Content

Cagla Ediz, A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 in:

Alptekin Erkollar (Ed.)

Enterprise & Business Management, page 115 - 140

A Handbook for Educators, Consultants, and Practitioners

1. Edition 2020, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4255-7, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7230-1, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828872301-115

Series: Enterprise & Business Management

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Cagla Ediz A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 Learning Objectives The aim of this chapter is to analyze changing processes, advantages and disadvantages of these changing processes within the implementation of 4.0 technologies in a factory. Once you have mastered the materials in this chapter, you will be able to: – Discuss the basic parameters of Industy 4.0. – Identify current situation of cold chain management of a dairy factory. – Asses the current situation of the cold chain management processes. – Explain future expectations of the cold chain management processes. – Evaluate threats coming with Industry 4.0. Chapter Outline The need to meet specific demands from companies and individual consumers more quickly and to achieve better quality product and services has led to emergence of Industry 4.0 in the light of new technological developments. However, for industry 4.0, certain minimum standards, such as transparency and traceability, initially have to be fulfilled. Furthermore, problems such as costs, education and technological infrastructure deficiencies, which are obstacles in transition to industry 4.0, must be solved. The transition to industry 4.0 application is a long-term process and many companies are spreading this transition over time and so it takes place in stages. In this chapter, the level of transition of cold supply chain processes to industry 4.0 will be ex- 115 amined in a dairy company. In this regard, which industry 4.0 technologies are used in the related processes and the problems experienced during the implementation phase as well as improvements that could make industry 4.0 more efficient and widespread will be discussed. Keywords Industry 4.0, Cold Chain Management, threats of Industry 4.0, Intelligent Systems, IoT, Customized Services and Products. Introduction Every year, tons of food is wasted due to processing outside the cold supply chain standards. On the other hand, many people get sick or die due to distorted food consumption. In order to eliminate the problems related to cold supply chain in food, some regulations have been made by various private and official institutions. When making these arrangements, many parameters possibly effecting food are considered. In this sense, the temperature values that must be in cold supply chain as well as the standards of vehicles and equipment’s are determined by these regulations. Thanks to new technological developments, it is possible to create more effective mechanisms to carry out cold supply chain processes smoothly. At this point, as in all other industrial processes, industry 4.0 technology has become applicable in cold supply chain processes. Here, the most basic question to be answered in this chapter is that what could be the role of industry 4.0 technology in a cold supply chain process meeting expectation with minimum standards. Before answering such a question, it is necessary to briefly mention the basic methods and concepts used in the industry 4.0 technology. Thus, in the first chapter, basic concepts and parameters of industry 4.0 technology will be discussed. In second chapter how to use industry 4.0 in cold supply chain processes, will be evaluated through a sample dairy product company. In third chapter, in the context of industry 4.0 applications, the current situation of the sample company is evaluated. In the fourth chapter, a future projection has been drawn in terms of industry 4.0 and the future of this technology is discussed. In 1 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 116 the last section, threats and potential problems during the implementation of the industry 4.0 will be evaluated. Basic Parameters of Industry 4.0 In such a period where humanity is experiencing the information age, due to technological developments, the ease of acquiring and transferring information positively affects the business practices driving all industrial areas within the world of economy. (Atzori et al., 2010). During this period, the industry successfully achieved a new transformation. It is accepted that, the first industrial revolution started with the use of steam machines for fabric production; the second revolution began with Ford Model T production and the third revolution started with the use of the first automation system controlled by digital programming (Drath and Horch, 2014; Shafiq et al., 2015; Lu, 2017; Erkollar and Oberer, 2017). It can be said that, fourth industrial revolution where the virtual and the real world merged (Barata et al., 2018) starts with sharing information in real time among people, machines and objects and using this information in controlling and decisionmaking support system for business processes through intelligent software and automation systems (Dombrowski et al, 2017). For this reason, Industry 4.0 includes methods of obtaining and using information for controlling and decision-making processes. This will be possible through the widespread use of information and communication technologies and by achieving a cost-effective ratio compared with other alternative methods. The Principles of Industry 4.0 Technology Technological developments have the ability to direct the desires, demands and expectations of societies.; on the other hand, changing expectations of societies leads to an increasing use of technology. Six different technological developments played an important role in the transition to industry 4.0. These are (Dombrowski et al, 2017; Herman et al, 2016; Sung, 2018): IoT, Big Data, Mobile and Augmented Reality, 2 2.1 2 Basic Parameters of Industry 4.0 117 Additive Manufacturing, Cloud, Cybersecurity. These technologies often play complementary roles in the realization of business processes. For example, IoT technology yields big data. Big Data usually needs the cloud for recording and Cybersecuritie for security. Using these developing technologies extensively for Industry 4.0. is a positive step but development of technology is not enough alone for the transition to industry 4.0. Before using this type of technologies in industry 4.0 processes, a set of minimum standards should be provided. These are (Dombrowski et al, 2017; Herman et al, 2016; Oberer and Erkollar, 2017): Decentralization, Interoperability, Transparency, Traceability, Virtualization, Real time capability, Modularity, Service orientation. With the development of IOT technology, the necessity of recording high-diversity and high-volume data to the sources at different locations arises. This means decentralization of data. To obtain information by using data from different centers and systems, service provider companies need to be transparent and their data must be traceable and usable. Thus, these raw data can be accessed with necessary softwarehardware and used in real time control mechanisms. So, interoperability can be ensured in this way. In addition, these systems should be prepared visually and modularly. Hence, by using such new technologies, it is possible to achieve high operational efficiency and productivity in industry 4.0 (Thames and Schaefer, 2016). Factors Affecting Industry 4.0 Development of technology, changes in social, economic and political life are effective triggering factors in transition to industry 4.0. The main reasons for transition to industry 4.0 are (Lasi et al., 2014): Speed: Need for acting very quickly for design, development and renewal has increased. Decentralization: The need for fast decision-making has reduced the hierarchy, so it has become necessary to make decisions with more decentralized mechanisms instead of single-center decisions. Customization of demands: It is expected that products or services should be produced considering the specific demands. Flexibility: Customization brings need for more flexible business conditions by changing production and service structures. Ecological usage: Peo- 2.2 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 118 ple in the future would prefer resources which are less harmful to environment. Three concepts have great importance for achieving customer satisfaction in Industry 4.0. These are (Hofman and Rüsch, 2017): Accessibility: Customer accessibility to products and services will be ensured using autonomous distribution systems. Digital information: Suppliers should transparently provide data and process traceability to their business stakeholders and customers. This can be achieved through the facilities provided by technology, such as virtual reality and remote control. Digital service: Usage of information management technologies throughout supply chain in Industry 4.0 make digital services possible and in addition to giving feedback for digital services. In terms of companies, technology for industrial management is a tool to earn money and to keep the continuity of earning money legally. On the other hand, customers aim generally to reach desired products and services quickly without paying huge price. Consumers are closely interested in the quality of food (Corallo et al, 2018). In addition, Customers who have environmentalist attitute demand ecological products also. Transition to industry 4.0 has mostly started in order to respond this kind of special customer ‘s demands. Even though it is a desirable revolutionary innovation, so many factors such as costs, employee habits, training and skills are slowing down transformation to new Industrial Revolution era. In order to test all these cases in the transition as well as to analyse effects of Industrial Revolution in cold supply chain processes and problems about them, a dairy company was selected as sample case. So, in the next chapter, cold supply chain processes in a dairy factory will be discussed as a case study. Current Situation of Cold Chain Management in Sample Company As a basic raw material of dairy products, milk contains many bacteria. In addition to beneficial bacteria, there are also harmful bacteria in milk and these harmful bacteria are multiplying faster than beneficial bacteria (Günhan et al., 2006). The preservation of hygiene of milk and other raw materials in the content of dairy products during the supply chain, requires keeping unwanted bacteria formation at acceptable levels. On the other hand, one of the most important factors in develop- 3 3 Current Situation of Cold Chain Management in Sample Company 119 ment of the bacteria in milk is temperature. For this reason, a healthy cold supply chain has critical importance to prevent the proliferation of harmful bacteria that adversely affect quality of dairy product. Milk Supply Process of Sample Company Milk required for production in the factory is provided from farm centers or villagers. Here, in order to understand how milk is obtained in these farms, a sample milk farm is selected. This sample farm uses modern technologies for milking cows. Thanks to advanced technology, cows are monitored by electronic units tied their ankles. These devices, called pedometers, have accelerometer sensor, microcontroller, voltage regulator, battery and RF transmitter modules. Pedometers detect cow's feeding and movements, through accelerometer sensors, transform these analogue data using microcontrollers and send from their RF transmitters to a RF receiver. Afterwards another microcontroller transforms these received data into digital data and sends them to computers (Ozguven and Tan, 2017). This system, tracking cow behavior, detects angry or diseased cows and automatically separate them from other cows when necessary. There is a rotating platform for milking cows in sample farm. Cows placed on this platform are connected to the milking machines with human help. How many liters of milk are collected from each cow is measured during milking. Another important practise in sample farm is detecting of mastitis. If a cow has a mammary inflammation, the milk obtained from it transmits electricity so mastitized milks can be detected using this principle. If mastitis is detected, system automatically stops milking. There is also a system for milk cleansing in the farm and after milking which automatically cleans the surfaces on which milk is passing. In sample farm, since cows and milk data are generally shared through web-based programs, it is possible to access these data by phones, tablets, etc. (Suru Yonetimli Buyukbas Sagim Sistemleri, accessed on 2.6.2018). However, this kind of farms with advanced technology are extremely low. Generally, most of farms have not any technological systems except electronical milking systems as shown in Fig. 1. 3.1 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 120 Milking System in a Farm After milking, the temperature of milk is generally at approximately 35°C. It should be reduced below 5° C in 3 hours in order to increase the shelf life of the milk. Also, the principles of cold chain should be protected along transfer of milk. For this reason, milk is collected from farms in the morning and evening by using a standard route. So, villagers can milk their cows according to these standard collecting. During collection of milk from farms, only supplier name and weight of milk are recorded and all collected milk from different farms are combined in the same milk tanker. In this case, if there is a problem about some of collected milk, all of the milk in the tanker can be affected. After that those tankers are transported to the nearest milk collection centre. The officer at the milk collection centre receives milk from milk collectors. Milk collectors are also responsible for maintenance and cleaning of their vehicles. After each carrying, milk collectors clean their tankers under the control of milk collection centre officer. They have to record what time they cleaned their vehicles and what materials they used for cleaning. Acceptance of Milk and Milk Processing After coming to factory, milk in tanker is weighed first and then mixed by an employee to make a homogeneous distribution for its components. Meanwhile a sample from milk is collected and sent to laborato- Figure 1 3.2 3 Current Situation of Cold Chain Management in Sample Company 121 ry for analysing (Fig. 2). After various tests such as PH, oil, water, antibiotic and temperature, milk is accepted by the company. If analysed milk has acceptable values and if drivers submit a document which indicates that the milk has been at expected temperature during transportation, it is assumed that cold chain for this transport was protected. Milk sampling from milk tankers After these controlling stages, milk cooling process starts. Different methods can be applied for cooling milk. The most two preferred methods for cooling large amounts of milk are using cooling tanks or plate heat exchangers (TC Milli Egitim Bakanligi, 2013). In sample factory, after being tested, milk is transferred to cooling tanks. Temperature of the milk in cooling tanks is kept at a constant level. Afterwards, milk is sent to production lines by means of pipes established among the cooling tanks and the production lines. Then milk combines with other raw materials and transformed into dairy products such as white cheese, yoghurt and butter. After production, employees put products to pallets and transport these products to cooled storages. There are temperature control sensors connected to the wi-fi in these storages. Temperature data are sent to database of the service provider company. Figure 2 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 122 Distribution of Dairy Products For making a healthy distribution, the company set up temperature measurement systems in warehouses and vehicles, also set up CAN Bus systems for product transportation vehicles. CAN Bus systems and temperature sensors in vehicles send data to service provider company by using GSM. The company having these systems gives opportunity to query and report from its database for its customers through webbased software (Fig. 3). In addition to this, when incoming data exceeds desired values, this information is sent to the factory workers by e-mail. An image from web-based logistics program used in company The sources of queries provided by the firm can be classified under three main headings like that; CAN Bus system, GPS and temperature sensors. CAN Bus (Controller Area Network Bus) System Bus systems has been developed for communicating the devices with each other in the vehicle. The firm which is setting up logistics tracking system for the sample company, uses CAN Bus systems in its electronic units. CAN Bus system is a protocol developed to enable many devices on the vehicle to communicate with each other through a single cable (Muneeswaran. A., 2015). CAN Bus system prevents cable mixing in- 3.3. Figure 3 3.3.1 3 Current Situation of Cold Chain Management in Sample Company 123 side vehicle and provides an economical and reliable system for device communication (Kara, 2009). By using CAN Bus system, company employees mainly monitor the following information: Speed of the vehicles, Rapid acceleration and braking data, Climate information, Fuel consumption during idle and cruising, Axle weights. During sudden acceleration and hard brake, both vehicle and food in the vehicle may be damaged. Using sudden acceleration and hard brake data provided by CAN Bus systems, make it possible to take records about damaged products during transport and to take necessary measures. In addition, since drivers know that these records are stored in a database, they can use vehicles more carefully and by this way maintenance costs reduce. By using CAN Bus systems, information such as when fuel tank cover is opened and how long it has been open can be seen. On the other hand, fuel levels of vehicles also can be obtained from sensors in fuel tanks. These systems ensure traceability of when and how much fuel is bought, so that any fuel hijacking can be prevented. It is also possible to follow information about the range of the vehicle and whether fuel is wested or not. GPS (Global Positioning System) GPS clocks continuously send their signals to earth. GPS receivers around the world calculate their position on the earth by evaluating data from different GPS clocks. GPS receivers embedded in logistics vehicles also identify online locations of related vehicles. In the sample company, GPS systems are installed in the vehicles transporting products. Data obtained from GPS systems in vehicles are sent to database through GSM. On the other hand, the service providing company offers reports to sample company through web-based program. To query from web based program, it is necessary to enter start and end times to the program and the following reports can be generated related with GPS data: Location information of the selected vehicle over previously defined time-frequency ranges, Start position, end position, duration, maximum speed and idle time for each cruise of the selected vehicle Idling and parking times with locations for selected vehicle, How many kilometres the vehicles travel in total, display of last position of vehicles on the map (not related with start and end times). 3.3.2 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 124 Cruise route for selected vehicle and time interval Temperature and Moisture Sensors Temperature and moisture sensors generally are located in warehouses or transportation vehicles. For internet connection of sensors, warehouses use wifi or ethernet cables. On the other hand, sensors in vehicles, are integrated with CAN Bus systems and send data via GSM. If data value received from these sensors is out of required limits, an email is sent to relevant persons to warn them about the problem. Current Situation Assessment In the sample company, employees use data records from many sensors to take some decisions. In addition, manpower in milk transport is reduced through a system based on automation established in the factory. However, when the sample company’s cold supply chain process is evaluated in terms of Industry 4.0, it is seen that it has not yet reached the appropriate level. Thus, opportunities provided by Industry 4.0 have not yet been utilized. The reasons of this can be listed as follows: The service provider company does not want to share its database: The service provider company which sets the logistics tracking systems in the sample company, stores data from CAN Bus systems, Figure 4 3.3.3 4 4 Current Situation Assessment 125 GPS systems in vehicles and sensors in warehouses, in its own database. In this case, it does not open its database to sample company in an inquarible way. That is to say, in this case transparency, one of the basic principles of Industry 4.0 is not provided. Instead, service provider company offers a web-based program developed by its own software experts to its customers and enables them to report their data from here. One reason for this can be that the service provider company may not want direct access to its database by its customers because it stores data from different customers in the same database. In this case the firm may be worried about its customers’ information could be obtained by other customers. However, since companies can’t access this database from their own system, integration of data with ERP system in these factories become impossible. Therefore, data first can be taken through web-based program prepared by the service provider company and then it can be transformed to ERP system used by sample company. Thus, real time, which is another core process of 4.0, cannot be provided. In order to prevent this, decentralization must be done to record data and transparent of data should be provided so that each customer can access its own database. One-sided Data Flow: One of the basic technologies in Industry 4.0 is IoT. IoT is an internet communication network system where objects are linked to each other or to larger systems. Some objects in cold chain management of the company send data to take some decisions. In the sample company, however, data go one-way only. For example, it is possible to receive data when temperature is out of desired level by e-mail or reporting but there is not an intelligent decision support system to control temperature. Failure to provide digital traceability. Traceability can be classified as follows: Product Traceability: Traceability is defined as "the ability to trace the history, application or location of which is under consideration" in the International Standard Organization (ISO) 9000 quality standards (Olsen and Borit, 2012). It is compulsory to follow food, especially at every stage of food supply chain through many legal regulations. Labels of party numbers, identifying food produced or packaged on the same conditions and usually found on the package of the product, are used to ensure traceability. RFID technology is used to read product number and party number labels quickly and without the need for manpower. Because RFID labels are too expensive compared A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 126 to barcode labels, barcode systems are used during stock movements in the sample company. During the transfer of products to outside of factory, they generally use hand terminals and record product and lot numbers, dealer or customer numbers to these hand terminals. Since the data of previous day is transferred to ERP system, real time cannot be provided. In addition, traceability in this system depends on employees doing their job properly. It would be problem if an employee forgets to read a barcode or reads wrong bar code. For this reason, traceability is not achieved at the desired level in terms of transport of products and materials. Traceability of customer demands: In sample company they wanted to create a smart system that would record customers' demands and direct production accordingly. But this smart system could not be practiced because it was impossible to change some employees ‘old habits. In the current situation, customer ‘s demands come to the company via telephone or mail and production plans are prepared according to the decisions of the persons in the planning department. Following money: Account movements which have monetary value are recorded into ERP system by employees. In future, when ERP systems are integrated with banks, customer and supplier records, system entries by employees will be greatly reduced. Other traces: Follow-up of employees, follow-up of works, quality monitoring based on products and methods, monitoring of equipment are recorded by the employees. So, automation is not provided yet. Use of the human factor for operations: With Industry 4.0, it is anticipated that people will work in administrative and strategic decision-making stages, while processes based on muscle power will leave to robots or automatic machines (Benešová and Tupa, 2017). However, in the sample company, employees have a lot of operational works, such as milking, transportation, production, distribution and sales of milk and dairy products (Fig.5). Frequent breakdown of installed integrated systems: There are frequent problems related with electronic devices used in the company’s processes. Since companies establishing these electronic devices are new in the sector generally, they do not have required experience. For all these reasons, although technology is partially used in the cold chain processes, it is seen that these processes are not at Industry 4.0 level. 4 Current Situation Assessment 127 Milk Collection Process of the sample company Future Expectations It is not possible to use all concepts and elements of Industry 4.0 that are found in future implications (Hofman and Rüsch, 2017). However, concepts and elements of Industry 4.0 guide us and give us an idea about the future. By using Industry 4.0 elements, possible developments in cold supply chain in future can be grouped into five main categories. Traceability of Product and Service Using RFID One of the base processes of Industry 4.0 is traceability. Undoubtedly RFID (radio frequency identification) is an increasingly widespread technology for traceability. RFID is a generic name given to the systems in a place which receive digital information of moving objects using short-range radio waves (Bouzakis and Overmeyer, 2012). Generally, RFID technology is used to track products in transportation and storage activities. In farms using advanced technology, the pedometer in cow's feet, are used for cows' follow-up through RF. RF technology is supported by different devices and algorithms to make observations Figure 5 5 5.1 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 128 about the movements of cows on the farms. However, outputs of these systems do not have 100% accuracy. For example, there is an average 10% margin of error in the detection of activities such as stopping, lying, walking activity (Ozguven, 2016). In future it is expected that these systems will work with higher accuracy percentages. In addition, number of farms will increase greatly using Industry 4.0. In current situation there is no use of RFID except some developing farms. In the future, it is expected that online traceability will be possible for the companies thanks to RFID readers in vehicles and warehouses. Looking at the different sectors, it appears that RFID is not only used for product follow-ups but also for employees and mobile equipment follow-ups. RFID is also used for ease of use and security. For example, with RFID cards they have, vehicle drivers can open the vehicle doors automatically. On the other hand, face-scan systems for employee traceability are more likely to be preferred in the future. Interoperability with IoT and Cyber Physical Systems Cyber physical systems contain sensors, actuators and distributed controllers. Sensors of electronic circuits send data to cloud. Using these data, software programs after deciding various controls, transfer their outputs back to cloud. Actuators reading data at certain time frequency range use outputs of the control software as their inputs and activate their physical systems according to these inputs (Barreto et al., 2017). Thus, CyberSecurity systems work as closed box systems without human intervention. Companies should be more transparent and while integrating their systems to other systems, they must share their data, algorithms and systems. Thus, data can be evaluated instantaneously; IoT technology can be used to trigger necessary controls and decision mechanisms. IoT technology provides interoperability and decentralization. So, if IoT is used in cold chain processes, many decision-making at operational level and activation of control mechanisms are provided with intelligent systems rather than employees. Instead of warning people for problems by email or with sound and light, data will be evaluated with intelligent systems and smart systems will manage objects which prevent problems. For example, electronic devices used in 5.2 5 Future Expectations 129 storages or transport vehicles can determine type of products in vehicles during temperature changings so that the coolers can be operated according to their needs or the doors can be remaining locked for a period of time. Thus, real-time control will be provided. Intelligent Systems In future, applications of intelligent systems and artificial intelligence will be seen more commonly. In its physical environment, every feature that will create value for the customer will be analyzed by sensors and decisions taken in digital environment will direct physical environment (Fleish et al., 2014). By this way desired value ranges can be provided. Intelligent systems used for cold chain management can be classified as follows (Fig. 6). A model for the aims of Intelligent Systems Time savings: Because speed is one of the most valuable concepts in Industry 4.0, intelligent systems will be used commonly for time analysis. Movements, routes and sequences in the logistics and handling 5.3 Figure 6 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 130 processes will be generated as a result of analysis by intelligent systems, thus time spent for these purposes will be reduced. Space savings: Intelligent systems ensure products to be stored in the most efficient manner, thus they allow space for more products. (Tjahjono et al., 2017). Energy Savings: One of the most valuable resources of our age is energy. Intelligent systems will be commonly used in cold supply management to reduce energy consumption in future. For example, electronic sensors in warehouse will analyse and predict how much the products are heated during the transfer, by using air temperature data in internet, product properties and carrier information. So, they can made automatic temperature controls for transferred products. Error Analysis: Intelligent systems will not only use acquiring information through various channels to make decisions, but also, they will question the accuracy of this information. In these processes, different error analyses will be used like artificial intelligence, information comparisons from different media. Thus, unusual situations will be detected, any unaware or deliberate mistakes will be corrected and notification will be given to relevant employees. Future forecasts: Intelligent systems can be used not only for taking structured decisions, but also for taking semi-structured decisions. These intelligent systems will use different parameters of physical environment as well as internet and will improve themselves with artificial intelligence. For example, intelligent systems that know customer’s location, behaviours and habits by monitoring customer data will be used in markets. These systems will also be used to predict and meet customer demands. Robots, Automatic Machines and Unmanned Transportation Vehicles Nowadays, usage of navigation has become very popular. Navigation devices not only calculate the distance to be travelled but also calculate the road traffic by evaluating data received from other navigation devices. Thus, the shortest distance navigated smoothly can be found via navigation. Intelligent systems determining routes will take decisions with more extensive calculations in future. For example, transport vehicles will move by analysing different parameters such as road tem- 5.4 5 Future Expectations 131 perature, road topological and geological structure and customer profile as well as traffic and road information. It will be normal for unmanned vehicles to work with integrated drones. So that, it will be possible to deliver products for any places such as apartment windows or picnic areas in the future. As well as transportation, the other processes like production, transfer and distribution operations will be carried out by robots and automatic machines and so become independent from people. Customized Services and Products Increasing competition conditions lead firms to take much more actions for customer satisfaction in order to stay in the business. This orientation leads firms to work more flexibly and to use more technology. In future, customers will be able to examine products and services they want to purchase using virtual reality. Moreover, using augmented reality, they will be able to see the product designs they have modified and demand personal products. Customization will not be limited only with products, at the same time it will be provided for services. This is also valid for cold supply chain service as a part of industry. That is, customers will be able to track the products they demand from cold chain and be able to make personal demands for product or service. For example, they can determine combination of ingredients for a cake and they can buy this cake in desired shapes and colours. In addition, customers can also ensure that cake they are going to buy is brought to the right place at the exact time. Globalizing Systems By having communities of objects together, Industry 4.0 will allow companies having similar industrial processes to work together. This will reduce transport and warehouse costs. For example, food transport vehicles will report the route, time, temperature and transport capacity via internet. These data will be evaluated by intelligent systems and integration will be provided for transporting different companies' 5.5 5.6 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 132 products on same vehicles. It is also possible to establish new companies that will earn money from such integrations in future. Threats Coming with Industry 4.0 Every technology comes with its disadvantages as well as advantages. Threats arising as a result of industrialization are quite common in this age. Threats possibly seen together with the spread of industry 4.0 applications can be classified as follows: Data Security: Soon after the Facebook data scandal, it is seen that even big companies could experience difficulties in data security. In the cold supply chain, it is not known how much cyber security can be achieved in the use of IoT and cloud in Industry 4.0. If cyber security cannot be ensured, a company's private information can be easily learned by its competitors. In such a case, usage of these information by competing companies to take strategic and tactical decisions will be an unfair situation. In order not to cause such incidents, both private and public institutions should implement necessary measures and regulations to combat cybercrimes. Privacy: The widespread availability of traceability with Industry 4.0 can make it difficult to protect personal privacy. The last actors of the cold supply chain are consumers. Information obtained as a result of monitoring consumer identities and behaviours, can cause an unfortunate use to direct customer behaviours by intelligent systems. Environment and Health: Increased usage of robots, machines, sensors and electronic devices in industry will cause many adverse effects. Consumers mostly concern with the price and quality of products and don’t consider how much the environment is damaged as a result of the production, transportation, storage and cooling of products (Tanrıvermis and Mulayim, 1997). In addition, the increased electromagnetic systems used for communication with Industry 4.0 will also affect the health of not only humans but also plants and animals in a negative way. Difficulty in Finding Qualified Employee: The industry 4.0 brings together instruments from different disciplines and directs them to work together. Lack of qualified persons who know the different disciplines and know how to integrate them will continue to be a problem especially in the beginning of transition to Industry 4.0 (Tupa 6 6 Threats Coming with Industry 4.0 133 et al., 2017). On the other hand, the use of automatic machines and robots to perform operations at the operational level, which requires muscle strength, will make it difficult for future unskilled workers to find work. Technology increment with Industry 4.0, rises the need for technologists like data analysts, software and electronical engineers, system analysts in all sectors. For this reason, it is expected that the curriculums in schools and other educational institutions will be shaped accordingly (Benešová and Tupa, 2017). Difficulties in Determining Responsibilities: In Industry 4.0, the fact that processes are fed from different disciplinary sources has raised the question of how to share responsibilities in an event of a crime. For example, Uber's driverless test vehicle crashed a rider of bicycle in recent times. This event brought debates about who were the responsible for these kinds of accidents. The company producing tool or writing software, service provider such as Uber or owner of vehicle can be guilty in different ratios for this accident (Onat, 2018). Similar problems can be encountered with industry 4.0 and these problems must be solved. Conclusion Intensive use of technology will be an indispensable element of life in the future. As an inevitable consequence of this, industry will revise its business processes according to this so-called developing technology. In order to practice these technological developments, it is necessary to achieve some competencies in business processes such as transparency, traceability and visuality. The realization of an integrated use of resources from different disciplines and different firms depends on provision of these conditions as a minimum. From this point on, Industry 4.0's technology provides person-specific services and products depending on customer’s special demand for speed, quality and cost. In this chapter, the level of the industrialization in the cold chain management responding customer’s expectations is studied. Along with the automation of technology-supported farms providing milk to the sample company, it has been observed that there has been a certain reduction in the manpower used in these processes such as cow management, milking, evaluation of milk quality. However, the number of 7 A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 134 such technology-supported farms remains limited due to high cost of investment and therefore automation is limited only by milk supply. After this stage, transportation and distribution of milk is carried out with manpower. Taking samples and analysis in the company while accepting incoming milk are also done by an employee. After these operations are completed, milk is transferred from the tankers to the cooler store and processes before production such as pasteurization, sterilization start. Although a partial automation has been achieved at this stage, most of the processes in the supply chain are controlled by employees. In addition to this, many muscle-based activities such as transporting the products to the cold storage depots after production, transfers to carrier vehicles for distribution are performed by employees. On the other hand, different technologies such as sensors, CAN Bus and GPS systems are used to ensure traceability which is one of the core processes of Industry 4.0 in cold chain transport. Company employees receive information from these systems via mail or reports. However, intelligent systems that will move objects according to incoming data have not been set up in the sample company yet. For this reason, operational decisions and actions are still carried out by employees. As a result of this study, it is seen that current technological developments are at a level that will enable the applicability of Industry 4.0. In spite of this level of technology, due to the high costs of technological investments and problems about adaptation to the basic concepts necessary to implement Industry 4.0, companies are not able to change the system they have been using in a short time. Transition to Industry 4.0 primarily needs training of multidisciplinary thinking employees. For this aim, education system should be revised and employees should take training in this new system within the scope of new technologies. Secondly companies willing to set up Industry 4.0 systems need to be transparent and share information in such a way that the customer can get the highest benefit. On the other hand, when sharing data with customers, maximum paying attention to privacy is necessary for not jeopardize the data security of other companies. That's why companies providing Industry 4.0 applications must build their databases in a decentralized way and must make investments to realize this. Thirdly, statesmen and scientists also have a variety of responsibilities. Primarily statesmen should be able to see and under- 7 Conclusion 135 stand the problems possible to arise in the future, such as preventing the address confusion probably caused by the use of the Internet by every object and develop standards and sanctions to overcome such difficulties. On the other hand, provision of food traceability is of great importance in terms of protecting people's health and safety. For this reason, it is necessary for states to support the technologies to make the systems cheaper like RFID which increases the effectiveness of food traceability. It is expected that Industry 4.0 understanding and technology will overcome problems and in the near future will spread rapidly. 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Key Terms IoT RFID Interoperability Virtualization CAN Bus Traceability Cyber Physical Systems Robots GPS Transparency Intelligent Systems Cyber Security Questions for Further Study What are the requirements that lead to transition to Industry 4.0? What are the technologies used to distribute dairy products? What benefits do these technologies provide? What are the obstacles to achieving Industry 4.0 in the cold chain management? Which technologies are expected to be used in cold chain management in Industry 4.0 applications? What are the threats coming with Industry 4.0? Exercises Suppose you are an executive in a company that provides Industry 4.0 applications in the cold supply chain. What skills do you want the staff to hire? In the cold chain process, consumers are the last actors and they contribute to the preservation of the cold chain with the refrigerators they A Review on Cold Chain Management for Industry 4.0 138 use in their homes. In the future, what kind of functions will be expected from refrigerators in our homes with the widespread use of Industry 4.0 applications? Please discuss the limits of traceability and transparency for business processes. Further Reading Bukova, B., Brumercikova, E., Cerna, L., & Drozdziel, P. (2018). The Position of Industry 4.0 in the Worldwide Logistics Chains, LOGI – Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics, 9(1). Kamble, S. S., Gunasekaran, A., & Gawankar, S. A. (2018). Sustainable Industry 4.0 framework: A systematic literature review identifying the current trends and future perspectives. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 117, 408– 425. Mikulić, I., & Stefanić, A. (2018). The Adoption of Modern Technology Specific to Industry 4.0 by Human Factor. Annals of DAAAM & Proceedings, 29, 0941– 0946. Shrouf, F., Ordieres, J., & Miragliotta, G. (2014, December). Smart factories in Industry 4.0: A review of the concept and of energy management approached in production based on the Internet of Things paradigm. In Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM), 2014 IEEE International Conference on (pp. 697–701). IEEE. Xu, L. D., Xu, E. L., & Li, L. (2018). Industry 4.0: state of the art and future trends. International Journal of Production Research, 56(8), 2941. Yin, Y., Stecke, K. E., & Li, D. (2018). The evolution of production systems from Industry 2.0 through Industry 4.0. International Journal of Production Research, 56(1–2), 848–861. Further Reading 139

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Abstract

Organizations have always been dependent on communication, information, technology and their management. The development of information technology has sped up the importance of management information systems, which is an emerging discipline combining various aspects of informatics, information technology, and business management. Understanding the impact of information on today’s organizations requires technological and managerial views, which are both offered by management information systems.

Business management is not only about generating greater returns and using new technologies for developing businesses to reach future goals. Business management also means generating better revenue performance if plans are diligently followed.

It is part of business management to have an ear to the ground of global economic trends, changing environmental conditions and preferences, as well as the behavior of value chain partners. While, until now, business management and management information systems are mostly treated as independent fields, this publication takes an interest in the cooperation of the two. Its contributions focus on both research areas and practical approaches, in turn showing novelties in the area of enterprise and business management.

Main topics covered in this book are technology management, software engineering, knowledge management, innovation management and social media management.

This book adopts an international view, combines theory and practice, and is authored for researchers, lecturers, students as well as consultants and practitioners.