzes vom 18. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2639) geändert worden ist Gesetz über Ordnungswidrigkeiten in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 19. Februar 1987 (BGBl. I S. 602), das zuletzt durch Artikel 3 des Gesetzes vom 17. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2571) geändert worden ist Verwaltungsverfahrensgesetz in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 23. Januar 2003 (BGBl. I S. 102), das zuletzt durch Artikel 7 des Gesetzes vom 18. Dezember 2018 (BGBl. I S. 2639) geändert worden ist Vergabeverordnung vom 12. April 2016 (BGBl. I S. 624), die zuletzt durch Artikel 4 des Gesetzes vom 10. Juli 2018 (BGBl. I S. 1117) geändert worden ist Gesetz gegen den unlauteren Wettbewerb in der Fassung der Bekanntmachung vom 3. März 2010 (BGBl. I S. 254), das zuletzt durch Artikel 4 des Gesetzes vom 17. Februar 2016 (BGBl. I S. 233) geändert worden ist Bundeskartellamt, Notice no. 9/2006 on the immunity from and reduction of fines in cartel cases (Leniency Programme 7 March 2006) Bundeskartellamt, Guidelines for the Setting of Fines in Cartel Administrative Offence Proceedings (25 June 2013) Bundeskartellamt, Notice no. 18/2007 on the Non-Prosecution of Cooperation Agreements of Minor Importance1 (“de minimis Notice”) of 13 March 2007 Legislations 319 Republic Indonesia The Law Number 5 year of 1999 concerning the Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition The Indonesian Law Number 8 year of 1981 concerning Criminal Procedure (KUHAP) The Indonesian Civil Code (Burgerlijk Wetboek 1847) The Indonesian Law Number 19/2003 concerning the State-Owned Company (Badan Usaha Milik Negara) The Indonesian Law Number 25/1992 concerning the Cooperative (Kooperasi) The Indonesian Law Number 40/2007 concerning the Limited Liability Company (Perseroan Terbatas-PT) The Indonesian Law Number 25/2000 concerning the Foundation (Yayasan) Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Dagang (Wetboek van Koophandel voor Indonesie S. 1847–23) The Government Regulation (Peraturan Pemerintah-PP) Number 75 year of 1999 concerning the Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) The Indonesian Supreme Court (MARI) Regulation Number 03 year of 2005 on Procedures for Appeal of Law against the Decision of KPPU The Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) Regulation Number 04/2010 concerning the Guideline for Implementing Article 11 on Cartels. The Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) Regulation Number 01/2010 concerning the Procedure for Handling Competition Violation Cases. The Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) Regulation Number 04/2009 concerning the Guideline for Administrative Sanction according to Article 47. The Indonesian Supervisory Commission for Business Competition (KPPU) Regulation Number 01/2019 concerning the Guideline for Handling Antimonopoly and Unfair Business Practices Cases United States of America The Sherman Act 1890. The Federal Trade Commission Act 1914. The Clayton Act 1914. Bibliography 320

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Abstract

Notwithstanding the two decades that have passed since the implementation of Law Number 5 on the Prohibition of Monopolistic Practices and Unfair Business Competition in 1999, the Indonesian Competition Authority or Komisi Pengawas Persaingan Usaha (“KPPU”) continues to face profound difficulties in uncovering cartel activities and thus in imposing penalties. Therefore, the KPPU strives to use circumstantial (indirect) evidence in its judicial practice to prove cartel transgressions. In German Cartel Law, EU Competition Law and in the US Antitrust practice, the courts also employ indirect (circumstantial) evidence, namely ‘facilitating practices’ and ‘plus-factors’, to substantiate cartel infringements. This book compares the different approaches to implimenting indirect (circumstantial) evidence in the Indonesian Competition Law to the German and European Competition Law, both from a procedural as well as a substantial law perspective.