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Mozart's Tempo-System in:

Helmut Breidenstein

Mozart's Tempo-System, page 29 - 254

A Handbook for Practice and Theory

1. Edition 2019, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4291-5, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7203-5, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828872035-29

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Mozart's Tempo-System 29 Mozart's Tempo-System I) Mozart's tempo words a) Surviving autographs Tragically, of Mozart's 2,467 movements (or sections of them) with a new tempo, for only 1,576— have a u t o g r a p h t e m p o w o r d s been passed down.— 772 indications (31%) are additions by someone eise (of these, the 275 in the hand of Leopold Mozart belong to the style of the previous generation and must be left out of consideration here.) Contrary to the general principles of the „New Mozart Edition", 70% of the additions by other hands - among them 63 by the editors - are unfortunately n o t marked as such by italics or footnotes.— Moreover these markings are often missing completely in the practical editions.1̂ Thus, in order to be accurate, the interpreter is forced suspiciously to study the Foreword, the Critical Report and the separately edited Corrigenda for 88 % of all tempo indications of the NMA. Nor w ill he al ways find information there about the provenance of the tempo word and (in rare cases) the time signature (C or $)— ; the tempo indications within longer movements are often left unmentioned, there are even grave examples of misinformation.— Professional practice is in urgent need of a supplementary marking of all time signatures and tempo words not from Mozart's hand, as well as an addendum of their sources where these are missing, so that the interpreter no longer has to take anonymous indications or those by the editor for Mozart's. In the digitized edition of the NMA on the internet (see p. 013) this should now be technically possible. b) Significance, sequence, reference to what? All attempts to deduce Mozart's tempo words semantically, or to refer them to the pulse (whose?), to breath or stride, or to force them into proportions, or even to give them over to the deceptive memory of a later generation: in the end all this forced the practical musician to trust in his feeling, his „intuition", influenced by habits of hearing. What is their significance and their sequence from the slowest tempo to the fastest? Musicology has kept on trying to find a universally valid answer to this question, which can, however, be answered only by the practice of each single composer. Is Mozart's L a r g h e t t o slower or ,faster' than Adagio? A n d a n t i n o faster or slower than Andante? A l l e g r o assai slower or faster than Allegro molto? The textbooks of the 18th Century, contradicting each other, do not throw light on that; the way, though, that Mozart used them is absolutely clear. However, one must not regard his tempo words by themsel- — Including 212 passages in recitativi accompagnati, but not including dances, fragments and arrangements. - In the following, parts o f movements w ill also be understood by the term „movement". Since checking the complete Critical Reports of the NMA (May 2009) the figures differ sometimes a little from the indications in my earlier publications. — That is autograph entries in scores, parts, printer's copies or in Mozart's own ,Cataiogue o f all m y Works', where either no autograph score has survived or where it lacks any such indication. For Time signatures and Tempo words in Mozart's ,Catalogue' that differ from the autograph scores see app. p. 270. 125 Only 142 tempo words are in italics, for only 66 a footnote informs: „Leopold's hand" or e.g. „tempo indication from the first edition" . In 38 cases the preface gives information, in 17 cases one is directed to it w ithout result. 125 For instance: 50% of the tempo words in La finta giardiniera K 196, are not autograph; in the full and the piano/vocal scores, however, they are not so marked, and in the Critical Report the source is predominantly not given, suggesting they originate w ith the editor. In La Finta semplice, K 51, indications like „tempo ordinario", „ad. Iib." and „A tempo giusto" are added, none o f which Mozart ever used. In Mitridate, K 87, in spite o f the missing autograph, out o f 39 tempo indications only three are marked by italics as not authentic. Though the autograph of Idamante's rondo „Non temer, amato bene" (Idomeneo, K 366, no. 10b, b. 52=1) has neither a time signature nor a tempo word singer, Violinist and conductor would easily find the right tempo (approximately Andante p) if they were not hindered from doing so by the editor's own too slowaddition „Andante C": a marking o f only apparent logicality which he seems to have taken over from the Recitative, and on which neither Preface nor Critical Report comments. 122 In spite o f the chaos in the 1 7th and 18th centuries surrounding C and p, and in spite of numerous Contemporary complaints about their careless use by copyists and typesetters, the question of the tim e signature is no topic in the Critical Reports of the NMA in cases where the autograph is missing. (See also Breidenstein, Mozarts Tempo-System. Die geraden Taktarten, 2. Teil, in: Mozart Studien Bd. 1 7, 2008, S. 77 ff.) 125 Instead o f the correct „Adagio maestoso" in the scores o f the NMA for the Sanctus in K259 and the Magnificat in K321 - and in spite of the existing autographs - the Critical Reports o f the editors Walter Senn and Fellerer/Schroeder each have „A I I e g ro maestoso"; the autograph Allegro o f the first movement of K 589 is w ithout comment in the Critical Report o f Ludwig Finscher „ A l le g r e t t o " . 30 Mozart's Tempo-System ves and in their general meaning, but - as shown above - always as modifications o f the tempo giusto, defined by metre and smallest note values, and in relation to specific slower or faster pieces. Thorough comparisons of all identical modules (m etre+note values + tempo word) across Mozart's complete works can avoid assumptions129 and wrong conclusions like the assertion of Nikolaus Harnoncourt: „A t that time and in Mozart's circle the tempi - especially the medium ones - were in a different order" [from that of today], namely: „Largo - Adagio - Larghetto/An d a n t i no - Andante - A lleg re tto -A llegro-A I I e g r o assai - A llegrom olto-P resto".130 On the basis of one single - and misunderstood - entry, that for the „Lied zur Gesellenreise", K 468, in Mozart's autograph „Catalogue of All My Works" [Ex. 036, Ex. 037, p. 059], Harnoncourt speaks of „ A n d a n t i n o being close to A d a g i o ; and Mozart uses Andantino predominantly for m e l a n c h o l y pieces."131 Is „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" (Andantino 6/8, Die Zauberflöte no. 7, Ex. 099, Ex. 355) „melancholy" and „close to Adagio"! Is Guglielmo's „Non siate ritrosi occhietti vezzosi" (Andantino 2/4, Cosi fan tutte no. 15, Ex. 237) „melancholy" and slower than Papageno's „Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja" (Andante 2/4, Die Zauberflöte no. 2, Ex. 198, Ex. 235, Ex. 268)? Is the terzetto „Ah taci, ingiusto core" (Andantino 6/8, Ex. 353, Don Giovanni no. 15, Ex. 354) „melancholy" and slower than Pamina's „Ach ich fühl's, es ist verschwun den!" (Andante 6/8, Die Zauberflöte no. 17, Ex. 340)?— Concerning ASSAI Harnoncourt stuck to Brossard's interpretation from 1703 „assai = moderate" ( see p. 0 24 ), and played the eruptive last movement of the G-minor symphony, K 550 (Allegro assai tf, Ex. 091), for his 1983 recording more slowly than the first (M olto Allegro tf, Ex. 087). His explanation: „M olto Allegro $ is Mozart's fastestAllegro, the first movement must therefore be taken faster than the last".133 As mentioned, Mozart's father and teacher said very clearly, on the contrary: „P resto means fast, and A llegro assai is only little different. M o lto A llegro is s o m e w h a t less than A i i fc r o assai."134 With only one exception135 Mozart used the addition ,assai' exclusively for fast movements: 88 times as Allegro assai, 5 times as Allegro vivace assai and 4 times as Presto assai. Especially this last shows that he definitely did not mean moderately fast by it. In the overtures for Der Schauspieldirektor and Figaro he cancelled his original Allegro assai C and replaced it by Presto C. In his „Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke", the autograph catalogue of his works, both are Allegro assai - the difference cannot have been great for him. On the other hand, he replaced his original Allegro assai o f the Credo o f the Coronation Mass, K 317 and of the first movement o fthe G-minor symphony K 550 by the slightly slower M olto Allegro (Ex. 087). In the Finale of Act II o f Figaro from the entry of the gardener, he built up an increase of tempo from Alle gro m olto 4/4 through Allegro assai 4/4 (after an inserted Andante 6/8) to piu Allegro 4/4 and Prestissimo 4/4 (Ex. 178, Ex. 179).— In the famous letter to his father about Die Entführung (The SeragHo) he wrote: „N ow the terzetto [„Marsch fort, fort, fort!", Allegro assai C137], which m ustgo ve ry f a s t And concer ning Osmin's „Erst geköpft, dann gehangen" (Ex. 304): „and because his anger grows and grows, so must the allegro assai make the best effect; for someone who finds himself so violently angry exceeds all decency, measure and limitation, he forgets himself - and so the music must also forget itself."138 According to that, he can hardly have meant Brossard's „prudent m oderation". Mozart's most important tempo word after Allegro was A n d a n t e . For him, as for the above mentioned contemporaries, it was very close to Allegretto. Once in a while he even exchanged the two indications. In the fourth movement of the String Quartet K 421 (in 6/8) for instance - having arived at the dramati- 129 Such as that o f Siegbert Rampe, referring to Neal Zaslaw (1972): „In contrast to obvious assumptions Andantino did not mean a faster, but a slower tempo than Andante until the middle o f the 19th Century. Mozart used the term in this sense w ithout exception." (Mozarts Ciaviermusik, 1995, S. 153). 130 Nikolaus Harnoncourt, „M ozart's Use of Allegro and Andante" in: The Musical Dialogue, 1989, p. 92. 131 Harnoncourt, Dialogue, p. 92. - A comprehensive discussion in: Helmut Breidenstein, Mozarts Tempo-System. Zusammengesetzte Takte als Schlüssel, in: Mozart Studien, vol. 13, 2004, p .6 7 f. — When Mozart took the „Andantino" from a Symphony in D by Paisiel Io for the 3rd movement o f his Divertimento K 166, transposing it up a semitone and slightly revising it, far from „Larghetto", he marked it „Andante grazioso". 133 Harnoncourt, Dialogue, p. 94. 134 Leopold Mozart, VioHnschule (‘School o fV io iin Playing'), p. 48, Musical Technical Terms [app. p. 272]. 135 March no. 2 in K 335 (Maestoso assai 2/4). Figaro, Finale II, b. 467, (605), 697, 783 and 907. A See: Erich Leinsdorf, The Composer's Advocate, A Radicai Orthodoxy for Musicians, 1981, p. 104f. 137 Die Entführung no. 7, b. 98. 138 Mozart's letter o f 26.09.1 781., no. 629 [app. p. 266]. Mozart's Tempo-System 31 cally tightly packed up to six fp per bar (b. 49-52, 57-60 and 65-68) and the 16th triplets in the bars bet ween - he cancelled his original Allegretto and replaced it by Andante. Then - since he had used this in dication already for the second movement - he crossed this out and again wrote Allegretto below. Still later he supplemented this (in lighter ink) by ,ma non troppo' (Ex. 001). - How meticulous! © The British Library Board, Add. 37763, f. 19v. All Rights Reserved 19.08.2011. Ex. 001: String Quartet in D minor, K 421, 4th movement, repeatedly changed tempo words But why did he not simply change the Andante into Andantino („Bei Männern welche Liebe fühlen", Zauberflöte no. 7, Ex. 355), which would have resulted in the same speed? Obviously Andantino would have indicated a different manner of playing from „Allegretto". The third movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata in D, K 306, had in its first Version the indication Andante grazioso con m oto ; in the second Version it is Allegretto (which also shows, by the way, that he conceived g r a z i o s o not in the sense of a stiff rokoko-primness but as asking for a lighter manner of playing and a lighter tempo115). Since Andante meant for Mozart walking in the sense of a forward striving motion, the heightened „Piu Andante" resulted in walkingm ore swiftly. Well known is the case of the „Vaudeville", no. 21a in Die Entführung. It starts Andante $ („Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen", Ex. 055), in bar 64 the furious Osmin increases it to Piu Andante („Verbrennen sollte man die Hunde!"), four bars later to Allegretto („es ist nicht länger auszustehn") and finally through three bars stringendo into Allegro assai 3/4 („Erst geköpft, dann gehangen", Ex. 304). Consequently Susanna's famous M olto Andante 3/8 at her surprising entry from the adjoining room in the second finale o f Figaro („Signore! Cos' e quel stupore?", Ex. 352, Ex. 156b) is in no way meant to be slow, but „lively walking", provoking, „con ironia" (as the stage direction demands) „o f a liveliness that is somewhat mischievous." Quite the loveliest example for me is the second movement of the symphony K 338: Andante di m olto piu tosto Allegretto 2/4. If Mozart meant by this indication „very slow, rather somewhat fast", then he was a fool. The sequence of Mozart's main tempo words: Largo - Adagio - Larghetto - Andante - piu Andante - Andante con m oto - M olto Andante - Andantino - Andantino con moto - Allegretto - Allegro - Allegro vivace - Allegro con spirito - Allegro con brio - Allegro molto - Allegro assai - Presto - Presto assai. Many musicians ask now: „To what do Mozart's tempo indications refer?"— Claudia Maurer Zenck speaks for many: „The only sensible answer is: to the beats,"141 Which are they? Are they the denominators of the time signatures? Obviously not: in Adagio 4/4 one does not count quarter notes but eighth notes (yet not „Adagio", but approximately „Allegretto"); in Allegro 3/8 on the contrary one counts dotted quarter notes at the same speed. The fast $ is conducted in slow ha lf notes, the slow $ in flow ing quarter notes, the allegro 3/4 in whole bars. Counting units and the conductor's beats are nothing other than practical performance aids and have only a limited correlation with the tempo words.151 — Compare the Terzett no 16 in Die Zauberflöte in Allegretto 6/8 (3/8+3/8) metre (Ex. 362) w ith the clearly faster Quartetto no. 22 in Cosi fan tutte w ith the same metre, but Allegretto g r a z i o s o (Ex. 364)! — The term „Tempo indications" is used here in the traditional way. Meanwhile I am using for verbal indications only the term tempo w o r d , since tempo indication comprised in the 18th Century also metre and class of note values. A See also: Helmut Breidenstein, „M ozart's Tempo Indications: W hat do they refer to?", full Version under www.mozarttempi.de/english.htm l. 141 Claudia Maurer Zenck in: Vom Takt, 2001, p. 70. — Georg Göhler 1936: „D uring my work as a conductor I have always tried to find the rule which Mozart followed in using „C " and „p " in his tempo indications. As far as I know this question has not yet been examined either by practising musicians or musicologists. Since I myself have not found any satisfying solution and since for a complete clarification of the matter the conduct of the predecessors and contemporaries o f Mozart in this matter must be checked I have proposed to an academic authority that perhaps a young doctoral candidate w ith the proper guidance of an expert for that tim e could solve the riddle." („C and p bei Mozart", Schweizerische Musikzeitung). Max Rudolf called Georg Göhler's article (which appeared now 80 years ago) in Mozart Jahrbuch 1976/77 (p. 218) an ,emergency call' to musicology. In spite of J.P. M arty's book, The Tempo Indications o f Mozart, 1988, it had basically been left unanswered until my own publications on this subject from 2004 onwards (see the bibliography). 32 Mozart's Tempo-System Ever since the time when Mozart's works were no longer directed by the first Violinist or from the key board - as had been customary in Germany during his lifetime— - but were led in the modern way by a conductor beating time (which began soon after his death) the question arose, what n o t e - v a l u e or c o n d u c t o r ' s bea t does the tempo word refer to; to the whole note, half note, quarter note or eighth note? This question has led not only the most recent specialized literature down the wrong track, but also performers. From the beginning the question was wrongly formulated.— In most cases the only answer can be: „neither the one nor the other!" Already in 1939 Hans Gal pointed this out in his article „The Right Tempo": „The solution of the whole riddle is that they [Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert] had not the slightest intention of connecting the tempo indications with the beat."145 In music from the Classical period, tempo words and time signatures are not directions for conducting. And, although Gal came from Vienna, he added: „I have rarely met a musician who was aware of this fact."— Indeed, it is a question of a faster or slower pulsation of m u s ica l cells, not those of the conductor. How beautifully Mattheson puts it: „the less somebody knows about music / the more often w ill he beat tim e."147 In the case o fthe classical 4/4 metre with 16th notes, the ,simple' 2/4 and the ,heavy' 3/4 (see below), the tempo words of Mozart and Haydn refer directly to the music's pulse, for which they are so to speak tailor-made: in these metres the quarter notes are „walking" in Andante, „m erry" (therefore faster) in Allegro, just a little fast in Allegretto and very fast in Allegro assai. In the case of 2/2, 3/4 (a 1), 3/8, 2/4 (4/8) and the compound 6/8 metre (3/8 + 3/8), however, the tempo word is only a part of the module consisting of metre + smallest note-value+tempo word. Therefore, whatever part of the bar may suggest itself for counting in practice, nearly three-quarters o f all verbal tempo indications of Mozart don o t relate to a „beat". The tempo words have therefore no „grammalogue-like meaning",148 Among the parameters of the so to speak three-dimensional ,mouvement' system they are in the last place. — Jean Jaques Rousseau: „L'Opera de Paris est !e seu! Theatre de l'Europe ou l'on batte la Mesure sans la suivre; par-tout ailleurs on la suit sans la battre." („The opera in Paris is the only theatre in Europe where one beats time w ithout fo llow ing it; everywhere eise one follows it w ithout beating.") (Dictionnaire de Musique, 1767/81, p. 114). — „The introduction o f conducting in our sense has deprived the finding o f the tempo o f much o f its natural rightness." And very beautifully: „M ost d ifficu lt to conduct is music which never asked to be conducted." (H. Swarowsky / M. Huss, Wahrung der Gestalt, 1979, p. 76). 145 Hans Gäl, The Right Tempo, in: The M onthly Musical Record, vol. 69, V ll/V lll 1939, p. 1 76 and 1 74. 146 Since, for instance, Rene Leibowitz recommended beating Andante p in half notes, he must consequently have conducted Presto 3/8 in three eighth notes („Tempo et sens dramatique dans le Don Giovanni de Mozart", in: Le Compositeur et son double, 1971). 147 Johann Mattheson, Große Generalbaß-Schule, 1731, p. 285 148 Herrmann-Bengen, Tempobezeichnungen, p. 30, footnote 46. Mozart's Tempo-System 33 II) Mozart's Metres „La M esure est un chemin qui a le m ouvem ent pour term e." „The m etre is a path, its goal is the „m ouvem ent".'149 The basis of the mouvement was the m e t r e s - both in the baroque period and for Mozart. For the finer determination of the tempo giusto larger and smaller classes of note values were used and finally - only in third place - the addition of modifying tempo words. In apparent contradiction to that, the modules of metre+note value+tempo word are, however, for reasons of clarity ordered in this book according to: 1st) metre, 2nd) tempo word and 3rd) smallest dass of note values. A) Church music. The metres of the stile antico Le o p o ld M o z a r t sighed: „In ancient music there were differing opinions, and everything was in great confusion. They notated the metre by full circles and half circles that were sometimes cut through, sometimes reversed, and sometimes differentiated by a dot placed either inside or out side. However, as it no longer serves any purpose here to scrawl such mouldy stuff, musiclovers are referred to the ancient writings themselves."150 These, as we have seen, are no reliable help. Friedrich W ilh elm M arpurg was complaining in 1763: „As we see from the writings of the ancients, the crossed and the non-crossed half-circle were confused in their time as today." „The crossed through C does not seem to exist at some newer music printers, as the large non-crossed C is used in all kinds of cases."— In the same sense Jo h a n n A d a m H iller 1766.— H ein r ic h C hristo ph Ko c h 1 787: „M ost of the copyists are too careless or too ignorant to take exact care of this dash [through the C]; for some of them regard it as a decoration and add it to every C without differentiating; others, however, regard it as a superfluous ornament and leave it out where it should be placed."153 And Ig n a z KÜRZINGER still in 1803: „This $ is found rather often in printed and written music w ithout being an alla breve, which must be ascribed to the ignorance of the typesetter or w riter."154 The NMA has, however, trustingly adopted time signatures from printed and handwritten copies (even from the 19th Century) for pieces whose autograph is missing— - mostly unmarked and without mentioning them in the Critical Report. The reason for that must have been the opinion, which is still held, that there is no difference between C and For Mozart this view is definitely wrong; it has damaged the credibility of all his tempo words and has led to absurdly distorted tempos. 149 Jean Rousseau, Methode claire, certaine et facile pour apprendre a chanter la musique, 1691, p. 86. - Quoted in: Johann Mattheson, Der vollkommene Capellmeister (‘The Perfect Capellmeister'), 1 739, p. 1 73, § 24 [app. p. 337]. 150 Leopold Mozart, Vioiinschuie (‘School o fV io lin Playing), p. 27, „O f Metre, or the Measurement o f Musical Time" § 3; [app. p. 271]. 151 Marpurg, Anleitung zur Musik überhaupt (‘Guide to Music in General'), 1 763, part 2, chap. 5, § 4, p. 84 [app. p. 335]. A The same, Anleitung zum Ciavierspieien, 21765, p. 20; A The same, Critical Letters about the Art o f Music (,Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst', vol. I, part 1, 1 760, 14th letter, § 18 ,p . 109, footnote E) [app. p. 323, 333]. A More detailed in an earlier footnote £): „However, since even great composers often mix up a normal two-two metre w ith a simple C metre and mark a normal four-four metre w ith a crossed through C [p], it would w ithout doubt be good [...] to use figures also for the signature of even metres [4/2, 2/2, 4/4]. A See also Vol. II, 67th Letter, p. 22, § 70 [app., p. 333] 152 „Composers seldom offend against the expression but all the more often, however, against the true nature and quality o f the various metres, since they often make into a four-four metre what according to its nature is an alla breve or two-four metre. The same disorders are found often enough in the six-eight metre even in the works o f famous composers - and in cases where they cannot excuse themselves w ith the constraint the poet sometime exerts on them. Generally many composers seem to have studied the theory o f metre as little as that of rhythm [periodicity], though the former is much less shrouded in mystery than the latter. (Johann Adam Hiller, Week/y News and Annotations concerning Music (,Wöchentliche Nachrichten ..., year 5, 3 rd issue, 15.01.1770, p. 20) [app. p. 330]. 153 Heinrich Christoph Koch: 'Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition (‘Essay on a Manual for Musical Composition'), vol. II, 1787, p. 291, §5 7 [app. p. 319]. 154 Ignaz Franz Xaver Kürzinger: Getreuer Unterricht zum Singen [...] und die Vioiin zu spielen, 41803, p. 9. — The editor o fth e NMA, for instance, in spite of the lost autograph, set in K 577 (Rondo no. 28a in Figaro) the time signature „C " after a copy from 1796, though Mozart's autograph catalogue has more plausibly - and authentically - (despite the 32nd notes) p (w ithout tempo word). — Claudia Maurer Zenck, Vom Takt, 2001, p. 86 and p. 87: „M ozart kannte keine Systematik der Bezeichnung." („Mozart d idn 't observe any System o f indication.") 34 Mozart's Tempo-System a) The ,large' alla breve: C (2/1 and 4/2) Among Mozart's early works there are 13 short movements in church style written in the ,large' alla breve with two whole or four half notes per bar. Nearly all of them were written during his studies with Padre Martini and do not need our further attention. The five-part canon of the Kyrie in G, K 89 (73k) with its chains of eighth notes, and the twelve-part secular quadruple canon „V'amo di core", K 348, (still reminiscent of Padre Martini) are „tw ice as fast as the ordinary four-four tim e" (see below) and with their four accents per bar in double large note values share the ,grave' manner of execution.— Movements w ithout eighth notes are correspondingly more flowing. This is true for Mozart's most beautiful piece written in the ,large' alla breve C (or rather 2/1-time), the lively fugato „Laudate Pueri" of the Vesperae solennes de Dominica, K 321 (Ex. 002); as the only one for chorus and orchestra it is something like a late experiment in the „ancient style". In contrast to that, the violin part, Standing out brilliantly with trills and wide leaps, frees itself from the chorus in bars 34-38 and 55-57 in a ,newfangled' way. Because of the equal weight of both halves of the bar, themes enter in the middle of the bar - as happens regularly in Mozart's fugues in the not quite so ,heavy' ,large' C metre. Tutti K 321, Laudate Pueri, m. 1 / Lau- da- te pu- e- ri Dof Laumi-num: lauda- te pu- e- ri / da- Do- num: lau- da- Do- mi- ni be- ne- die- / Sit no- men Ex. 002: Vesperae solennes de Dominica, K 321, Laudate Pueri, b. 1 b) The ,small' alla breve: (2/2) J.A.P. Schulz: „The two-two or so-called alla breve metre is played heavily but twice as fast as its note values indicate; therefore it is mainly suited for a serious and fiery expression, and particularly fugues." 158 Fr. W. Marpurg, however, warned: „Concerning the tempo of the alla breve it can be said that the speed must not increase into madness or frenzy where no madness or frenzy is to be expressed. But this expression does not belong to the alla breve style of the fugue."159 In spite of the Contemporary confusion (see p. 017) over the alla breve of the Stile antico Mozart seldom thought it necessary in his church music to add a more exact definition of the movement with tempo words; he could trust the Salzburg church music tradition. His c - as far as it did not concern secular music - was likewise „ twice as fast" as the ,large' C metre, that is J=J with reference to lively pieces such as the „Kyrie"-fugue o fthe Requiem (Allegro C, Ex. 012). The breathtaking fugue „Cum Sancto Spiritu" of the C-minor Mass, K 427, can serve as an example (Ex. 003). There - in spite of Marpurg's warning - the trombones point to a very „fiery" tempo: in contrast to his usual practice Mozart lets them play with the long coloraturas of the chorus (up to 88 eighth notes!) but only in small intervals like seconds and thirds; at more difficult places they play only a framework of main harmonic notes. K 427, Jesu Christe, m. 7 Cum ̂ ^ J_ä Cum San - - cto Spi- ri- tu. in glo- - - - - - - _ _ _ __ Ex. 003: Mass in C minor, K427, Jesu Christe, b. 7 — On the subject of 4/2 metre see Fr. W. Marpurg, Anleitung zur Musik überhaupt {'Guide to Music in general'), 1 763, part 2, chap. 5, § 4, p. 84 [app. p. 335] ^ and Kritische Briefe {'Critical Letters'), vol. 1,1 7 6 0 ,14th letter, p. 108, footnote y [app. p. 333]. 158 J.A.P. Schulz , Georg Sulzer in: Allgemeine Theorie, ('General Theory'), IV, 1 774, p. 495 [app. p. 290]. 159 Fr. W. Marpurg, Kritische Briefe {'Critical Letters'), vol. II, 1 762, 67th letter, p. 24, § 73 [app. p. 333]. Mozart's Tempo-System 35 Without tempo word c ^ with 8th notes * K 427 Mass in C minor, Jesu Christe, b. 7 „Cum Sancto Spiritu" - fugue (Ex. 003) ( = K 469 Davide penitente, no. 10 Chorus, b. 7) - K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Laudate Pueri - fugue * K 262 Missa longa in C, Credo, b. 282 „Et vitam" - fugue (Ex. 004) - K258 Mass in C, Sanctus, b. 6 „Pleni sunt caeli" - fugato (Allegrom ) - K167 Mass in C, Agnus Dei, b. 59 „Dona nobis pacem" - fugato,— - K 167 Mass in C, Credo, b. 256 „Et vitam" - fugue (Allegro—) - K141Te Deum Laudamus, b. 143 „In te Domine speravi" - fugue - K139 Mass in C minor, Gloria, b. 244 „Cum Sancto Spiritu" - fugue— - K139 Mass in C minor, Credo, b. 264 „Et vitam" - fugue - K139 Mass in C minor, Sanctus, b. 36 „Hosanna in excelsis" - K125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Pignus - fugue - K 66 Missa brevis in C (Dominicus Mass), Gloria, b. 310 „Cum Sancto Spiritu" - fugue - K 65 Missa brevis in D minor, Credo, b. 40 „Et incarnatus est" - K 65 Missa brevis in D minor, Credo, b. 123 „Et vitam" - fugue - K 49 Missa brevis in G, Credo, b. 196 „Et vitam" - fugue (Two songs, four canons and the fugue in Gallimathias musicum, K 32, are omitted here.) Et vi- tarn ven- tu- ri sae- cu- li..A ................................ - . , / j i j * i j j j. j>. K262, Et vitam i r r r i r P r ^ ir c r r c r m i r r veri/ Et vi- tarn tu- ri sae- cu li A- Et vi- Ex. 004: Missa longa in C, K262, Credo, b. 282 „Et vitam"-fugue The „Et-vitam"-fugue of the Missa longa, K 262, - very unusual also in other respects - contains metrical displacements at the head of the theme which step out of line with the whole-bar accentuation of the Cmetre. Having in the sixth bar already offered a stretto, in bars 361, 365, 388 and 389 it allows itself entrances of the theme in quick succession with syncopated accents against the normal structure of the metre: | „Etvi - | täm "|. In spite of generally slower tempi in church music, the mensural basis of the doppio movimento paradoxically makes even the alla breve-movements which are indicated „Adagio", „Andante" and „Allegro" f a s te r than the corresponding movements in the secular classic 2/2: Adagio c ^ with 8th notes * K 618 „Ave verum corpus" for mixed chorus, orchestra and organ (Ex. 005) Adagio K 618, m. 3 m KJ * 1 J . Prf I r r t f f f n i j p f f £ r r r r ^ r r A- ve, a- ve ve- rum Cor- pus na- tum de Ma- ri- a Vir- gi- ne: Ex. 005: „Ave verum corpus", K 618, b. 3 The Adagio of the „Ave verum" is not as slow as that of the chorus „O Isis, und Osiris, welche Wonne!" (Ex. 033) in Die Zauberflöte though both have eighth notes. J with quarter notes - K 4 9 Missa brevis in G, Agnus Dei (8th notes only as repetitions) — Autograph w ithout tempo word; in the trombone parts Mozart later added „Allegro". The trombone and timpani parts in b. 6-10 are shown 4 bars early in the NMA. This m isprint was corrected in Vol. I, p. 736 of the pocket edition of the NMA 1980. — The indication „Allegro moderato" is not authentic. — The indication „A llegro" in the NMA (not in Italics), which is actually superfluous in the stile antico, is not mentioned in the Critical Report. — The tempo word „A llegro" - unmarked in the NMA - is not authentic. 36 Mozart's Tempo-System Andante C ^ with 16th notes ❖ K626 Requiem, Tuba mirum (Ex. 006) The energetic „Tuba mirum" of the Last Judgement (Ex. 006) is more urgent than the heavy stride of the Commendatore in the overture to „Don Giovanni" (Ex. 048). ^ with Ex. 006: Requiem, K626,Tuba mirum 8th notes * K 243 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Viaticum (Ex. 007) Ex. 007: Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, K 243, Viaticum, b. 6 Andante alla breve c ^ with 8th notes * K 42 Grabmusik, Cantata, no. 2 Aria Engel „Betracht dies Herz und frage mich" The hymn „Pange lingua" for Corpus Christi in the Viaticum of K 243 and the aria of the Angel, no. 2 of the Grabmusik (funeral music), K 42, do not move in quarter notes as in the classical Andante 2/2, but in half notes. Allegro c ^ with 8th notes * K 427 Mass in C minor, Quoniam, Terzetto (Ex. 008) (= K 469 Davide penitente, no. 9 Terzetto „Tutte le mie speranze") - K 259 Mass in C, Sanctus, b. 8 „Pleni sunt caeli et terra" {no 8th notes in trombones) - K 258 Mass in C, Sanctus, b. 6 „Pleni sunt caeli et terrae"— Allegro / a s / F F F t# iE m m & K 427, Quoniam, m. 1+72 r a r / E Ü P f Ex. 008: Mass in C minor, K427, Quoniam, Terzetto, b. 1 and 72 The Allegro C of the Quoniam Terzetto in the C-minor Mass is faster than the Allegro C of the Overture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 028), and in my opinion even faster than the „Cum Sancto Spiritu"-fugue in K 427 (Ex. 003), where the trombones support the long coloraturas of the chorus with chains of up to 32 eighth notes. The trombones in the „Pleni sunt caeli" of the Mass K 259 have no eighth notes at all, and in the Mass K258 never more than six ina row. — The autograph score has no tempo word here. Mozart later added „A llegro" in the trombone parts. - N.B. in the score of the NMA trumpets and timpani are one bar early in bars 6-9. Mozart's Tempo-System 37 c) 3/2 metre „3/2 metre is used very often, especially in church pieces, because of the ponderous and slow performance indicated by its note values. In this style, quarter and, at most, eighth notes are its fastest note values. In the chamber style, sixteenth notes can also be used in 3/2 metre."165 Contrary to Kirnberger's report of the usual practice of 1 776, Mozart used 3/2 metre only four times: in 1765 for the chorus „God is our refuge" and for the last time in 1770 for movements 2, 4 and 6 of the Miserere K 85: all of them in Stile antico with quarter notes as smallest note values, and at the end of each a hemiola in 3/1 metre, but w ithout a tempo word to give more precise definition. He seems to have considered 3/2 time as too ponderous even for his church music, and even more so for all other genres of composition. d) ,Large' C-metre J.A.P. Sc h u l z : „Because of its grave and solemn pace, the Large f o u r - f o u r m e t r e is appropriate only for Church music and especially for the magnificent and majestic expression of manyvoiced polyphonic choruses and fugues."166 As mentioned above, apart from eleven exceptions (see p. 048), Mozart used the baroque ,large', ,heavy four-four time" only for Church music. From the very beginning - in spite of Leopold's example - it does not play a part in his secular works. Already the early Symphonie works— take up the fast Allegro 4/4 of the Italian opera buffa in the structure of their first movements, none of them any longer contains 32nd notes. With that Mozart Stands out clearly from his father, whose surviving movements in Allegro 4/4time are w ithout exception in ,large' C metre, even the secular ones. Half of the 117 movements of W olf gang in this metre have tempo words from other hands, some from the editors of the NMA. What is their „natural tempo"? As in the works of his father and the Church music of the period, in many of these pie ces the technical practicability of dotted 16th-note rhythms or 32nd notes sets a natural limit, for example in the „Et exsultavit" of the Vesperae solennes de Dominica K 321 (Ex. 009, marked Allegrol): Allegro K 321, Magnificat, m. 35 Ex. 009: Vesperae solennes de Dominica, K 321, Magnificat, „Et exultavit", b. 35 A good example is the „Domine Jesu" in the Requiem (without tempo word) with its baroque bass line at „Ne absorbeat eas tartarus" (Ex. 010) and the following fugue „Quam olim Abrahae". The structure of its bar with four nearly equally heavy beats: | = -------- | is typical of the ,large' C metre. K 626, Domine Jesu, m. 21 M f e a 1 ^ 1 Ne ab- sor- be- at e- ta- rus, ne ca- dant in ob- £ m Ex. 010: Requiem, K 626, Domine Jesu, b. 21 Uncertainty about the dichotomy of the 4/4 metre in Mozart's time could be the reason for today's pen chant for excessive tempi even in his Church music. Pieces in the Italian operatic style like the first movement of the motet „Exsultate jubilate", K 165, have the ,mouvement' of the ,galant' and classical Allegro 4/4 (taking church accoustics into account, of course); however, in Mozart's movements in ,large' C metre - that is in every second piece of his church music in 4/4 - one cannot avoid holding back until the four harmonies per bar, the weighty eighth note steps, and the coloratura of the chorus express „pomp and grandeur" instead of „galopping energy".— ,Large' C metre was traditionally described as being a compound of two 2/4 bars (as, later, the classical 4/4 as well). In the older conception of Mattheson and Scheibe both halves were regarded as equal and 165 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), II, 1 776, p. 127, 2 [app. p. 278]. 166 More comprehensive in app. p. 290 — Before K 110 mostly w ithout autograph tempo words. — An enthusiastic music critic about Herreweghe's Kyrie of the Requiem 2006 in the monastery at Eberbach. 38 Mozart's Tempo-System were generally treated as such in compositions. Fugue subjects or motives which at their first entrance had been placed on the first half of the bar, could with their second entrance begin on the second half, as in the ,large' C (4/2) (see p. 36, ex. 002) or e.g. in Vivaldi's „L'Estro Arm onico", Concerto no. 6 (p. 89, Ex. 103). Examples of such metrical displacements are countless in Mozart's church music too (e.g. the Kyrie of the Coronation mass, K 317, Ex. 019). Theoretically these pieces could quite well have been notated in 2/4; but, because of its light manner of playing and a certain shortwindedness, most composers regarded it as too „frivolous" for fugues and Church music.— The Allegro of the „Kyrie" in Mozart's Requiem (Ex. 011) can be taken as a model for the ,large' C metre: according to the old rules it is „half as fast" as Handel's choral fugue in alla breve „And with his stripes" (Messiah, no. 22, „Alla breve, moderato" C) of which it uses the head of the theme (Ex. 011): Alla breve, moderato "The Messiah", chorus no. 22 And with his stripes Ex. 011: G. F. Handel: „Messiah", no. 22 Chorus / Ky - ri-e e - lei - i - son, e - le Ex. 012: Requiem, K626, Introitus: Kyrie Exactly like the chorus „And He shall purify" (The Messiah no. 7; ,large' C, without tempo word) „ it drives forcibly into its natural tempo"170 that musicians who are not under the spell of the current fashion of playing fast, w ill choose a classical Allegro moderato corresponding to the practice of Joseph Haydn. That has nothing to do with the classical Allegro 4/4 of the first movements of Mozart's concertos (see below). The church sonatas and the movements in „new style" which migrated from secular to sacred music during the transition from Baroque to the classical period w ill be treated after the odd-numbered (uneven) metres. (See p.220). Let us look at the 71 pieces in ,large' C metre in Mozart's church music with autograph tempo words, the tempo of which, „to be suitable for the church, must be taken somewhat more m oderately than in opera ticsty le ." (see p. 327, § 53): Largo ,large' C with 32nd notes K 427 Mass in C minor, Qui tollis (Ex. 013) ( = K 427 Mass in C minor, Sanctus (Ex. 014) K 322 Kyrie in E flat (fragment) K469 Davide penitente, no. 7 „Se vuoi, puniscimi") — "One doesn't like to use the 2/4 metre in vocal fugal pieces." Marpurg: Kritische Briefe ('Critical Letters'), vol. 1,1 7 6 0 ,14th letter, p. 108, footnote y [app. p. 332]. 170 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('Schoo l o fV io iin Playing'), p. 30, chap. 1, section 2, § 7 [app. p. 271 ]. Mozart's Tempo-System 39 Ex. 013: Mass in C minor, K427, Qui tollis Mozart's slowest tempo of all and his broadest metre is the Largo in ,large' C metre. „This tempo is suitable for passions which manifest themselves w ith solemn slowness, for melancholic sadness and a some what gloom y devotion."171 In the powerful „Qui tollis" of the C-minor Mass, almost unbearably for 54 bars, the flagellating lashes of the strings' 32nd notes whip the chorus that drags itself in quarter notes under the pain of the cross's heavy weight.— (see app. p. 284, Sulzer: „General Theory" 286) The many 64th notes in the fragment of the Kyrie K 322 and the powerful 32nd scales in „Pleni [!] sunt caeli et terra" in the „Sanctus" of the C-minor Mass (Ex. 014), show h o w slow Mozart's Largo in ,large' C time is - slower in fact than the Adagio with 32nd notes of the „Verbum caro factum" in K 125 (Ex. 016). (Largo) K 427, Sanctus, m. 13 Viol. Chor Pos. li et ter- ra, ple- ni * f U U 'L l U/ Ex. 014: Mass in C minor, K 427, Sanctus, b.13 Adagio maestoso ,large' C with 32nd notes K 321 Vesperae solemnes de Dominica, Magnificat— 171 Kirnberger, article „Largo“ in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste ('General Theory o f the Fine Arts'), vol. III, p. 154). [App. p. 287]. — A naive listener at one of my general rehearsals jumped exitedly to his feet, obviously deeply moved, but incapable of expressing himself other than w ith a grotesque incongruity, and called out, „That, that - is better than football!" — In the Critical Report of the NMA wrongly: „ A l l e g r o maestoso"! 40 Mozart's Tempo-System Adagio ,large' C ^ with 32nd notes * K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Credo, b. 60 „Et incarnatus est" * K 243 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Tremendum (Ex. 015) - K195 Litaniae Lauretanae Agnus Dei (Coloraturas o fthechorus) - K 195 Litaniae Lauretanae Salus Infirmorum - K127 Regina coeli, 2 nd movement, b. 9 3 „Ora pro nobis Deum" (Coloraturas) * K 125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Verbum caro factum (Ex. 016) Ex. 015: Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, K 243, Tremendum, b. 5 Ex. 016: Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, K125, Verbum caro factum The powerfully quaking „Tremendum" of the Litaniae K 243 (Ex. 015) and, full of religious conviction, the forte 32nd notes of all the violins in the „Verbum caro factum" (Ex. 016) as well as the expressive 32nd notes of the violins - piano-legato and con sordino - in the „Et incarnatus est" of the Coronation Mass, K 317, are no more Largo, but, however, undoubtedly less animated than the secularly resolute Adagio of the flute in the trial march in Die Zauberflöte174 (Ex. 115) and the virtuosic Adagios of the concertos and the chamber music - and that not least because of the resonant church acoustic. ^ with 16th-note triplets * K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Magnificat (Ex. 017) - K 125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Kyrie, b.23 - K125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Tremendum Since „the tempo giusto is determined by the metre and by the longer and shorter note values of a com position" these pieces which are dominated by 16th note triplets are more flowing than the above-mentioned ones with 32nd notes, but slower than the Adagio of the Requiem-„lntroitus" (Ex. 018) and the 174 No. 21, Finale II Die Zauberflöte, b. 362. Mozart's Tempo-System 41 „Gratias" and „Jesu Christe" of the Mass in C m inor, the „governing notes" of which are simple 16th notes. (Adagio ,large' C) ^ with 16th notes * K 626 Requiem, Introitus, „Requiem aeternam dona eis" (Ex. 018) * K 427 Mass in C minor, Gratias ( = K 469 Davide penitente, no. 4 Chorus „Sii pur sempre benigno") * K 427 Mass in C minor, Jesu Christe (= K 469 Davide penitente, no. 10 Chorus „Chi in Dio sol spera") - K 337 Mass in C, Sanctus - K192 Missa brevis in F, Agnus Dei - K 109 Litaniae Lauretanae B.M.V., Salus Infirmorum Ex. 018: Requiem, K 626, Introitus, b. 8 and 26 Adagio ma non troppo ,large' C with 16lh notes - K 262 Missa longa in C, Credo, b. 85 „Et incarnatus est" Andante maestoso Jarge' C ^ with 16th notes * K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Kyrie - K258 Missa brevis inC,Sanctus Piu Andante ,large' C [from Andante maestoso] ^ with 16th notes * K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Kyrie, b. 7 (Ex. 019) P P Ex. 019: Coronation Mass, K 31 7, Kyrie, b. 7 and Agnus Dei, b. 7, 57, 71 A fine piece of evidence that Andante does not mean slow: the Pitj Andante makes the Kyrie of the Coro nation Mass of course a little faster, not slower than the preceding Andante maestosol In the „Agnus Dei", 42 Mozart's Tempo-System b. 5 7 (Ex. 019) the same music is displaced by half a bar and increased to Andante con m oto, and still further in b. 71 to Allegro con spirito, forte. The displacement of the entries of the theme shows the equal weight of both halves of the bar in the ,large' C metre. Andante moderato ,large' C ^ with 16lh notes - K194 Missa brevis in D, Credo, b. 59 „Et incarnatus est" Andante ,large' C ^ with 16th notes * K 626 Requiem, Confutatis (Ex. 020) - K275 Mass in B flat, Agnus Dei - K 262 Missa longa in C, Agnus Dei - K259 Mass in C (Organ solo Mass), Kyrie - K 220 Mass in C (Sparrows Mass), Credo, b. 25 „Et incarnatus est" - K140 Missa brevis in G, Agnus Dei Ex. 020: Requiem, K 626, Confutatis Also the Andante in ,large' C-time is slower than the Andante 4/4 in concert and opera: the Andante of the irreconcilable Old Catholic „Confutatis" in the Requiem, with accents heavy as the rocks of the abyss (Ex. 020) is slower than the gliding, soft Masonic Andante „Heil sei euch Geweihten" in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 121). Andante con moto ,large' C ^ with 16lh notes - K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Agnus Dei, b. 57 „Dona nobis pacem" (Ex. 019) Allegretto ,large' C ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Sanctus (Ex. 021) Ex. 021: Mass in C (Credo Mass), K257, Sanctus, b. 8 With 16 fortissimos within 15 bars, the Allegretto of the „Sanctus" in the Credo Mass, K 257, in ,large' Ctime (Ex. 021), has nothing of the lightness which this indication demands in other metres. In secular works, the autograph marking Allegretto 4/4 is used only in some accompagnafo-recitatives, in one melo drama, in the Prelude in C for piano K 395 („Capriccio“ ) and in the completely different rondo in K 617 (Adagio and Rondo in C minor-major for glass harmonica, flute, oboe, via, vc) - plus, after a virtual chan ge of metre from 2/2 to 4/4, in Die Zauberflöte no. 21, b. 249, for the Terzett „Was hör ich? Paminens Stimme? [Ex. 168]." Mozart's Tempo-System 43 Allegro maestoso ,large' C ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K127 „Regina coeli", 1st movement Allegro moderato ,large' C ^ with 16th notes - K273 „Sancta Maria, mater Dei" - K 109 Litaniae Lauretanae B.M.V., Salus Infirmorum, b. 6 Allegro non troppo ,large' C ^ with 16th notes - K 337 Mass in C, Sanctus, b. 9 - K 337 Mass in C, Benedictus Allegro comodo ,large' C ^ with 16th notes - K427 Mass in C minor, Sanctus, b.18 „Hosanna", and „Benedictus", b. 107— Allegro ,large' C ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 ❖ K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Kyrie, b.11 (Ex. 022) - K 195 Litaniae Lauretanae, Kyrie, b.12 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 626 Requiem, Kyrie (fugue, Ex. 012) ❖ K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Confitebor (Ex. 023) - K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Magnificat, b. 6 „Et exultavit" - K321 Vesperae de Dominica, Beatusvir - K 321 Vesperae de Dominica, Magnificat, b. 7 (see p. 39 Ex. 009) - K275 Mass in B flat, Kyrie - K275 Mass in B flat, Credo - K262 Missa longa in C, Kyrie (fugue from b. 14) - K260O ffertorium „Venite populi" - K259 Mass in C (Organ solo Mass), Credo - K258 Mass in C (Missa brevis), Gloria - K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Benedictus - K222 Offertorium „Misericordias Domini" - K220 Mass in C (Sparrows Mass), Kyrie - K192 Missa brevis in F, Kyrie - K192 Missa brevis in F, Credo - K192 Missa brevis in F, Sanctus, b. 9 „Hosanna in excelsis" (fugato) - K167 Mass in C, Credo - K141Te Deum Laudamus - K 125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Tremendum, b.10 - K 66 Missa brevis in C (Dominicus Mass), Gloria, b. 97 — Since the „Hosanna" of the „Sanctus" is from b. 47 identical w ith that of the „Benedictus" from b. 107, the autograph „Allegro comodo" of the former can be taken as valid for the unmarked „Benedictus" as well. 44 Mozart's Tempo-System tr fall strings, violin I octave higher violins 2 octaves higher Ex. 023: Vesperae solennes de Confessore, K 339, Confitebor, b. 1 and 89 All these pieces could not be described more felicitously in their character of an Allegro in ,large' fourfour metre (C) than by the definition of the latter by Contemporary theorists (p. 020). „The ,large four-four metre has a strong and heavy execution and a slow tempo.//176 None of these Allegros, with their thorough-bass-like four emphasized harmonies per bar, would take to being adapted to the light-footed clas sical concert-Allegro 4/4 that Swings in half bars, which a now long-established habit in the feeling for tempo of today's performers likes to hurry even the church -Allegro. Above all, it is the too dense concentration of harmonic steps that creates the impression of hectic rush. Allegro vivace ,large' C ^ with 16th notes * K 427 Mass in C minor, Gloria (Ex. 024) ( = K 469 Davide penitente, no. 2 Chorus „Cantiam") - K321 Vesperae solemnes de Dominica, Dixit Allegro vivace is also slower in ,large' C time than in the classical 4/4: the „Gloria" of the Mass in C minor with its choral coloratura is of course by far not as swift as the first movement of the „Jupiter" symphony (Ex. 150) (which is itself often played too fast). „Vivace means animated, and forms a m idpoint between fast and s/ow."177,.Animated', that is, with marked metrical accents. Allegro con spirito ,large' C ^ with 16lh notes * K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Agnus Dei, b. 71, „Dona nobis pacem" (Ex. 019) * K262 Missa longa in C, Gloria (Fugue from b. 83) The somewhat faster Allegro con spirito of the „Gloria" in the Missa longa (16th notes only for the instru ments) or in the „Dona nobis pacem" of the Coronation Mass can still not be compared to Pedrillo's aria „Frisch zum Kampfe" (Ex.137). Allegro molto / Molto Allegro ,large' C with 16th notes * K 337 Mass in C, Gloria (Ex. 025) - K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Credo, b. 1 and 72 - K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Sanctus, b.16 „Hosanna", and Benedictus, b. 74 - K 125 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Kyrie, b. 1 and 29 176 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), 1 789, p. 95, chap. 1, section 4, § 58, 6 [app. p. 299]. 177 Leopold Mozart, 'Violinschule ('School ofV io iin Playing'), p. 48 [app. p. 272]. Mozart's Tempo-System 45 (Allegro molto) K 337, Gloria: Qui toiIis, m. 39 + 55 f Qui P / mtol- lis pecp s i i / i Quo- / g af P W am tu so- lus M M Ex. 025: Mass in C, K 337, Gloria, Qui tollis, b. 39 and 55 In spite of the same dass of note values, the M olto Allegro with 16th notes in the Masses in C and the Litaniae K 125 is also by far not as fast as Leporello's „Notte e giorno faticar" (Ex. 139). The opening of the Gloria in K 337 deceives as to the possibility of a brisk tempo, it's true; but in the „Qui tollis" (b. 32-34, 38-40, &c.) there are frequently mordents on chains of 16th notes— ; in bar 55 and elsewhere in the „Quoniam", supported by trumpets and timpani, we find a figure with big leaps which would make no sense in a fast tempo. In between (b. 18, 36 and especially clearly in b. 75-84), the movement changes from the baroque ,large' C to the classical 4/4 (2/4+2/4, see below) with only two emphases per bar for the passages of the solo-singers where the 1st violins have light sc/o/fo-runs (see the excursus „virtual changes of metre" p. 115). ^ with 8th notes: - K 262 Missa longa in C, Credo, b. 109 „Et resurrexit" Not held back by 16th notes and therefore very quick is the „Et resurrexit" in the „Credo" of the Missa longa, though a little slower than the Allegro assai of the „Dies irae" in the Requiem (Ex. 026). Allegro assai ,large' C ^ with 16th notes K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Gloria ^ with 8th notes K 626 Requiem, Sequence „Dies irae" (Ex. 026) Allegro assai $ f mm K 626, Dies irae r f f V P P m CHOR: Die- es i- rae, di- es il- la Ex. 026: Requiem, K 626, Sequence, „Dies irae" In spite of its furious pace, the Allegro assai of the „Dies irae" in the Requiem, dominated solely by 8th notes (and tremolando 16th notes), is yet slower than the two Allegro assai 4/4 passages in Finale I of Don Giovanni („Presto, presto pria ch'ei venga" and „Soccorriamo l'innocente!"—, Ex. 145), which essentially have only eighth notes, too. Again, the reason is the divergence between the C metre of the „church"style und that of the „theatre"- and „concert"-style. „The same Terms which denote Lively and Gay, in the Opera, or Concert Style, may be understood in the Practice of Church-Music as Chearful and Serene, or, if the Reader pleases, less lively and gay: Wherefore, the Allegro, &c. in this Kind of Composition, should always be performed somewhat slower than is usual in Concertos or Operas."180 Presto was not used by Mozart in his church music. — Together w ith the sharp accents of trombones and doublebasses, they express the painful flinching of Jesus under the flagellation in another way from that of the Largo of the C-minor Mass. — These are, nevertheless, often misunderstood as c and played much too fast (see below). 180 Charles Avison, An Essay on Musical Expression, London 1 752 [app. p. 321 ]. 46 Mozart's Tempo-System ,Large' C-metre in M ozart's secular music In his s e c u l a r music Mozart used the meanwhile obsolete ,large' C metre only in the first movement of a little Sonata in F for violin and doublebass, K 46d; in the aria of Simone, no. 2 in La finta semplice, which morosely describes the troubles of marriage; in the fugal 4th movement of the String Quartet in D minor, K 173 - all of them without an autograph tempo word; and, stylistically harking back, in the 1st movement of the Violin Concerto in D, K 211 (Ex. 027), which, in spite of its ,large' C-time with four stres ses per bar and shiftings of motives by half bars (see above), and along with its many 32nds and frequent 16th note triplets, is moving towards the Allegro moderato of the classical 4/4 metre (see p. 99). This led Floyd K. Grave to write an excellent essay on „Comm on-tim e displacements" within this, strictly speaking, abandoned style that recalls Friedemann Bach.181 Allegro moderato - - 3---------f I ■ ^ tr K211, I, m. 1+112 / i Ex. 027: Violin Concerto in D, K211, 1st movement Mozart took up the old metre again a few times (e.g. in the Overture and the Allemande of the quasibaroque Suite for Piano, K 399—) when later studying Handel and J. S. Bach. On April 20th 1782 he wrote to his sister: „Baron van Suiten gave me all the works of Handel and Sebastian Bach to take home. [...] I am sending you herewith a Preludio and a three-part fugue [K 394]. I've intentionally written Andante maestoso [4/4] over it, so that one won't play it quickly - for if a fugue isn't played slowly, you can't pick out the subject clearly as it enters, and so it makes no effect.183 - K 394, Prelude and Fugue for piano in C, Fugue (Andante maestoso) This fugue was Mozart's first in the ,large' C metre; two more followed in 1782 and 1783: - K 399 Suite for piano, Overture, b. 26 fugue (Allegro), * K 426 Fugue in C minor for two pianos (Ex. 028) (and K 546 arrangement for string orchestra— ); Allegro (moderato) K426 \ '\ ’ l ’ h H K P m C L l f r W c ^ c i m r + r r r/ Ex. 028: Fugue in C minor for two pianos, K 426, (and K 546, arrangement for strings) In 1789 he arranged Handel's Messiah (K 572) and in it the majestic fugue „And He shall purify" in ,large' C time. His last work in this metre is the complicated counterpoint of: * K 594 Adagio and Allegro in F minor for a mechanical organ, b. 40 Allegro. 181 Floyd K. Grave, Common-Time Displacement in Mozart; in: Journal of Musicology 3/4, Fall 1984, p. 423-442. — The tempo words Grave und Andante are taken from the posthumous first edition of 1 799. 183 Mozart's letter from 20.04.1782, no. 668 [app. p. 267]. — The autograph of K 426 has no tempo word. In 1788 Mozart had the version for two pianos copied for the arrangement for strings K 546 by a w riter who set „Allegro moderato" as tempo word. Mozart crossed out the „moderato" strongly several times (W. Plath in NMA). It could be that the copyist had added the „m oderato" (in the same way as Joseph and Michael Haydn) because he was no longer familiar w ith the slower pace of the ,large' 4/4 metre. In a classical „A llegro" 4/4 the piece would indeed be much too fast. Mozart, on the contrary, for his part probably wanted to prevent the piece - now as „Allegro moderato" in the ,large' 4/4 metre - from being played much too slowly. (The first edition of the version for two pianos of 1790 has - as usual for the time again „Allegro moderato" - w ithout Mozart's knowledge? or tolerated by him?). Mozart's Tempo-System 47 B) Secular music. The classical metres Leopold M o zart: „M e tre makes th e m elody, th e re fo re m etre is th e soul o f m u s ic ."185 1) The even metres a) The classical (,galant') t (2/2) For the time being we shall have to accept that the transition from the alla breve of the ecclesiastical stile antico to the secular alla breve o f the classical period is still shrouded in darkness, since the theorists of the 18th Century either said nothing about it, or held unrealistically to the = twice as fast" of the old style. In the course of the emancipation of instrumental music, dance music could have been influential. For the animated to fast branles, rigaudons, gavottes and bourrees in „light two-two" metre186 with one main stress, the time signatures ,2' and $ were used indiscriminately. Instrumental dance stylizations had an effect on vocal music as well, beyond the physical practicalities of dance. Under the influence of French dances the stiff alla breve o f the church style was replaced by the swinging 2/2((t)-metre of the ,galant' and classical styles, which was open to every tempo. Dance music set a secular, bodily-accentuated rhythm that relished contrasts against the long echoes of choral singing in reverberant churches. Its structural traces can be found nearly everywhere in Mozart's works. Independently of all doctrine, let us then compare his 348 movements in the $ of the new style among themselves; for a better differentiation from the $ of the stile antico we mark them now throughout by „2/2". Their comparison with definite 4/4 metres that have the same tempo word and the same dass of note values shows that „tw ice as fast" no longer applies to the 2/2 of the secular classical style. Already Leopold Mozart did not associate a precise conception of tempo with the $ metre,187 but - like Johann Adolph Scheibe - thought additional tempo words necessary.— In the middle of the Century the time signature $ was nothing more than a sign for a certain increase in speed.— The C(2/2) with only one stress per bar and the C(4/4) compounded of two 2/4 metres provide funda mentally different metrical models; this is more obvious in faster tempi than in very slow ones. The de tails of metrical differentiation within the 4/4 (2/4 + 2/4) metre w ill be described later. In spite of its faster tempo the alla breve breathes in wider arcs because of the wider distance between its main stresses, one per bar; in Mozart's works it still gives a certain impression of ,high style'. Concerning the sheer speed of playing (without considering the manner o f playing) the following rough rule of thumb will be subsequently confirmed: One bar in 2/2 corresponds roughly to one bar in 4/4 at the next higher degree o f tempo (if the dass of note values is the same); for instance: Adagio 2/2= Larghetto 4/4; Larghetto 2/2=Andante 4/4; Andante 2/2=Allegretto 4/4; Allegretto 2/2= Allegro 4/4; Allegro 2/2= Allegro m olto 4/4; Allegro m olto 2/2=Allegro assai 4/4; Allegro assai 2/2= Presto 4/4. Here now Mozart's movements in classical $ metre, marked with the modern time signature 2/2: 185 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School ofV io lin Playing'), p. 27, Chap. 1, Section 2 , § 1 [app. p. 271 ]. 186 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe ('Critical Letters'), vol. II, 1 763, 6 7 * letter, p. 22-24, §71 + §72 [app. p. 333]. 187 Leopold Mozart, 'Violinschule (‘School o fV io lin Playing'), p. 30, § 7 [app. p. 271 ]. — Joh. Adolph Scheibe: Ueber die Musikalische Composition (‘About Musical Composition'), 1 773, part 1, chap 5, p. 202, § 88:: „2/2 metre, [...] if it is not used in the church or in similar kinds of writing, tolerates many various tempos, which must be indicated each time; for it is now in itself very uncertain. [...] Therefore, if the movements which it shall govern are not written in counterpoint it is best to indicate the tempo by an appropriate adjective; this is all the more necessary since this metre occurs nowadays in all kinds o f styles, appearing indeed in the theatre, the chamber and in all sorts of instrumental pieces. It is true that its proper place is the church where it is used mainly in choruses, fugues and contrapuntal pieces; however, since it is used now also for other things [...] it is all the more necessary that the tempo which is required by the piece is always indicated, be it an aria, Symphonie allegro, or concerto-allegro, etc.. Since operas and symphonies have taken over this metre, and often used it for the very fastest and most fiery movements where its old dignity and seriousness have no place, it has adopted an almost quite different character; for it is now as favoured in the galant style as it had previously been venerated in the church style." [app. p. 340] 122 Joseph Riepel [after a music example in 2/8 tim e]: „Some treat the reliable AHabreve-tempo in such an unnatural way: true, it doesn't have the same hectic beats as today's church-style allabreve, but in the free style it is uncommonly lively because as well as the principal voice the bass and middle voices move mainly in eighth- or even sometimes in sixteenth-notes beneath it, and so it is normally marked 'Vivace or con Spirito. In short, this tempo is no other than if I were to set Presto or Prestissimo over a normal 4/4 common tim e." Erläuterung der betrüglichen Tonordnung 1765 (‘Deceptive Cadences Explained’, Chapter 4), p. 78 [App. p. 320/321] 48 Mozart's Tempo-System Adagio cantabile 2/2 ^ with 64th notes * K 284 Piano Sonata in D, 3rd movement, Variation XI (Ex. 029) Since Mozart does not use Largo 2/2, Adagio cantabile is his slowest tempo in this metre. In spite of the 64th notes (and even a tirata across 2 V2 octaves in 128th notes - in point of fact not genuine - in bar 30) he has kept in the autograph the C of the subject also for this Variation, instead of notating it like the second movement of the Piano Sonata in C minor, K 457, as Adagio 4/4 (Ex. 110). Thus the larger spaciousness of the alla breve was maintained, which manifests itself - for instance in the half-bar and partly even wholebar slurs of the preceding variations - even in this slow tempo (e.g. b. 18). He never wrote cantabile in 4/4 metre. Where he uses it in 3/4, 3/8 and compound ,4/8' and 6/8 movements (see below) it increases the indicated respective slowness. The manner of playing is predominantly legato. „Cantabile, singable, enjoyably singing. The newer composers set it often instead of Adagio; at least one must take their Cantabile always a little slowly."190 ^ with 32nd notes * K 522 „Ein musikalischer Spaß" („A musical joke") [more correctly: asatirel — ], 3rd movement Adagio 2/2 ^ with 32nd notes * K 543 Symphony in E flat, 1st movement * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 251 „Protegga il giusto cielo" (Ex. 030) - K 455 Ten Variations in G on „Unser dummer Pöbel meint", Variation IX - K 359 Twelve Variations in G for piano and violin on „La Bergere Celimene", Variation XI Because of the wrong indication „C" in the old Mozart edition generations of conductors and singers have performed the terzetto of the noble, masked conspirators in Finale I of Don Giovanni as an Adagio 190 Joh. Adam Hiller, Anweisung zum Violinspielen, Anhang eines Lexicons ('Instruction for playing the Violin: A Dictionary as Appendix'); p. 63. [app. p. 331/332] — Modulating to the dominant already in b. 1 (through a „m istaken" Fsharp in the upbeat) and returning already in b. 3 back to the tonic, this „Adagio cantabile" - mostly in forte (!) - continues single-mindedly the first two movements' vicious caricature of a failing composition w ith senseless 32nd note scales, wrong sforzati, clumsy rhythms, and unsuccessful modulations. A cadenza that makes use of Alberti-bass figuration, ultimately getting lost in the highest register in a whole-tone scale that overshoots the mark, closing w ith a pizzicato on the open G-string and a trill in thirds - all this leads one to expect the compositional disaster in the fourth movement which Mozart w ith inspired sarcasm does then indeed serve up. Mozart's Tempo-System 49 8/8 and have consequently produced a dramatic black-out in the middle of the finale. Yet the 32nd notes of Donna Anna on „zelo" are no melodies, but tirades of vengeance, and much more effective in the Larghetto-pace of Mozart's Adagio 2/2, a little slower than the overture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 032). The introduction of the Symphony in E-flat major, K 543, is also often heard too slowly as an Adagio 8/8. (Adagio 2/2) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K 496 Piano Trio in G, 3rd movement, Variation V - K 481 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 2nd movement * [K466 Piano Concerto in D minor, 2nd movement „Adagio"] (Ex. 031) ["Adagio"] I ■QSr Ex. 031: Piano Concerto in D minor, K466, 2nd movement [„Adagio"] Leopold Mozart wrote about the influence of the smallest dass of notes on determining the tempo of the second movement of K 466 (without tempo word in the autograph): „the adagio [!] is a Romance, the tempo is to be taken as quickly as you can bring out the noisy quick triplets that appear right on page 3 of the Romance, and must be well practised so that the theme doesn't sound too feeble."192 By the term „Adagio", however, Leopold, may have meant simply the second, slow movement. ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, Overture b. 1 and 97 (Ex. 032) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 29 Duetto Fiordiligi/Ferrando, „Fra gli amplessi in pochi istanti" - K 477 „Maurerische Trauermusik" („Masonic Funeral Music")— - K418 Aria for soprano and orchestra „Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio!" - K 375 Serenade in E flat for wind ensemble, 3rd movement - K 366 Idomeneo (appendix), no. 30a aria Idomeneo, „Torna la pace al core" - K 356 Adagio in C io r glass harmonica - K 303 Piano and Violin Sonata in C, 1st movement - K 295 Aria for tenor and orchestra „Se al labbro mio non credi" - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 16 Aria Ascanio, „Ah di si nobil alma quanto parlar vorrei" - K 83 „Se tutti i mali miei", Aria for soprano and orchestra - K 77 „Misero me!", Recitativo and Aria for soprano and orchestra, Aria „Misero pargoletto" - K 42 Grabmusik, cantata for S, B, chorus and organ; Aria Engel, „Ergib dich, hartes Herz", b. 65 [- K486 Der Schauspieldirektor, n. 3 Terzett, b. 90-94 „Adagio, adagio, adagio" (see p. 176)] 192 Leopold's letter to Nannerl of 04.01.1 786, no. 916 [app. p. 269]. — Although 16th notes are here mainly only virtual and seldom real, they must be seen as smallest note values relevant for the tempo. The 32nd and 64th notes are only decoration. 50 Mozart's Tempo-System This Introduction to a fairy-tale piece with Enlightenment intent has traditionally suffered from a histrionic overemphasizing of its masonic symbolism. How many essays have been written about the ,three chords'! The 16th note upbeats have been played (and conducted) with ,profound meaning' as eighth notes,121 while the following half notes were shortened and the fermatas on the rests understood as a licence to omit them. The 32nd note triplet that simply connects the 5th degree with the 2nd was played ,,with expression" as a melodic 16th note triplet, the sustained sforza nd / ( = „w ith [sustained] intensity") of the upper strings, however, were shortened into staccato-like sforza t/ ( = „w ith [sudden] intensity"), so that the broad melodic line in the first violins tracing the subdominant added-sixth chord (resp. its domi nant two bars later) disappeared behind the chords of the wind section. The pace of the calm quarter notes, hardly to be missed, can serve as a model also for the other movements of the module Adagio 2/2 with 16th notes. ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 24 Chorus „Oh voto tremendo! Spettacolo orrendo!" - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 22 Aria Ascanio, „Se pietä dell'alme amanti", b. 50 ^ with 8th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 18 Chor der Priester (Chorus of the Priests) „O Isis, und Osiris, welche Wonne!" (Ex. 033) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 190, „Der, welcher wandert diese Straße" - K 555 Canon „Lacrimoso son' io" - K410 Adagio in F for 2 bassett horns and bassoon - [K 384 Die Entführung, no. 15 Aria Belmonte, „Wenn der Freude Tränen fließen"121] - K247 Divertimento in F (7. Lodronische Nachtmusik), 5th movement (b. 70!) The Priests' Chorus, no. 18 of Die Zauberflöte, is clearly more flowing than the beginning of the Overture (Ex. 032) since it has no 16th notes. Like there, the sign sf must be understood as a broad sforza n d o , enthusiastically blossoming, not as a startled fp. (The word „sforzando" can be found written out in the /egafo-16th notes of bars 83-84 in the Recitative no. 23, b. 83/84 in Idomeneo, K 366, where it clearly means „more intensely", as it is followed by „dim inuendo" halfa bar later.) (Adagio 2/2) J with quarter notes - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 28a, 28b, 28c and 28d, La voce Adagio ma non troppo 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 26 Cavatina with Chorus, „Accogli, oh re del mar, i nostri voti" — Nobody would play the first two chords of the overture to Rossini's The Barber ofSeville like that! — The tempo of this aria is problematic: because of its 16th notes it should actually belong to the same group as the Overture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 032). In view of the „Freudentränen“ („tears o fjo y "), however, it can in no way be so slow. Since the 16th notes in b. 20 and b. 81 can be sung and played in the Adag/o-with-eighth-notes of the Priests' Chorus, I include it here, contrary to my previous principles. In the tempo usually taken today, „Andante-C", the contraction of bars 24-25 and 82-83 to one only in each case, which Mozart made in a second version out o f consideration for the singer's breath, w ouldn 't have been necessary. Mozart's Tempo-System 51 Un poco Adagio 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 344 Zaide, no. 14 Aria Allazim, „Ihr Mächtigen seht ungerührt" L 1 with 8th note triplets 3 - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 22 Aria Ascanio, „AI mio ben mi veggio avanti" Con piu moto (from Adagio) 2/2 ^ with 8th notes - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 29 Duetto Fiordiligi/Ferrando, b.12 „Oh che gioia il suo bei core" Lento 2/2 ^ with 8th notes - K 453a „Kleiner Trauermarsch" in C minor for piano Mozart's only Lento. The subtitle „Marche funebre del Sigr. Maestro Contrapunto" shows that it is a joke for Mozart's piano pupil Barbara Ployer. Not quite as satirical as „Ein musikalischer Spaß" („A musical joke"), K 522, but genuine music, although with a mischievous smile. Heavy metre, heavy tempo word, no figuration: great pathos, exaggerated for fun. In view of the large note values Türk's: „Lento: similar to adagio, but not quite as slow"196 is more suitable than Koch's definition of Lento: „leisurely, means often the same degree of a slow tempo as Adagio, and demands generally the same manner of playing".] Larghetto 2/2 ^ with 32nd notes ❖ K 589 String Quartet in B flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 034) Mozart's L a r g h e t t o lies not between Largo and Adagio, but between Adagio and A n d a n te In K 515/11 and K 616 he changed the original Larghetto (3/4, resp. 2/4) to Andante; in Die Zauberflöte no. 15 on the other hand the Andantino sostenuto above Sarastro's stave was changed to a general Larghetto 2/4, presumably when Mozart had reached b. 12 (Ex.206). ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 712/746 „O r che tutti, o mio tesoro" (see p. 126 and p. 125/126) (Ex. 176, Ex. 177) 16th note-triplets b. 751 -755. ^ with 16th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 18 Terzetto „Quello di Tito e il volto!" ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 395, Pamina „Herr, ich bin zwar Verbrecherin" (Ex. 035) - K 595 Piano Concerto in B flat, 2nd movement 196 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), 1 789, p. 109 [app. p. 300]. — This was also the opinion of Quantz p. 139, § 7 and p. 262, § 49 [app. p. 325 and p. 327]. ^ Türk, Klavieschule ('School o f Clavier Playing'), § 70, p. 109: „a little slowly") [app. p. 300] and ^ Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), col. 890): "Larghetto, a little slowly. The tempo is usually the same as Andante." [app. p. 314]. ^ Leopold Mozart unfortunately does not mention Larghetto. 52 Mozart's Tempo-System ❖ K 468 „Lied zur Gesellenreise", for solo voice with o rga n accompaniment (Ex. 036, Ex. 037) - K 447 Horn Concerto in E flat, 2nd movement Ex. 035: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 8 Finale I, b. 395 „Herr, ich bin zwar Verbrecherin" is a beautiful example of the identity of speed of Larghetto 2/2 and Andante 4/4 with 16th notes (Ex. 121). The alla breve metre, however, brings more dignity, a wider arc - at the same speed of playing. Ex. 036: „Lied zur Gesellenreise", K468, with accompaniment of an organ (autograph) K 468 B . AndantinoiTA4>j j 1 ----------- n - T O J-'J> |§ r T " 1 x » ' r ' - r t "t w r ' r ' r ' Oif m är f r 0 ^ r Ex. 037: „Lied zur Gesellenreise", K 468, with accompaniment of a Clavier (Mozart's „catalogue")— Mozart's „Lied zur Gesellenreise" is in the autograph Larghetto in his catalogue (Verzeichnüß), how ever, it is Andantino C. The piece is nevertheless not suitable for Harnoncourt's ,evidence' of an alleged ,identity' of Larghetto and Andantino, because instead of the organ of the autograph, which sustains its sound even at a very slow tempo like Larghetto C, the accompaniment is indicated as „ C / a v / e r " on the lefthand page of his „ Verzeichnüss" (catalogue). Out of consideration for the at the time short-lived tone of the latter Mozart has not only dissolved the rhythm into smaller and partly more fluent units, but also increased the tempo - precisely to Andantino199. In fact the Larghetto version of the autograph could not have been played on the Clavier of that time without the impression of slow m otion. (Larghetto 2/2) ^ with 8th note triplets * K 620 Die Zauberflöte no. 8 Finale I, Three boys „Zum Ziele führt dich diese Bahn" (Ex. 038) Larghetto K 620 no. 8, m. 10 Zum Zie- le führt dich die- se Bahn, doch mußt du Jüng- ling männ- lieh sie- Ex. 038: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 8 Finale I, b. 10 gen, Instructed by the Queen of the Night the Three Boys lead Tamino secretly to the temple of the hated Sarastro in order to murder him and free her daughter Pamina. Are the „silver palm leaves in the hands of the little ones" (stage direction) Camouflage or a decorative error of the authors? The virtual change of metre202 into a resolute 4/4 metre and the fanfare-like phrasing in b. 5-8, however, must already make — Please note the dottings of the 16th notes in b. 2 and 3, which would have been too sharp in the Andantino, but, however, are necessary in the freemasonic, ritual „Larghetto". 199 A detailed discussion in: Helmut Breidenstein, Mozarts Tempo-System. Zusammengesetzte Takte als Schlüssel, Mozart Studien vol. 13, 2004, p. 67 f. — For the phenomenon o fv irtua l changes of metre see p. 125. Mozart's Tempo-System 53 Sarastro tremble! The fantastically floating soft alla breve metre with whole-bar accentuation (orchestra piano-legato and without double-basses) in b. 1-4 and again b. 10-30 with accents in muted trumpets and timpani and the fenufo-chords of the trombones accompanying their advice for steadfastness (b. 16, 25) had been still slower in Mozart's draft version: Adagio 2/2! So, with the slight increase to Larghetto 2/2 he certainly didn't mean the cheerful A//egreffo-march often heard today. The manner of playing should be more weighty, and the speed a little less than that of the Andante 2/2 with 16th notes of „Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden" (Finale W, Ex. 050), which is equally gliding but with less weight as it approaches the happy end. Maestoso 2/2 ^ with 32nd notes * K 345 Thamos, no. 1 Chorus („Hymn") „Schon weichet dir, Sonne! des Lichtes Feindin" (Ex. 039) This hymn-like chorus opens the ,heroic drama' in quarters and half notes; but for the description of the „cheerful youth" it introduces 16th and 32nd notes with fr (mordents) (Ex. 039); therefore it can be only a little more flowing than the Larghetto with eighth-note triplets of the Three boys (Ex. 038). Der mun- tern Ju- gend gibLenk- Ex. 039: Thamos, K 345, no. 1 Chor, b. 62 Andante cantabile 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 547 Piano and Violin Sonata in F, 1st movement201) „If cantabile occurs, then that has a bearing on the bow, which must be drawn more gently and smoothly".202 Andante sostenuto 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 21a Vaudeville, b. 95, „Nichts ist so häßlich als die Rache" Andante maestoso 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 23 Rondo Vitellia, b. 181 (postlude) ❖ K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 24 Chorus „Che dei ciel, che degli Dei" (Ex. 040) [- K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 499 „Ecco il birbo che t'ha offesa" (Ex. 170) (see p. 123)] K 621, Rondo no. 23, m. 187 Andante maestoso Coro Nr. 24, m. 12 Andante maestoso — The autograph has no tempo indication; in Mozart's catalogue the „kleine klavier Sonate für Anfänger m it einer V ioline" K 547 is „Andante cantabile“ [app. p. 270]. The Critical Report of the NMA does not explain why the editor adopted „ A n d a n t i n o can tabile“ from the first edition of 1805. 202 Johann Friedrich Reichardt, Über die Pflichten des Ripien-Violinisten ('On the Duties o fth e Tutti (Ripieno) Violinist'), 1 776, p. 27 [app. p. 296]. 54 Mozart's Tempo-System The 32nd tiratas of the transition from no. 23 into the anticipated 2/2 mouvement of the Chorus no. 24 play no part in the choice of tempo, which corresponds approximately to a flowing Andante 4/4. Andante moderato 2/2 ^ with 16th notes * K 345 Thamos, no. 7 Chorus „Ihr Kinder des Staubes, erzittert und bebet" - K 255 „Ombra felice!", Recit. and aria for alto and orchestra, b. 24, Aria en Rondeau „Io ti lascio" ^ with 8th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 19 Terzett „Soll ich dich Teurer nicht mehr sehn?" (Ex. 041) Ex. 041: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 19 Terzett The problem of the tempo Andante moderato 2/2 of the Terzett no. 19 in Die Zauberflöte („Soll ich dich Teurer nicht mehr sehn?") is solved by examining the smallest note values. Having no 16th notes, its „walk" is of course more lively than that of the Chorus „Ihr Kinder des Staubes" in Thamos, but neither in flowing quarter notes like that nor in half notes. As Andante m o d e r a t o and taken a little more slowly than the unmodified Andante 2/2 with only 8th notes of „Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen" (Vaudeville in Die Entführung) (see p. 062, Ex. 055), it receives exactly the quiet movement roughly corresponding to an Allegretto 4/4, which still can be feit in whole bars, w ithout forcing a broader „meno mosso" in bar 67. As for the manner of conducting, it is here entirely irrelevant and a matter of taste. Andante 2/2 with 32nd notes K 497 Sonata in F for piano four-hands, 2nd movement K 467 Piano Concerto in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 042) Andante sordini $ K 467, II, m. 2+21 mm ' * * i # # f f f f ^ 3 Ex. 042: Piano Concerto in C, K467, 2nd movement The wonderful con sordino singing in wide arcs above weakly pulsing eighth-note triplets in the 2nd mo vement of K 467 has clearly not the flowing tempo of the movements in Andante-2/2 with 16th notes (ex. 043, ex. 050). Alfred Brendel, Maurizio Pollini, Geza Anda and others play it most convincingly in the tempo of an Andante 4/4 with 16th notes (e.g. of the Chor „Heil sei euch Geweihten" in Die Zauberflöte) - as it had been indicated in the O ld Mozart Edition. The time signature 2/2, however, asking for whole-bar phrasing, is authentic. It is possible that Mozart thought virtual 32nd notes along with it which appear only in the turn in b. 21, but still have an influence towards a slower tempo giusto. It seems that he regarded the manner of playing of a Larghetto 2/2 with 32nd notes - as in K 589/II - here as too heavy. ^ with 16th notes - K 623 Cantata „Dieser Gottheit Allmacht", no. 2 Aria „Laut verkünde unsre Freude" - K 621 La Clemenza di Titof no. 1 Duetto Vitellia/Sesto „Come ti piace imponi" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 17 Aria Annio „Tu fosti tradito" K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 5 Quintett, b. 214 „Drei Knäbchen, jung, schön, hold" (Ex. 053) K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 160 „Wie stark ist nicht dein Zauberton" K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II „Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden" (Ex. 050) K614 String Quintet in E flat major, 2nd movement K 588 Cos! fan tuttef Overture (Mozart's catalogue: Andante maestoso) K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 6 Quintetto „Sento oddio, che questo piede" Mozart's Tempo-System 55 - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 29 Duetto Fiordiligi/Ferrando, b. 101 „Abbracciamci, o caro bene" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 66 „Benedetti i doppi coniugi" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 372 „Sani e salvi agli amplessi amorosi" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 466 „Ah, signor, son rea di morte" - K 582 „Chi sä, chi sä, qual sia", Aria for soprano and orchestra - K 527 Don Giovanni, Overture (see Finale II, b 433, Ex. 048) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 9 Quartetto „Non ti fidar, o misera" (Ex. 043) * K527 Don Giovanni, no. 10, b. 70Aria Donna Anna „O r sai chi l'onore" (Ex. 049) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 19 Sestetto „Sola sola in buio loco" (Ex. 044, Ex. 045, Ex. 046, Ex. 047) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 433 „Don Giovanni, a cenar teco" (Ex. 048) * K 525 „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", 2nd movement ,Romance' (Ex. 051, Ex. 052, Ex. 165) - [K 512 „Alcandro, Io confesso", Rec. and Aria for bass and orch., aria „Non so d'onde viene"— ] - K494 Rondo in F forpiano (firstversion) (Ex.061) * K 492 Figaro, no. 17 Duettino Conte/Susanna „Crudel! perche finora" - K 492 Figaro, no. 26 Aria Basilio „In quegl'anni, in cui val poco" - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 2 ,Rondo' Mad. Silberklang „Bester Jüngling, mit Entzücken" - K 451 Piano Concerto in D, 2nd movement - K 420 Aria (Rondo) for tenor and orchestra „Per pietä, non ricercate" - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 17 Aria Belmonte „Ich baue ganz auf deine Stärke" - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 31 Terzetto „Ah caro Sposo, oh D io!" The belief that C and $ in Mozart's works are not different - caused by misprints and non-observance of textbooks of the late 18th Century - led not only to examples o f carelessness by the editors of the NMA but also to the tedium o f „chanting" performances of Andante-2/2-p\eces that walk in slow 4/4 metre. To conductthem in „historically correct" ,walking' half notes, however, would also be mistaken. A n d a n t e 2/2 with the richness of its metrical palette is Mozart's preferred vessel for contrasts of ex pression between lyric and dramatic that would seem to exclude one another. This is probably the reason why 37 out of a total of 43 movements in Andante-2/2 - among them some of the most significant - date from the period of his maturity after Die Entführung. Not only in each bar, not only within whole move ments, but also within the entire group of pieces with this indication there reigns an exceptional variety within the unity. Probably because of the broader dramatic ränge, nearly twice as many of these pieces belong to the stage as to purely instrumental music. 29 pieces in Andante 2/2 contain essential sixteenth notes and embrace the strongest contrasts. 11 with less complex expression have only simple eighth notes; in 2 rather special pieces eighth-note triplets prevail; K 497/II impresses with brilliant virtuoso thirty-second notes. The following more detailed commentaries should among other things make understandable why the harmless indication A l l e g r e t t o 4/4, physically approximately equally fast, but more lightweight, would not do justice to the complex and often very weighty musical-dramatic contents of these movements. It appears autographically (except in the Sanctus of K 257 and the Rondeau of K 617) only in accompagnato-recitatives.— Allegretto 2/2 is in its playing speed already equal to Allegro 4/4 - but because of the alla breve has greater weight. (see p. 065/066) Great contrasts are embraced by the Quartetto no. 9 in Don Giovanni („Non ti fidar, o misera", Ex. 043). The Andante 2/2 type of motion is here capable of containing within itself both the sixteenth-notes eruptions of Donna Elvira, and the noble lines of the caratteri seri. In this way the tempo is stabilized from two sides: the sixteenth notes of Elvira are highly excited, but in their piano are not hysterical, rather sobbing, stammering, in the tempo of a virtual Allegretto 4/4— : — The autograph is missing, Mozart's catalogue has Andante w ithout tim e signature. But in view o fth e whole structure, the „C " of the preceding recitative („AH:o") can no longer be valid. Though w ithout explaining its source, the NMA gives p - probably correctly. — Exceptions are the rondo in C for Class Harmonica, K 617, b. 59, (which has a wrong tim e signature in the NMA) and the strangely massive Sanctus o fth e Credo-Mass, K257, (Ex. 021) w ith its 16 fortissimos in 15 bars. — Corresponding entirely to Carl Czerny's indication for the 2nd movement of Beethoven's piano sonata op. 14, 2: „Because the metre is alla breve one must take the tempo [Andante w ith 16th notes] as a rather lively Allegretto [4/4]." (Carl Czerny, Pianoforte Schule op. 500, vol IV, 1842, chap. 2, „Uber den richtigen Vortrag der sämmtlichen Beethoven'schen Werke für das Piano allein", p .4 7 ,§ 1 9 .) 56 Mozart's Tempo-System (Andante) K 527, no. 9, m. 45 re- cenre- cen- Wche mi di- - ce di quel- tra- di- to- re, di quel- tra- di- to P sa- , che mi di- - ce, mi di- - ce di quel- tra- di- to- Ex. 043: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 9, Quartetto „Non ti fidar, o misera", b. 45-48 to co^ se chein ten- der non sa. to co- se chein ten- der non sa. On a still larger scale the Andante-2/2 of the Sestetto no. 19 in Don Giovanni („Sola sola in buio loco") offers Mozart the possibility of „expressing the different passions with different colours."206 (Ex. 044) P mf Ex. 044: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 3 Again the noble gliding in alla breve and the shock-like interjections of sixteenth notes in virtual 4/4 metre (b. 7-27); then Leporello's clumsy attempts to escape, and in b. 28, again in alla breve and in total contrast - one of the most thrilling moments in the musical literature of the world - the solemn entrance of Donna Anna and Don Ottavio in mourning and lit by torches: the change from B-flat major to the six-four chord of D, the exposed trumpets (underlaid by a roll of the timpani) in the colour of Gustav Mahler, that anticipate the accompaniment to Don Ottavio's „Tergi il ciglio" - hair-raising. (Ex. 045). i Ottavio: (without timp.) Ex. 045: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 27 Then in b. 45 the exceedingly noble change to the minor key with Donna Anna's answer, the roll of the timpani is now on D, sustained wind chords; from bar 61 and later, Elvira's long chains of sighs (Ex. 046): $ (Andante) K 527, no. 19, m. 61 o?P Donna Elvira: Ah dov’ e lo spo- so mi- Ex. 046: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 61, 76, 90, 121 and in bar 70 the stark change of mood, when Zerlina and Masetto believe they have caught Don Giovanni in the disguised Leporello: the orchestra furiously intervening „Ferma, briccone!" in typical 4/4metre (Ex. 047): 206 Da Ponte in the libretto for Don Giovanni. Mozart's Tempo-System 57 Ex. 047: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 70 Then the brutal rejection of Elvira's „Pieta!" pleas with „No, no, no, no!" and Leporello's chromatic whining again in a 2/2-pulse, the sotto-voce astonishment and forte indignation of the cheated pursuers again in 4/4 metre (b. 114) - one cannot write about it w ithout being gripped. Here the stage is the world indeed. In Mozart there is no room for false pathos, although many have forced it on him, especially in the Andante-2/2 of the Overture and in Finale II („Don Giovanni, a cenar teco" resp. „Parlo, ascolta", Ex. 048) which have been played as A d a g i o for two hundred years. Admittedly, both the gentle D minor of the Overture (without trombones) and the heightened fortissimo dissonant seventh chord with tuba m irum at the entry of the Commendatore, can survive the slowest tempo; yet could Mozart not also have written „Adagio maestoso 4/4" if he had wanted the impressive, though undialectical, monumentality of von Karajan, Giulini and Klemperer? Certainly, the scales in 16th notes of the violins with their sub/fo-pianos have played their part as expressive melodies, too; they are like gold wire which does not break by Stretching: (Andante !) K 527, no. 24, m. 479 non ho. Ex. 048: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 24 Finale II, b. 479 (without Leporello's triplets) Mozart's idea, however, which he realised with the indication Andante 2/2, seems to me to be rather the imagination of squalls from eternity (after b. 462), and at the Commendatore's entrance one can almost see the heavy curtains blowing into the banqueting hall; we heard this for the first time in the interpreta tion of John Eliot Gardiner. (To conduct it in half notes, however, would be a gross misunderstanding. And the often heard shortening of the bass's half notes in b. 434 and 436207 into quarter notes [as Mozart sketched in his Catalogue entry that shows the opening of the Overture] - thus minimizing the heavy step of the Stone Guest - is a barbarism.) Andante 2/2 contains in Mozart more than one colour: the trembling and frightened, rhythmically dissonant, triplet-chattering of the buffo Leporello constitutes a contrast that is dramaturgically equally justified with the tones from the underworld. (The repeated 32nd notes in the 2nd Violins and Violas in b. 460-469 and 479-481 [b. 23-30 in the Overture] increase the dramatic effect whilst also setting a lim it to the speed.) It has been astonishing, when, in traditional performances, the truly heroic aria of Donna Anna „O r sai chi l'onore" (Ex. 049), which is also Andante 2/2, was played 100% faster than the Overture, without any regard for the 16th-sextuplets and the slides in 32nd-quintuplets. Neither her coldly resolute demand for revenge (nearly the entire aria is pianol) nor the touching lament for her father - the two sides of her soul's turbulent condition - are realisable if the conductor beats in half-bars.— 207 (As in b. 2 and 4 of the Overture!) — The French composer and conductor Rene Leibowitz was led to a bizarre consequence: he demanded M M J=60 for Donna Anna's aria (!), the overture (!), the quartet (!), and the sextet (!) („Tempo et sens dramatique dans le ,Don Giovanni' de Mozart", in: Le Compositeur et son double, 1971). 58 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 049: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 10 Aria Donna Anna, b. 70 In movements like „Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden", the enchantingly cheerful opening of Finale II of Die Zauberflöte by the Three Boys (Ex. 050), the Andante 2/2 has an entirely different expression. Play ed as Allegretto 4/4 it would lose much of its hovering quality, so typical for the boys (about the accentuations see p. 90): Bald prangt, den Mor- gen zu ver- kün- den, die Sonn'- auf gold- ner- Bahn Ex. 050: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 11 (16th notes in b. 8 and 26!) Typical for this module is also the Romance of „Eine kleine Nachtmusik" („A little night music"). Like the second movements of the symphonies it used to suffer under the topos „slow movement" and was play ed too slowly as an Andante 4/4. Did Karl Böhm not conduct it like this? (Ex. 051): Andante — K 525, II (wrong tradition) ^ ^ -j -j ^ rrjgj fQ'f; 1 p U p u ü"VQ7 Ex. 051: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, 2nd movement, Romance (in w rong tradition) The slow tempo202 and the equal accentuation of the quarter notes made the listener believe it was w rit ten in 4/4 metre; yet, as actually notated, it is known to be an alla breve with a half-bar upbeat: the charm of the piece lies in its floating whole-bar accentuation and the „moderately lively and agreeable charac ter" (Sulzer) of a stylisedgavoffe lente (Ex. 052) = : Andante ^ Qk K 525, II, original ^ ^ ^ Ex. 052: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, 2nd movement, (original, w ith metrical markings) Metre, smallest notes and tempo word are the same as in the floating, bright „Bald / prangt, den Morgen zu ver-/ künden" of the Three Boys in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 050) and in Tamino's „Wie / stark ist nicht dein / Zauberton" in its first Finale (no. 8, b. 160).— The metrical structure (see p. 090) is a real part of the character of the expression; according to Carl Czerny it is „one of the foremost duties of the player never to leave the listener in doubt about the structure of the metre."212 — Swarowsky indicated here J>=132! (Wahrung der Gestalt. Schriften über "Werk und Wiedergabe, Stil und Interpretation in der Musik, 1979, p. 63). — „O ur conducting patterns (which did not even exist in Mozart's days) must never interfere w ith the music's pulse. Primary concern is the feeling of the metre, while the number of beats is merely a practical consideration. The Andante c in Eine kleine Nachtmusik is to be feit in two quiet units regardless of the conducting pattern." (Max Rudolf, The Grammar o f Conducting, 1980). m It is still a long way to the weightier romances of Grieg, Bruch, Reger, Sibelius! 212 Carl Czerny, Pianoforte-Schule, vol. III, [1839], Von dem Vortrage, chap. 1, „Von dem musikalischen Accent", § 2c, p. 6. Mozart's Tempo-System 59 The differentiations of metrical weight even within a whole group of bars - corresponding to the hierarchical accentuation within a single bar - which are indicated in the music examples Ex. 050 and Ex. 052, are based on the explanations of the metrical structure of g r o u p s o f bars by Türk and J.A.P. Schulz (see the excursus „Compound metres - The metric of groups of bars", p. 081)— . „The first note of every period— must be given an even more marked emphasis than a normal strong beat. Strictly speaking, these first notes are themselves stressed to a greater or lesser degree according to whether they begin a larger or smaller part of the whole."215 According to Türk only the ninth bar of the Romance (resp. b. 19 in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte) would again receive the metrical weight of the first (resp. b. 11). What broad and calmly breathing arcs come about in this way! A calmness which differs from the lethargy of Karl Böhm's version exactly by the essence of the „mouvement". A typical example may be added for movements where virtual 16th notes must be considered, if their mouvement is to be understood: the trio of the Three Ladies in the Quintetto no. 5 of Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 053). After promising the magic flute and a glockenspiel they mysteriously and sotto voce announce to Tamino as an additional gift from the queen three children as an escort on his journey to free Pamina. Exactly the lack of sixteenth notes here allows the accompaning music to float like the little boys them selves. (Andante 2/2) ^ with 8th-note triplets 3 * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 1 Introduzione, b. 176, Commendatore „Ah... soccorso!..." (Ex. 054) - K 45 Symphony in D, 2nd movement Like the Andante C of the Overture, the death of the Commendatore in no. 1, b. 176, has been conducted for decades as an Andante 4/4. The opinion that there is no difference between C and C is proved to be an error by Mozart's change of time signature at this point from C to tf, if by nothing eise. Although the quality of the melody and the density of the texture allowed the too slow tempo to appear plausible, the drama of the Situation, the agitation of those involved, went by the board. In accordance with its tempo — It would be too laborious to show this metrical weight in every music example. — [Footnote o fTürk :] „By ,period', in this whole section until § 22, I mean every greater or lesser point of rest." 215 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), 1 789, p. 336, § 1 4 ,p . 325 [app. p. 302]. 60 Mozart's Tempo-System giusto 2/2 with 8th-notes-triplets the passage must of course be faster than the pieces with 16th notes described above. If one feels an Obligation to Mozart's conscientious indication, the distance from the pieces in Andante 2/2 with on ly8 th-notes should not be huge. (Andante 2/2) ^ with 8th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 12 Quintetto with Coro, b. 113 and 123 „Qual destra re macchiarsi" * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 227 „Schnelle Füße, rascher M ut" (Ex. 056) — * K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 30 (Ariette) Alfonso „Tutti accusan le donne" (Ex. 057) - K 523 Lied „Abendempfindung an Laura", „Abend ist's, die Sonne ist verschwunden" - K 483 Lied for voice, 3-part male chorus and organ „Zerfließet heut', geliebte Brüder" * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 21a Vaudeville, b.1 + 1 0 9 „Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen" (Ex. 055) - K 383 Aria for soprano and orchestra „Nehmt meinen Dank, ihr holden Gönner!" - K247 Divertimento in F (7. Lodronische Nachtmusik), 7th movement - K216 Violin Concerto in G, 3rd movement Rondeau, b. 252 - K188 Divertimento in C for wind and timpani, 4th movement - K 82 Aria for soprano and orchestra „Se ardire e speranza" f P Ex. 055: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 21 a Vaudeville The Andante 2/2 of the Vaudeville in Die Entführung (no. 21a) is not only a model for this group. With its piü Andante from b. 64, it shows that the increase „p iü " - as a transition to the following Allegretto makes it faster and not slower - which disproves once more the earlier view of Andante as „slow". „Schnelle Füße, rascher M ut" in Die Zauberflöte, Finale I, b. 227, is again 2/2 following a virtual change of metre from the normal 4/4 of the recitative (see p. 133.). Probably seduced by the text, it is mostly performed as if Allegretto-2/2 - but why then are Pamina and Papageno after 37 bars still on the scene? And why did Mozart not indicate this tempo himself? — There can be no doubt that this Andante - as well as the Allegro in b. 265 - refers again to the c o fb .1 6 0 - in spite of the accompagnato bars in 4/4 metre in between. Mozart's Tempo-System 61 Sf P Ex. 056: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 8 Finale I, b. 227 (omitting of b. 232-235) Did he perhaps not want the flight of the two to be realistically fast, but cautiously creeping in search for Tamino and startled by the sforzati? The written out rising appogiaturas in b. 236 and 254 speak for that, the 16th note rests of which are superfluous in the usual fast tempo. It seems to me, however, that neither the 16th notes of the legato broken-chords in the first bars nor the sciolto 8th note triplets of the bars 239-241 are relevant for the tempo. The passage then places itself logically with the Andante 2/2 of „Nie werd' ich deine Huld verkennen" (without 16th notes) (Ex. 055) and Don Alfonso's „Tutti accusan le donne", no. 30 in Cos/ fan tutte (which, however, because of its „empty" first bars is often played too fast as well, Ex. 057). At the end of no. 30 Alfonso, Ferrando and Guglielmo quote the eponymous motive „Co - s i - fan - tut te" which had appeared already at two places in the Overture: first as Andante 2/2 with 16th notes, then as Presto 2/2 and now as Andante 2/2 w ithout 16th notes. There are no grounds for an identity of tempo or rational relations among the three. Mozart plays with his musical motives. (This is, by the way, another example of a virtual inner change of metre217: in b. 9-11 and 16-19 Mozart changes briefly into a 4/4 metre. Resume: what an abundance of forms in Andante 2/2! Speed is the least of its characteristics; but in my opinion it is worth reconsidering some traditional choices of tempo, in order to find again the expression Mozart wanted to indicate by the different classes of note values in this module that he valued so highly. Andante grazioso 2/2 with 16th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 21 Aria Don Ottavio „II mio tesoro intanto" (Ex. 058) - K 424 Duo in B flat for violin and viola, 3rd movement, Theme and Variations l-V * K218 Violin Concerto in D, 3rd movement ,Rondeau', b. 126 Andante grazioso is more animated than the simple Andante. The beginning of Don Ottavio's aria has the gracefulness of the nobleman begging his friends piano-legato-con sordino to console his beloved. 217 See the excursus „Virtual changes of metre", p. 115 62 Mozart's Tempo-System However, where he commits himself in b. 29-46 und 79-94 with vigorous chords and vividly articulated 16th notes to the obligatory revenge (Ex. 058), a virtual change of metre and tempo (see p. 121) into Allegro moderato 4/4 supplies the resolute expression, corresponding to the first aria of the Queen of the Night: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 4, b. 61 „Du, du, du wirst sie zu befreien gehen". (Ex. 128, p. 100) Ex. 058: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 21 Aria Don Ottavio, b. 29 and 36 Mozart reused the theme of the 3rd movement of the Violin Concerto K 218 two years later in the first contredanse for Count Czernin, more animated there, however, as a Contredanse frangaise w ithout 16th notes. PiÜ Andante [from Andante 2/2, Ex. 055] ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 21a Vaudeville, b. 64 „Verbrennen sollte man die Hunde" Con piu moto [from Andante 2/2] ^ with 8th notes - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 418 „Non signor, non e un notaio" Andante con moto 2/2 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 17 Aria Don Giovanni „Meta di voi qua vadono" (Ex. 059) Andante con moto K 527, no. 17, m. 1+55 Me- di voi qua va- do- no, f f W ‘ Ex. 059: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 17 Aria Don Giovanni, b. 1 and 55 In order to be rid of them, Don Giovanni, who is disguised as Leporello, gives his pursuers with feigned coolness confusing instructions as to where to look for him, all delivered over a basis of swaying syncopations. With the 32nd note jerks (b. 2 etc.) their eyes follow his forefinger in pantomime. Appropriate to the dangerous Situation, the metre changes constantly between a virtual 4/4 metre (b. 1,17, 44, 76) and the actual 2/2 (b. 11, 24, 60). The tempo A n d a n t e con m oto could correspond to the Andantino 2/2 of Lo sposo deluso, K 430 no. 4; in any case, however, it is slower than the Allegretto 2/2 with 16th notes of Ex. 061! ^ with 8th notes - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 31 Finale II, b. 531 „V'ingannai, ma fu l'inganno" Andantino sostenuto e cantabile 2/2 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K378 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 060) Mozart's Tempo-System 63 Ex. 060: Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, K 378, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 38 Why did Mozart write here the graceful and flowing Andantino and immediately slow it down by the ad dition sostenuto e cantabile, instead of simply choosing the slower Andante? Contrary to the manner of playing Andante „ w ith the lightness o f the allegro bow"218 the interpreters should - corresponding to the metrically dissonant pathetical forfe-eruptions (b. 1, 5 etc.) - obviously use a „serious, long, and sustained bowing, linking the notes of the melody fogefber."219 - w i t h o u t becoming too slow! Andantino 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 430 Lo Sposo deluso, no. 4 Terzetto „Che accidenti! che tragedia!" 42 of Mozart's 57 Andantino-movements in all metres (with or without an additional word) were written before his Viennese period of maturity - as a reflection of the Rococo, so to speak. The most significant ones, however, belong to the great operas after „Die Entführung": „Dove sono" in Figaro (Ex. 220) and „Dalla sua pace" in Don Giovanni (Ex. 219) (both in virtual 4/8 metre), as well as „Ah taci, ingiusto core" in Don Giovanni (Ex. 354) and „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" in Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356) (both in compound 6/8 metre). Un poco allegro 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 77 „Misero pargoletto", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 75 „Come in un punto, oh Dio" Allegretto 2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 13 Aria Annio „Torna di Tito a lato" (legato) * K 575 String Quartet in D (1. Prussian Quartet), 1st movement (legato) (Ex. 062) — * K 533 Piano Sonata in F, 3rd movement ( = K 494 Rondo for piano) (legato) (Ex. 061) - K 524 „An Chloe", Lied for singer with piano accompaniment (legato) - K 505 Rezitative and Aria „Ch'io mi scordi di te?", Rondo, b. 74 „Alme belle, che vedete" (legato) - K 502 Piano T r io inB flat, 3rd movement (legato) - K 500 Twelve Variations in B flat on an Allegretto for piano, Theme, Variations l-X - K 498 Tr io inE flat (Kegelstatt Trio), 3rd movement Rondeaux (legato) - K 496 Piano Trio in G, 3rd movement, Theme, Variations l-IV, VI - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 2 Rondo Mme. Silberklang, b. 47, „Nichts ist mir so wert"(/egafo) - K 455 Ten Variations in G for piano on „Unser dummer Pöbel meint", Theme, Vars. I-Vlll - K 454 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 3rd movement (legato) - K 359 Twelve Variations in G for piano and violin „La Bergere Celimene", Theme, Vars. I-X - K 344 Zaide, no. 14 Aria Allazim, b. 12 and 95 „und weil euch Glück und Ansehn ziert" 218 Reichardt, Ueber die Pflichten des Ripien-Violi nisten ('On the Duties o fth e Tutti (Ripieno) Violinist'), 1 776, p. 26 [app. p. 296]. 219 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School ofV io lin Playing'), chap. 1, sect. 3 „Musical Technical Terms", „Sostenuto"; [app. p. 272]. — According to the Critical Report originally C. The Allegro c in the catalogue can actually only be an error of Mozart. 64 Mozart's Tempo-System RONDO Ex. 061: Piano Sonata in F, K 533, 3rd movement Rondo, b. 1, 67 and 143 The speed indication for most of the A//egreffo-C-pieces could as well be A//egro 4/4. However, the principal manner of playing of nearly all of them is legato, and the „pleasant" character of the Allegretto 2/2 corresponds to them better than the brilliant liveliness of the Allegro 4/4 (see p. 027: „Koch"). The beginning of nearly all of them misleads the interpreter about the note values relevant for the tempo: 16th notes or 8th note triplets occur only later. The third movement of the Piano Sonata K 533 emerged from the Rondo for piano K 494 (Andante 2/2), which Mozart prolonged by an insertion of 27 bars after b. 142; however, he then increased the tempo (as compensation?) to Allegretto. (Ex. 061) In the String Quartet in D, K 575, both the first and fourth movements are Allegretto 2/2. The first, originally notated as 4/4, introduces its theme in whole- and half-notes, which does not lead one to expect the later 16th note passages; subsequently the theme is processed in halved note-values. The fourth move ment uses from the beginning the smaller note-values, but now in a somewhat more fluent tempo, since instead of the 16th notes now eighth note triplets are the smallest essential note values (Ex. 062, Ex. 063): i -e- K h --------------r: 47 0 g ä r w f sotto voce__ 9 d* : Tte -6Lr k h y ji t 1 ä ä ä r r r r -----0J0J0J0 r r r r r r n 1— i ----------------- J s f -9- ■5€ L Ex. 062: String Quartet in D, K 575, 1st movement, b. 1 and 47 Allegretto K 575, IV, m. 1 +26 Va Vc -0- 1 p 1 0 r f r ff fr------^ -------ip iN § Ex. 063: String Quartet in D, K 575, 4th movement, b. 1 and 26 The fourth movement of K 575 has unusually differentiated dynamics with p, mf, f, mfp, the staccato-like sfp (b. 106, 110) and the often used broad sf(orzando) as in the overture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 032) and the Examples Ex. 033, Ex. 189 and Ex. 192. (Allegretto 2/2) ^ with 8th note-triplets 3 * K 575 String Quartet in D (1st Prussian Quartet), 4th movement (legato) (Ex. 063) (see above) - K 452 Quintet in E flat for piano and wind, 3rd movement (legato) * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 208 „Liebstes Blondchen, ach, verzeihe!" (legato) (Ex. 064) Mozart's Tempo-System 65 Ex. 064: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 1 6 Quartett, b. 214 ( lst System triplets instead of Mozart's 12/8-metre). Thanks to Blonde's quarrelsome 12/8 counterpoint, the Allegretto-2/2 tempo of the passage „Liebstes Blondchen, ach, verzeihe!" (resp. „Ach Konstanze" at the beginning of the 12/8-metre) in the Quartett, no. 16, from Die Entführung is really quite obvious. Contrary to the practice of some conductors it does not change in b. 258 into the following Allegro 2/2 in the easy relation J=J, since Mozart wished for a n ew tempo there. ^ with 8th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 14 Terzetto b. 34 „Rammenta chi t'adora" (legato) - K 621 La Clemenza di Titof no. 26 Sestetto with Chorus „Tu, e ver, m'assolvi Augusto" (legato) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 11 Duettino Priest/Speaker „Bewahret euch vor Weibertücken" (legato) * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 543 „Halt ein! Halt ein! Halt ein! Halt ein!" (Ex. 065) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 24 Aria Ferrando „Ah Io veggio, quell'anima bella" (legato) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 31 Finale II, b. 496 „A voi s'inchina, bella damina" * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 21b Aria Elvira, b. 37 „M i tradi quell' alma ingrata" (legato) (Ex. 066) - K 499 String Quartet i n D , 1 st movement (legato) - K 424 Duo in B flat for violin and viola, 3rd movement, Variation VI - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 21a Vaudeville, b. 68 (Osmin) „es ist nicht länger auszusteh'n" - K 344 Zaide, no. 6 Aria Gomatz „Herr und Freund, wie dank ich d ir!" (legato) - K 255 Recitative and Aria for alto and orchestra „Ombra felice!", b. 137 aria „Io ti lascio" - K 216 Violin Concerto in G, 3rd movement Rondeau, b. 265— 543 Allegretto 1. Knabe: i Halt ein! halt ein! 55 0 Papageno: K 620, no. 21, m. 543 + 550 2. Knabe: Halt ein! f f halt ; j + T ein! o Pa- pa- ge- no, und seim 3. Knabe: Haltein! Orchester: - Pa- pa- ge- r klug! rno, und sei klug! Ihr habt gut 3 , 3 * 3 re- den, gut zu 3 , 3 , 3 , 3 * P Ü P halt ein! / P Ex. 065: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 543 and 550 The entrance of the Three Boys, intervening so dramatically (the half-note in b. 544, goal of the crescen do, should not be shortened to a quarter!), cannot have the tempo of „Liebstes Blondchen, ach verzei he!" („Ach Konstanze!" Ex. 064) with its vocal triplets. Is its Allegretto 2/2 not rather that of Donna Elvira's „M i tradi quell'alma ingrata" (Ex. 066)? The 2nd Violins' spiccato broken chord triplets that reflect Papageno, trembling from fear of his own courage, could then - like trem oli - be left out of consideration for the tempo (which does not mean that one should play the Allegretto as Allegro - as traditionally done in Donna Elvira's aria!). Donna Elvira's aria „M i tradi quell'alma ingrata" in the Viennese version of Don Giovanni, vacillating be tween fury and compassion, seems paradoxically just then too long when the profoundly melancholy eighth note melodies (vc. and va. in b. 98!), interweaved between soprano and orchestra, are trivialized into conventional A l l e g r o -coloraturas. No, the „conflict of feelings", „sighs" and „anguish" of the reci tative are the prevailing mood of the aria, too. — This Allegretto-2/2-„Strasbourger" dance, in spite of its virtuosic eighth note triplets, brings an increase of tempo compared to the preceding Andante 2/2 (only 8th notes); it is therefore classified w ith the Allegrettos w ith 8th notes. 66 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 066: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 21b Aria Elvira, b. 37 Allegretto grazioso 2/2 with 16 notes - K 376 Piano and Violin Sonata in F, 3rd movement Rondeau (legato) * K 333 Piano Sonata in B flat, 3rd movement (Ex. 067) Allegretto grazioso K 333. III, m. 1+29 Ex. 067: Piano Sonata in B flat, K 333, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 29 Allegro moderato 2/2 with 16th notes - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 10b Rondo Idamante, b. 66 „Alme belle che vedete' — - K 174 String Quartet in B flat, 1st movement ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 201 Symphony in A, 1st movement (Ex. 164) - K141a Symphony i n D , 1 st movement - K 126 II sogno di Scipione, Overture - K114Symphony i n A ,1 st movement Allegro mä non troppo 2/2 ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K 449 Piano Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement Allegro maestoso 2/2 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 492 Figaro, no. 18, b.41( = 1) Aria Conte „Vedro mentre io sospiro" (Ex. 068) — I refer the autograph tempo word in b. 66 of the „Rondo" to a 2/2 metre, though the beginning of the Rondo has no autograph time signature. The NMA took its ,C' for the Rondo from the Recitative, and its non-autograph „Andante" from b. 44 there, which results in a tempo that is much too slow. As explained in my chapter about recitative metre (see p. 131) tempo words in a recitative - though this is generally notated in „C"-metre - often refer to a virtual $ metre; this metre could - together with the „Andante" perfectly well continue to be valid in the rondo. The 16th notes of the solo-violin racing up and down in the Allegro moderato 2/2 depict the tumult in Idamante's tormented heart. This piece has nothing in common with the Allegro moderato 4/4 of the first aria of the Queen of the Night („Du wirst sie zu befreien gehen", Ex. 128) or with the MA chi mai manco di fede" in Fiordiligi's aria (Cos/ fan tutte, no. 25, b. 35/ (16th notes in the horn!). Mozart's Tempo-System 67 Allegro maestoso K 492, no. 18, m. 41=1 1 r r r r r r r r1 rrrr rrrr rrrr rrrrrrrr rrrr crescendo Ex. 068: Figaro, K 492, no. 18 Aria Conte, b. 41=1 As sheer gestures, the 32nd-note tiratas in Mozart's only Allegro maestoso 2/2 do not play a significant part in finding the tempo - even though their correct execution a f t e r the 2nd and 4th quarters of the bar sets a limit. Physically it should correspond approximately to Allegretto grazioso 2/2 (Ex. 067) or to Allegro 4/4 with 16th notes (Ex. 130, Ex. 131, Ex. 132); the pathos and weight of the alla breve with its whole-bar accentuation, however, and the „maestoso" shed a light on the tragicomical blindness of the Count. Allegro 2/2 ^ with 16 notes - K 588 Cosi fan tuttef no. 29 Duetto Fiordiligi/Ferrando, b. 24 „Son tradita! Deh partite..." * K 542 Piano Trio in E, 3rd movement (Ex. 069) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, T. 554 „Da qual tremore insolito" (see p. 124) * K281 Piano Sonata in B flat, 3rd movement, Rondeau (Ex. 070) - K204 Serenade in D, 4th movement - K 42 Grabmusik, Cantata, no. 1 Aria Seele „Felsen, spaltet euren Rachen" Allegro K 542, III, m. 1+38 + 134frrrr ? iTrrg ) 2 ---------- U 4 s - ; dolce HA- r m n n- LLlT r * £ ■82 J J J -g ----------------- _____ __ ^— _ä— ä — ä_ £ m m r n Ex. 069: Piano Trio in E, K 542, 3rd movement, b. 1, 38 and 134 (piano part) The third movement of the Piano Trio in E has one of the openings that mislead: the 16th notes - though virtuoso but still limiting the speed - appear only in b. 38. Contrary to the whole-bar metric of the 2/2 metre underlined by long /egafo-slurs, two harmonies per bar already in b. 5-8, 13-18 and 31-34 create virtual time changes (see p. 121) into a 4/4 (2/4+2/4) metre with half-bar stresses. From b. 563 in Finale II of Don Giovanni the underworld chorus forces with heavy accents a virtual 4/2 metre of the stile antico (see p. 035 and Ex. 175) onto the Allegro 2/2 „Da qual tremore insolito" with its licking flames ofw ritten out 16th-note turns and its steeply falling „rockets" (see p. 128 and Ex. 175). The Rondeau of the Piano Sonata in B flat, K 281, is deceptive as well: the tempo is not determined by the virtuoso 8th note triplets, since the 16th notes in b. 29, 31, 113, 118 lim it the speed. In spite of the alla breve, there are two harmonies per bar nearly throughout. (Ex. 070): RONDEAU K 281, Ii \i icgi \ Fr P r r r r r i ^ A K », j i J J J J lp Ex , r f . 070: Pian r r o Sonata in r r r r B flat, K 28 V 1/ 3r , m. 1 +30 30 J3 m * 68 Mozart's Tempo-System [Allegro 2/2] ^ with 8th note triplets 3 * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 1 Introduction, Three Ladies, b .1 5 3 / b.174 „Was wollte ich darum nicht geben" / „Du Jüngling schön und liebevoll" (Ex. 0 7 1 ) - K 593 String Quintet in D, 1st movement, b. 22 and 252 - K 588 Cos! fan tuttef no. 18 Finale I, b. 62 „Si mora si, si mora" - K 539 Lied for Bass and orchestra, „Ich möchte wohl der Kaiser sein" - K 533 Piano Sonata in F, 1st movement * K 492 Figaro, no. 5 Duettino Marcellina/Susanna „Via resti servita, madama brillante" (Ex. 0 7 2 ) — * (K 459 Piano Concerto in F, 1st movement (in Mozart's Verzeichnüß „Allegro vivace") (Ex. 0 8 5 ) - K 423 Duo in G for violin and viola, 3rd movement, Rondeau - K 377 Piano and Violin Sonata in F, 1st movement - K299 Concerto for flute, harp and orchestra, 3rd movement, Rondeau - K 296 Piano and Violin Sonata in C, 3rd movement, Rondeau - K238 Piano Concerto in B flat, 3rd movement [- K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 533 „Trema, trema, o scellerato!" (Ex. 1 7 1 , Ex. 1 7 2 ) (see p. 123/124)] After beginning the Allegro 2/2 of Die Zauberflöte, no. 1, b. 153 too fast („Was wollte ich darum nicht ge ben"), a false sentimentality of „Du Jüngling schön und liebevoll" (b. 174) and the limiting speed of the orchestra's tutti sciolto 8th notes triplets (b. 182-184) then caused an arbitrary meno-mosso tradition. The Contemporary style, however, demanded unity of tempo throughout, that is, b. 153 must already contain the 8th note triplets virtually. (Allegro) i i . j>.- n j> f r ■> K 620, no. 1, m. 174+182 182 .. „ J,. I [ P Du Jüng- ling schön und lie- be- voll, du r 3 trau- ter Jüng- ling le- be wohl, bis Ex. 071: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 1 Introduction, Drei Damen, b. 1 74 and 182— The other pieces of this group follow here, in my opinion, without any great problems. Because of a misprint in the Old Mozart Edition, the Duettino no. 5 in Figaro, however, demands considerable rethinking,. The autograph, now again accessible, shows that the tempo indication is not Allegro 4/4 but Allegro 2/2. It must be admitted that playing the piece in the tempo of our group „Allegro 2/2 with 8th note triplets" needs a bit of courage - but it is worth it! Susanna and Marcellina develop there an hilarious furioso, spitting poison, pouring venom, truly opera buffa. I cannot see that one can avoid this rethink. (The sciolto 8th note triplets in octaves of the violins in bar 29-32 and 48-51, incidentally, resemble very much those of the Three Ladies in Ex. 071). -— i1 Q ä m m m m j r ^ S i n n . ; - p K 492, no. 5, < 0 i I W » c ^ f T c p r Marcellina: ! 3 *3 ^3 i* 9) 9-0 ß m w J J i f r * ; N * r " r 3= — Via re- sti ser- vi- C F p ta, ma- da- - mabril ■lan- te Ex. 072: Figaro, K492, no. 5, Duettino Marcellina/Susanna — Score of the NMA after AMA (Old Mozart Edition): Allegro 4/4. — In the music example the different metrical weight of the two halves of the bar has been marked. Mozart's Tempo-System 69 (Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes (Group I) - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 1 Duetto Vitellia/Sesto, b. 34 „Fan mille affetti insieme battaglia" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 18 Terzetto, b. 42 „(Non puo chi more di piü penar)" * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, Overture, b.16 and 103 (Ex. 0 7 8 ) * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 265 „Ha! - hab' ich euch noch erwischt!" (Ex. 0 7 3 )— * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 301 „Das klinget so herrlich" (Ex. 0 7 4 ) * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 327 „Könnte jeder brave Mann" (Ex. 0 7 5 ) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 441 „Na, stolzer Jüngling; nur hierher!" - K 588 Cos! fan tutte, no. 2 Terzetto „E la fede delle femine" - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 18 Finale I, b. 485 „Dammi un bacio, o mio tesoro" - K 588 Cos! fan tutte , no. 24 Aria Ferrando, b. 99 „Ah cessate, speranze fallaci!" - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 27 Aria Ferrando „Tradito, schernito dal perfido cor" - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 31 Finale II, b. 204 „M iei signori, tutto e fatto" - K 588 Cos! fan tutte , no. 31 Finale II, b. 441 „Giusto ciel! Voi qui scriveste"— - K 558 Canon „Gehn w ir im Prater, gehn w ir in d'Hetz" - K 528 Rec. and Aria for soprano and orch. „Bella mia fiamma", b. 80 Aria „Ah! dov' e il tempio?" * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 2 Duetto Anna/Ottavio, b. 63 and 133 „Fuggi, crudele, fuggi" (Ex. 0 7 7 ) - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 4 'Schlussgesang' „Jeder Künstler strebt nach Ehre" - K 464 String Quartet in A (5. Haydn-Quartet), 4th movement227 - K 388 Serenade for wind in C minor ( = K 406, arrangement of K 388), 1st movement - K 344 Zaide, no. 1 Chorus „Brüder, laßt uns lustig sein" - K 344 Zaide, no. 8 Terzetto, b. 45 „Möchten doch einst Ruh' und Friede" * K 304 Piano and Violin Sonata in E minor, 1st movement (Ex. 0 7 6 ) - K 272 Recit., Aria and Cavatina for Soprano and Orch. „Ah, Io previdü", b. 28 Aria „Ah, t'invola" - K 183 Symphony in G minor, 4th movement - K175 Piano Concerto in D, 3rd movement - K135 Lucio Silla, no. 22 Aria Giunia, b. 30 „Giä vacillo, giä manco, giä moro" - K134 Symphony in A, 4th movement For this group of altogether 33 pieces with simple 8th notes I would like to discuss some that are particularly well-known; for this purpose, I shall divide them into three subgroups. As the first music examples I have intentionally chosen a passage from Die Zauberflöte which combines three entirely different characters of expression under one single tempo indication. If 1) the entrance of Monostatos in Finale I (Allegro „Ha! - - hab' ich euch noch erwischt!" Ex. 0 7 3 ) is overdramatized, then 2) the little dance of the slaves enchanted by Papageno's chimes („Das klinget - so herr lich, - das klinget - so schön!", Ex. 0 7 4 ) and its rests of amazement lose their aura of another world. — As to the 2/2 metre from b. 228 (not indicated, but to be assumed) see the remarks concerning the „Recitative metre" above. — The legato 16th notes, raging w ith indignation, and the falling „rockets" in b. 456 and 462 are not relevant for the tempo here. — In the autograph only Allegro. The NMA, assuming the indication could be by Mozart, adopts from the first edition (1785) „Allegro non troppo ". However, in comparison w ith other movements in Allegro c (if, for their part, they are not taken too fast) this indication shows itself in my opinion to be also quite appropriate here. In view of the first bars w ith only few 8th notes the indication „non troppo" could be intended as a warning - as in the 3rd movement of the piano concert in E flat, K 449. 70 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 074: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 8 Finale I, b. 302 After a general pause with the relieved laughter of the two refugees follows 3) one of Schikaneder's wise sayings („Könnte jeder brave Mann", Ex. 075).— Ex. 075: Die Zauberflöte, K620, no. 8 Finale I, b. 327 Even though Mattheson, C.Ph.E. Bach, Hiller and Türk allowed modifications of tempo for a few bars when the expression required it,222 in principle they demanded, like all other theorists, a consistent tem po that was stable in itself. Quantz: „ I f a piece is to make a good effect, it must be played not only in its own tempo, but also, from beginning to end, in one single tempo, not now slower, now faster."230 Kirnberger/Schulz even warned the c o m p o s e r : „to be careful in writing a piece not to hurry or drag. "231 Leopold Mozart demanded repeatedly „evenness o f tem po"232 and criticised the violinists Janitsch and Reicha: „Both however make Beck's mistake o f dragging, holding the whole orchestra back w ith a w ink andgesture, and only then returning to the original tem po."233 Wolfgang criticised Nanette Stein's lack of a steady tempo even in Adagio, and contrasted it to his own playing.= The three places in the first Finale of Die Zauberflöte seem to me a good example for the task with which Mozart confronts the interpreter in so many pieces: to find a common tempo for completely different characters of expression.222 — The anonymous metronome indications in piano/vocal scores of the Paris publishing house Schlesinger (from 1822) communicated by Max Rudolf („Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Temponahme", in: Mozart- Jahrbuch 1976/77, p. 204-224), which by their worldw ide circulation exerted considerable influence on performance practice, contain for this passage three particularly glaring examples of complete arbitrariness: for „Schnelle Füße" J=88, for „Ha! - hab ich euch noch erw ischt!" including „Das klinget so herrlich" J=108 [!], and finally, as culmination, halving o fth e tempo to J=108 at „Könnte jeder brave Mann". Schlesinger published them in the course of 134 performances in Paris between 1801 and 1827 of a „Zauberflöte“ -past\che named „Les Mysteres d'lsis", and from 1824 a parody of C. M. von Weber's „Freischütz“ called „Robin des Bois" (both of them published as full scores!). Reichardt, Spohr, Berlioz and the Leipziger AmZ commented on them sarcastically („Les miseres d 'lc i") [app. p. 349]. - How could anonymous metronomizations from such an incompetent and irresponsible music scene have ever been taken seriously? (As they were by Max Rudolf 1978, Clemens von Gleich 1987/1988, Klaus Miehling 1992). — Mattheson speaks about retarding and accelerating the tempo as an exception (Capellmeister, 1 739, p. 481, chap. 26, §13 [app. p. 338]; ^ C.Ph.E. Bach allows „at times" „errors in tim e" in an expressive solo performance and in chamber music. {Essay on the True Art o f Playing the Clavier, part I, chap. 3, § 8) [app. p. 329] ^ Hiller allows „interventions into the strict tempo if they have the heart as source." Wöchentliche Nachrichten {'Weekly News and Annotations Concerning Music'), 2nd year, 1767, no. 12, p. 116 [app. p. 330]). ^ C.Ph.E. Bach und Hiller, however, refer to the style o fth e „Empfindsamkeit" - like Türk's „hurrying and dragging", Klavierschule', 1 789 {'School ofClavier Playing') chap. 6, p. 370-375, § 63 [app. p. 307]. 230 Quantz, 'Versuch einer Anweisung {'On Playing the Flute'), 1 752, p. 256, § 35, see also p. 254, § 35 [app. p. 326]). 231 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), II, 1 776, p.112 [app. p .231]. 232 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule {'School ofV io lin Playing'), p. 262, § 20/21 [app. p. 273/274]. 233 Leopold's letter to Wolfgang of 29.01.1778 (no. 411; app. p. 261). — „She w ill never grasp the most essential, the hardest and main thing in music, namely the tempo, because from her youth she has made the greatest effort not to play in time. Everyone is amazed that I always keep accurately in time. They cannot at all grasp that the left hand must know nothing of tempo rubato in an Adagio; w ith them the left hand always gives way." (Letter of 24.10.1777, no. 355 [App. p. 260]). Nikolaus Harnoncourt sacrificed this „harmony o fth e metre", absolutely essential for Mozart's style, in his Salzburg Figaro 2006 w ith tempos fluctuating up to 20% and continual overextending of the general pauses for a misunderstood, forced expressivity. In this way he disregarded the supreme aesthetic principles o fthe time: „c larity", „distinctness" and naturalness. — On this topic see the remarks of W. J. Allanbrook here on p. 126 as well as Erich Leinsdorf, The Composer's Advocate: A Radical Orthodoxy for Musicians, 1981, p. 110. ^ Frederick Neumann quotes in this connection the three very different themes in the first Mozart's Tempo-System 71 This task arises, however, not only within the same work, but also between independent pieces with the same indication. On the one hand, the first movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata in E minor, K 304 (Ex. 076) may serve as an example: Allegro _ K 304, I $ P r e r r g m pp Ex. 076: Piano and Violin Sonata in E minor, K 304, 1st movement and on the other, Donna Anna's „Fuggi, crudele, fuggi!" (Ex. 077) which is as different from this as it is from the pieces in Die Zauberflöte. Let us nevertheless try to think of it together with them in order to understand the breadth of the ränge of expressions that can be covered in Mozart's works by one module consisting of a single metre, a single class of note values, and a single tempo word. Ex. 077: Don Giovanni, K527, no. 2 Duetto Donna Anna/Don Ottavio „Fuggi crudele, fuggi", b. 63 + 134 My list contains several Allegro-2/2 movements which are traditionally played quite differently: an ex ample which falls out of the line of the other pieces is for instance the slow tempo of the Allegro in Karl Böhm's recording of the Overture to Die Zauberflöte where one gets the impression of a very serious fugue about a rather dry staccato theme in 4/4 time (Ex. 078). Ex. 078: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, Overture, b.16 (it is a//a brevel) However, after Sarastro's solemn appearance in the Adagio-introduction, does not Türk's „frolicsome jo y "236 now prevail in the Allegro's „peculiar m ixture o f solemnity and vernacular hum our"? 237 Is this not already the diction of the Papageno/Papagena Duett in Finale II („Papapapapapa-gena, Papapapapapageno!", b. 616, Ex. 081) which has the same tempo indication? W itty as Mozart's thought was, he was able to bring the Papageno-world in the form of a fugue, as if to say that one should not underestimate the intelligence of the lad. He wrote to his father: „I find that in music the Pantaloon is not yet stamped out." 238 (Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes (Group II) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 5 Quintett „Hm! Hm! Hm! Hm!" * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 12 Quintett „Wie? - wie? - wie?" (Ex. 079) * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 576 „Klinget Glöckchen, klinget" (Ex. 080) * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 616 „Pa- Pa-Pa" (Ex. 081) * K 525 „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", 4th movement (Ex. 082) movement of the ,Jupiter' symphony („Changing Timesf Metref Denominations, and Tempo in Music o fth e 17th and 18th Centuries", in: Historical Performance 6,1993, p.28). 236 According to Türk one of the possible characters of an Allegro. Klavierschule ('School o f Clavier Playing'), chap 1, sect. 5, § 72, p. 111 [app. p. 300]. 237 John Stone in: H.C. Robbins Landon: The Mozart Compendium, 1990, p. 157. 238 Mozart's letter to his father of 16.06.1781 (no. 606; [app. p. 265]). 72 Mozart's Tempo-System Papageno: Wie? was? sie soll im Tempel sein? Ex. 079: Die Zauberflöte, K620, no. 12 Quintett, b. 2, 37, 54 (Allegro) w Glockenspiel W 6 ü g e g j S Ü Streicher, Fl, Fg K 620, no. 21, m. 580 I m m m m m (Allegro) 624 t r Klin- get Glöck- chen, klin- get, schafft mein Mäd- chen her! Ex. 080: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 580 K 620, no. 21, m. 624 i iifTY-TTt r >ir .r rn f.$ w w P f P m m f e i f mm i m f Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa- Pa Papageno: Papagena: Papageno: Papagena: Ex. 081: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 624 Whereas the tempi of the Allegro 2/2 pieces with 8th notes of Group I of my list (p. 076) are in perfor mance usually taken quite close to each other, the Quintets no. 5 and 12 in Die Zauberflöte are often taken considerably faster. Instead of: „W ie - ? Wie - ? Wie — ?" - with theatrical gasps for breath between the words and Prolongation of the last one into a half note (Ex. 079) three short „Wie,wie,wie" and „Nie,nie,nie" are heard. Like that, rests lose their quality as music, their activity as sospiri - sighs. The hypocritically dissonant /egafo-syncopations between flute and first violins in b. 9-10 and 13-14 need time to be heard; the trills with termination in b. 37-40 need time to be played; and the accumulation of consonants of „Man zischelt viel sich in die Ohren" of the intriguers from b. 54 needs time to be produced. Hilarious, the chicken-hearted Papageno (violins b. 37) almost flipping out at the rumour of the Three Ladies „[die Königin] - sie soll im Tempel sein?" („you mean the Queen is in the temple?"). Like the Quintett no. 12, „Klinget Glöckchen, klinget" in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte (b. 576) also suffers from the seeming lack of limit to the possible speed of playing. Since 8th notes are the smallest values, Presto 2/2 seems almost possible. But not only the expectant magic of the glockenspiel-solo - it draws Papageno's little wife onstage - depends on a moderate tempo, but also the following scene where Papa geno and Papagena in „com ical play" like cock and hen circle slowly around each other in incredulous amazement, as if with jerking heads: „Pa -- Pa-Pa, Pa -- Pa-Pa" (Ex. 081). And as in the enchanted dance of the slaves (Ex. 74) - again the rests of amazement in between! The rondo of the „Little Night Music" K 525 (Ex. 082) has so often been played as a , last dance' in Allegro m o l t o that it can hardly be conceived in Mozart's charmingly simple Allegro any more). The forte syncopations of the first violins in b. 10-11, however, lose in this way all of their conciseness,— the triplestopped chords lose their power; the chromatic passages in thirds and sixths, the numerous details of — Comparable w ith many places w ith quarter note syncopations in Figaro, where Erich Leinsdorf admonished: „such rhythmic movement is meaningful and must not be blurred, as it is sure to be at too rapid a speed" {The Composer's Advocate, 1981, p. 107). Mozart's Tempo-System 73 articulation, the frequent changes to half bar accentuation, the stretto at the end of the movement, are then lost within the whirring mechanism. They would all profit from a more moderate tempo. Ex. 082: Eine kleine Nachtmusik, K 525, 4th movement, Rondo, b. 1 ,10,14 (Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes (Group III) ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 258 „Es lebe die Liebe" (Ex. 083) Ex. 083: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 16, Finale ultimo, Quartett, b. 258 It seems impossible to fit the tempo of the Quartett in Die Entführung („Es lebe die Liebe", no. 16, Ex. 083) into the frame of our Allegro-2/2-group. For the comfort of the conductor, the transition from the foregoing Allegretto 2/2 („Liebstes Blondchen", see p. 065, Ex. 064) is mostly done in the relation J=J which makes the ,new' tempo (which then is actually not new) as fast as the Presto 2/2 of the Overture. But are we allowed to neglect Mozart's wish, who wanted a change of tempo that resulted from the mutually granted forgiveness of the protagonists? He even carefully reduced his original indication Allegro assai 2/2 (which would have corresponded to the fourth movement of the G-minor symphony, after all) to Allegro at four places in the score, and marked the parts of the wind instruments and timpani, written later, in the same way! The NMA writes therefore in its foreword: „Undoubtedly the intention is to avoid too swift a tempo, or to warn of an overhasty ending." However, what is „too swift"? Certainly the tempo of the finale ultim o in Don Giovanni (Ex. 092), (the tempo in which this Quartett is often heard) but which M o zart, as ajoyful celebratory farewell, marked Pres to 2/2. The case awaits further investigation. It seems to contradict the possibility of recognizing a stringent Sys tem in Mozart's tempo indications. However, together with only a few others, it is an exception among the many hundred indications which, on the contrary, fit w ithout constraint into such a System. Quantz however warned: „In spite of all the liveliness demanded by Allegro one must never lose one's composure. For everything that is played hastily causes anxiety in the listener rather than contentment. One must always make the affect to be expressed one's main aim, and not the speed of playing. One could prepare an artificial music machine that would play certain pieces with such exceptional speed and precision that no person would be able to imitate with fingers or tongue. This would certainly also arouse astonishment, but never touch anyone; and if you had heard it a few times and knew how it was made, then your astonishment would cease. He then who would insist on the merit of emo tion over the machine must indeed play every piece with the passion that is proper to it; but he must never immoderately exaggerate, otherwise the piece would lose all its agreeableness."240 Piu Stretto (from Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes (triplets quasi tremolo) [- K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 623 „se cadesse ancor il mondo" (Ex. 173) (see p. 124]) 240 Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung ('On Playing the Flute) ')f1 752, chap. XII, p .1 13 ,§ 1 1 [app. p. 324]. 74 Mozart's Tempo-System Piu allegro 2/2 (from Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes - K513 Aria for Bass and orchestra „Mentre ti lascio, oh figlia", b. 173 „ah mi si spezza il cor" Allegro agitato 2/2 ^ with 8lh note triplets 3 ❖ K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 5 Aria Don Alfonso „Vorrei dir, e cor non ho" ❖ K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 11 Aria Dorabella „Smanie implacabili che m'agitate" (Ex. 084) Ex. 084: Cos/ fan tutte , K 588, no. 11 Aria Dorabella Between the tempo gradations Allegro 2/2 and Allegro M olto 2/2 lie pieces which are so often driven to the limit of playability: the A l l e g r o a g i t a to arias of Dorabella (|„Sma-nie im-pla-|ca-bili", Ex. 084) and Don Alfonso (|„Vorrei |dir, - e cor non |ho, // |bal-bet-|tando il |lab-bro |va"), which as a caricature with faltering diction gasping for breath sets in each bar two pronounced accents against the 2/2 metre.— „Agitato (agitated, restless). This word, which sometimes follows the word Allegro, does not increase the meaning of the same with regard to speed, but takes away its cheerful character and puts in its place the character of restlessness and despair."242 „Agitato. Impetuous, agitated, anxious. This term defines not only the degree of speed, but particularly the character of a movement."243 Starting from the Three Ladies' Allegro 2/2 with eighth note triplets of „Du Jüngling schön und liebevoll" in Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 071), Dorabella's agitato-aria that is also determined by eighth note triplets should be only a little swifter, if her wonderfully exalted self-dramatization is not to be diminished. Allegro (vivace) 2/2 ^ with 8lh note triplets 3 * K 459 Piano Concerto in F, 1st movement (in Mozart's catalogue Allegro vivace) (Ex. 085) so [Allegro (vivace)] r r r r r = 9 m m' m p m K 459, 1, m. 80 ^— 1— Oboe, bassoon (16 bassa) r h - T f i r f l J T i --------- 1=-- 3 r h j t i r b > C T------------- 1 J t 3 J -T3 J jJ I - J J m Pianoforte Ex. 085: Piano Concerto in F, K459, 1st movement, b. 80 The first movement of the Piano Concerto in F, K 459, to the Allegro of which Mozart has added in his autograph catalogue 'vivace', is certainly a little more lively than the non-modified Allegro 2/2 of the Ron deau in K 281 (Ex. 070) or the Trio of the Three Ladies „Du Jüngling schön und liebevoll" (Ex. 071), but vi vace „is n o t about increasing the speed but about providing it w ith w a r m t h . " 244 Otherwise Mozart — The Allegro Agitato arias no. 13 and 21 in La Pinta Giardiniera, K 196 (as ,short' 4/4, a little slower), and no. 22 in 6/8 metre have the same disrupted gesture of the „ il fiato mi manca" as these arias of Don Alfonso and Dorabella. - The Cavatina no. 3 „Ah pieta" in Martin y Soler's Una cosa rara (Allegro agitato in ,short' 4/4) is agitated in the same way. 242 Ignaz Jos. Pleyel (?), Clavier-Schule, 1 796, ca. 41810, p. 33), cit. after Siegbert Rampe, Mozarts Claviermusik, 1995, p. 153. 243 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical D ictionary'), 1802, col. 92/93 [app. p. 311]. 244 J.J.O. de Meude-Monpas: „V if, vivace: Mouvement anime, execution hardie et pleine de feu. II ne s'agit pas de häter la mesure, mais de lui donner de la c h a le u r . " (Dictionnaire de Musique, 1787, p. 210). ^ „The term vivace pertains more to expression than to speed." (Erich Leinsdorf, The Composer's Advocate, 1981, p. 110). Mozart's Tempo-System 75 could easily have marked the aria of Dorabella „E amore un ladroncello" (Ex. 365) with „Allegro" instead of „Allegretto vivace". ^ with 8th notes * K 492 Figaro, Nr .6 Aria Cherubino „Non so piu cosa son, cosa faccio" (Ex. 086) p fp fp Ex. 086: Figaro, K 492, no. 6 Aria Cherubino The only A l le g ro v ivace 2/2 with simple 8th notes, Cherubino's „Non so piu", still has a tempo slower than M olto Allegro (for instance, that of the 1st movement of the Symphony in G minor, K 550 Ex. 087). „Vivace means animated, and forms a m idpoint between fast and slow ."245 ,Vivace' demands, however, also a stronger accentuation of the metrical emphases, here of the first beats. Mozart has already composed the surges of emotion of the „farfallone amoroso"— - as Figaro calls him - with sudden fortes (T. 3, 5) and syncopated mezzofortes on the weak second half of the bar (b. 9, 12); a too fast tempo diminishes them, reduces their liveliness. Allegro (di) molto / Molto allegro 2/2 ^ with 8th notes - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 13 Sestetto, b .127 „Ah che piu non ho ritegno!" - K 588 Cos! fan tutte, no. 15 Aria Guglielmo (first version), b. 129 „Bella, bella! Tengon sodo" - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 31 Finale II, b. 576 „Fortunato l'uom che prende" * K 551 Symphony in C {Jupiter Symphony), 4th movement (Ex. 088) * K 550 Symphony in G minor, 1st movement (Ex. 087) * K 527 Don Giovanni, Overture, b. 31 (Ex. 090)— - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 6 Aria Masetto „Ho capito, signor si" * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 131 „M ille torbidi pensieri" (Ex. 089) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 379 „Ah signor... per caritä! ..." - K 497 Sonata in F for piano four-hands, 1st movement, b. 30 - K 387 String Quartet in G (1st Haydn Quartet), 4th movement444 The first movement of the Symphony in G minor K 550 (Ex. 087) is one of those interpreted most contradictorily. The wrong indication Allegro moderato 4/4 (!) in the old Mozart Edition had a disastrous effect on performance practice. Both „profound fatalistic pessimism"249 and, on the contrary, „Grecian floating grace"250 were realized in performances. However, instead of the later M olto allegro, Mozart's original tempo word in the autograph had even been „Allegro aßai" (which would be still faster, as we have seen)! It seems to me that Stefan Kunze and Peter Gülke came close to its character by pointing to the near rela tionship of the structure of this movement with Cherubino's (a little slower) „Non so piu cosa son, cosa faccio". (Ex. 086)251 245 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School o f Violin Playing'), p. 48, [app. p. 272]. — the „big butterfly in love“ . 247 In Mozart's catalogue Allegro assai 4/4 !! — This movement was originally only „Allegro", M olto was added later; after that Mozart underlined the whole twice. 249 Hermann Abert, W. A. Mozart, 71955, II, p. 490. (ed. Eisen, trans. Spencer: Yale, 2007) 250 Robert Schumann, Gesammelte Schriften, 51914 (ed. by Kreisig), vol. I, p. 105. 251 Stefan Kunze, W. A. Mozart: Sinfonie g-moll, 1968. ^ Peter Gülke, Triumph der neuen Tonkunst, 1998, p. 138 u.a.. 76 Mozart's Tempo-System M olto Allegro K 550, Ex. 087: Symphony in G minor, K 550, 1st movement Nowhere have I found it mentioned that the tempo indication of K 550/I is the same as that of the final movement of the Jupiter' Symphony; the idea is indeed uncomfortable, even if one does not regard only the first bars there, which, because of their „emptiness", encourage a rushing of the tempo. Hummel and Czerny thought for K 551/IV MM J=144 to be adequate—, Richard Strauss went allegedly up to J=160253 a tempo (Presto 2/2, Ex. 092 and Ex. 093) that is two grades faster, and with which „Mozart's The Art o f Fugue“ (Gülke) is mercilessly mown down. Places in the coda like the fivefold stretto of three themes plus two counterpoints are then simply unrecognizable. The competitive mentality, however, that grew up in the bourgeois concert hall of the 19th Century with Hummel, Czerny, Paganini and others did not yet exist in Mozart's time. Through lack of opportunities for comparison it did not yet matter which rendition was the „most virtuosic", the most immediately impressive - as among 100 recordings available for purchase today. (Let no-one say this has no influence on production.) Mozart's concern was not virtuosity. Michael Gielen calculated for „M ille torbidi pensieri" (Ex. 089) MM J=144. Did his orchestra, like so many others, not rather play sixteenth instead of thirtysecond notes in bars 131,153 etc.?— — Mozart's "most eminent Student" Hummel enjoyed his lessons at the age of e i g h t . His metronomized arrangements for piano, flute, violin and Violoncello of Mozart's last six symphonies appeared 37 years later (1823/24). Can they be witnesses to Mozart's tempos? ^ „Humm el might even have disagreed w ith his illustrious master about tempo, or perhaps he wished to update the music to please the altered tastes of more than three decades later." (Zaslaw, Mozart's Symphonies, 1989, p. 498). ^ „The additions by Hummel do make us aware that the ,gusto' of performance style could change quite quickly and drastically." (Alfred Brendel, „A Mozart Player Gives Himself Advice" in Music, Sense and Nonsense, 2015). The fast autographical (?) metronome marks for Czerny's piano arrangements of Mozart's symphonies from 1835 (Malloch, 1988, p. 78f.) are nearly w ithout exception so identical w ith those by Hummel (Neumann, 1991, p. 9) that his London publisher could perfectly well have taken them from Hummel; they are definitely no witnesses for Mozart's tempi; ^ Already in 1799 F. Rochlitz criticised „the habitual chasing" and „rushing" (AmZ II/4, col. 60). ^ Friedrich Guthmann complained in 1805 „about the too great speed of Allegro, and generally about the excessive rushing which has become a habit." (in: AmZ VII/49, col. 774). ^ Richard Wagner spoke of „a fatal predilection for hurrying and skating over" (after Schünemann, p. 317). ^ Ferd. Simon Gassner criticised „the rushing through at too fast tempos these days" (Dirigent und Ripienist, 1844 , p. 126). ^ Ignaz Jeitteles: „O ne must be careful not to exaggerate the tempo of older music , which nevertheless happens very often. An Allegro [...] by Haydn and Mozart is not to be taken as fast as an Allegro by Rossini, Mercadante, Donizetti and others (Aesthetisches Lexikon, 1839, p. 440). ^ G. W. Fink: „So the rushing through of pieces [...] has reached the orchestras, so that one sometimes believes the conductor is just about to bolt w ith all his musicians." (Ueber das Bedürfniss, Mozarts Hauptwerke unserer Zeit so metronomisirt zu liefern, wie der Meister selbst sie aufführen Hess [On the need to hand down metronome marks for Mozart's major works as the Master h imself had them performed], in: AmZ, 1839, no. 25, col. 477-481 [app. p. 346]). ^ See also in full the quotation of a reviewer o fth e AmZ 1811, col. 737, in: Mozart-Handbuch, p. 30, col. 2 . 253 Robert Münster, Authentische Tempi zu den sechs letzten Sinfonien Mozarts?, in: MJb 1962/63, p. 196). — Michael Gielen took as a starting point a pulse beat of M M = 84 which he applied proportionally, among other places, to Finale I of Don Giovanni: „O ur starting point is the assumption (or fact) that all parts of this structure are related to a basic pulse, w ith Mozart's Tempo-System 77 Ex. 089: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 19 Sestetto, b. 131 and 153 „M ille torbidi pensieri" Ex. 090: Don Giovanni, K 527, Overture, b. 31 (accents added) I would like to disclose the possibility of an originally differently intended meaning behind the fixed traditional picture of the Overture to Don Giovanni. If its main part, the M o l t o A l l e g r o 2/2, were played essentially slower than usual, in a tempo like that of the G-minor symphony (Ex. 087) (this not being played too slowly), then - after the frightening entrance of the Commendatore, the wrestling with Don Giovanni, the squalls, the trembling of Leporello in the A n d a n t e - the main theme of the opera could suddenly be recognized: the dramatic confrontation between, on the one hand, female abandonment that manifests itself in pleading chromatic whole notes piano-legato, winding piano-syncopations, chains of sighing eighth notes in the violins and, on the other hand, male aggression in the brutal attack of the wind and timpani forte that rises up powerfully (Ex. 090) with a virtual change of metre to 4/4 time (see p. 122). Between pursuit and flight b. 48, capture b. 56 and weeping b. 62, assault and trembling b. 77 and 79, a whole imaginary theatre is conceivable— - with the sincere appeal to stage directors.to leave it to Mozart and to do without scenic representation. None of this can be heard at a speed of J=144, which Gielen calculated here again from his pulse and which Max Rudolf, under the compulsion of the conductor to care for a „smooth transition", derives from an alleged identity of the Andante's thirty-second notes and the A//egro's eighth notes. An example of how the perfectionist Obsession of modern conducting prefers to discard the expression of a whole movement rather than risk a wobble for two eighth notes in the accompaniment - which is definitely avoidable.— All comparisons show that Mozart followed the conception of his father that Allegro m olto was less fast than Allegro assai.— Having seen how carefully he chose his tempo words and metres and how he didn't spare even laborious corrections, it is difficult to avoid the insight that (contrary to Harnoncourt 258) he wanted pieces in Allegro M olto 2/2 (like the first movement of the Symphony in G minor, Ex. 087, the Overture to Don Giovanni etc.) to be played less fast than the pieces in Allegro assai of the group that includes the fourth movement of the symphony (Ex. 091) which are also not yet Prestol which each single tempo is in a simple relation, and in fact in a proportion of 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 3:4 or 2:3." (Michael Gielen: Über die Tempi in Mozarts' ,Don Giovanni', programme book of the Frankfurt Opera, 1977/IX, p. 17) ^ W ould tempo.words then - and also conductors - not be quite superfluous? For the Allegro assai 4/4 at the.beginning of the Finale he calculated J=92-96; for the same tempo indication at bar 468 („Soccorriamo l'innocente!"), however, J=126. Unfortunately proportions w ith low figures dominate w ith their appearance of scholarliness not a few music theoretical writings about the question of tempos. — „M ozart was in possession of something we can call an expressive vocabulary, a collection in music of what in the theory of rhetoric are called topoi, or topics for formal discourse. He held it in common w ith his audience, and used it in his operas w ith the skill of a master craftsman." (W. J. Allanbrook, Rhythmic Gesture in Mozart. 'Le Nozze di Figaro'and 'Don Giovanni', 1983, p. 2). — „Retarding would no doubt inevitably bring an accident." (M. Gielen, Über die Tempi in M ozarts',Don Giovanni', 1977, p. 1 7) — It was not really an error when Mozart d idn 't indicate the fast part of the overture of Don Giovanni in his catalogue w ith „ Molto Allegro as in the full score, but w ith „Allegro assai C". According to our rule of thumb from page 051 both result in the same playing speed, namely that of „Presto, presto pria ch'ei venga" at the beginning of Finale I, or of „Soccorriamo l'innocente!" at b. 468. (Ex. 145) (which themselves, though, are often played too fast). The difference lies in the metrical structure, which was unimportant for his catalogue. 258 see above, p. 30. 78 Mozart's Tempo-System Allegro assai 2/2 ^ with 8th notes * K 550 Symphony in G minor, 4th movement (Ex. 091) * K 488 Piano Concerto in A, 3rd movement - K251 Divertimento in D (Nannerl Septet), 5th movement, Rondeau, b. 1 and 232 - K 247 Divertimento in F (1st ,Lodronische Nachtmusik'), 7th movement, b.17 [- K492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 448 „Questo giorno di tormenti" (see p. 128)] Allegro assai • ^ p T T n p T H , , l I I jZ A M C g l W C13DCII * i r r r w .f f f r K 550, IV w f p f p f Ex. 091: Symphony in G minor, K 550, 4th movement The finale of the G-minor Symphony is a good example also for the tempo of the finale of the A-major Piano Concerto, K 488 which, since it is technically possible, tends to be played as Presto. Presto 2/2 ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 518 „Wenn Tugend und Gerechtigkeit" ❖ K 588 Cos! fan tutte, Overture, b.15 - K 588 Cos! fan tutte, no. 18 Finale I, b. 657 „Ch'io ben so che tanto foco" ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 756 „Questo e il fin di chi fa mal" (Ex. 092) - K 453 Piano Concerto in G, 4th movement ❖ K 385 Symphony in D (Haffner Symphony), 4th movement (Ex. 093) ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, Ouvertüre - K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 7th movement Finale - K271 Piano Concerto in E flat (JenamyConcerto), 3rd movement, Rondeau, b. 1 and 150 Presto m M M M M K 385, IV mmmm r s P £ / m m mp p / Ex. 093: Symphony in D (Haffner Symphony), K 385, 4th movement Mozart wrote about the „Haffner" Symphony to his father: „the first allegro [„Allegro con spirito C"] should go with a lot of fire. - The last [„Presto c"] - as fast as possible."259 (This should make the supporters of Retze Talsma's „Metrical Theory" think twice, opponents of virtuosity who want all faster tempi to be played t w i c e as s l o w - „Questo e il fin" J=138! ex. 092).= However, Frederick Neumann added: „he 259 Letter to his father from Vienna, 07.08.1782 (no. 684), line 41-42 [app. p. 267]. — W illem Retze Talsma, Wiedergeburt der Klassiker, vol. 1, Anleitung zur Entmechanisierung der Musik, 1980, p. 192. - Talsma's theory that only two Swings together of a metronome or pendulum indicate the tempo contradicts diametrically the instruction of Joh. Nep. Mälzel himself: „ [ . . . ] it be well understood, that in this, as in every case, each single beat or tick forms a part of the intended time, and is to be counted as such, but NOT THE TWO BEATS produced by the motion from one side to the other." ("Directions for using Maelzel's Metronome", Archive of the „Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in W ien", 1817). ^ Completely in accord w ith that: Carl Czerny (Klavierschule op. 500, 1839, part 3, chap. 7, „Vom Gebrauch des Mälzel'schen Metronoms", p. 48). ^ Marin Mersenne had specified already in 1636: „on marquera 31/2 [pieds], qui signifie que le pendule fait une DEMIE VIBRATION en une seconde" („one marks VA [pieds] which signifies that the pendulum does a HALF VIBRATION in one second" (Harmonie Mozart's Tempo-System 79 meant as fast as the mediocre Salzburg orchestra, not the New York Philharmonie, could negotiate it clearly and cleanly,"261 which one certainly could also apply to the motley orchestra of the Wiener Tonkünstler-Societät in the concert on 23rd March 1783. Prestissimo 2/2 ^ w ith 8th notes [- K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 907 „Certo un diavol dell'inferno" (Ex. 181) (see p. 130)] universelle, vol. 1, p. 136). A In the same sense: Joseph Sauveur (Principes d'Acoustique et de Musique, 1 701, p. 19), A Louis Leon Pajot (Description et usage d 'un Metrometre, 1732, p. 185), A Henry-Louis Choquel (La Musique rendue sensible par la Mechanique, 21762, p. 116/117) and A Cabory (Manuel utile, 1770, p. 113). A Not one single source speaks of „Doppelschwingung" (double swing). - See my article „Mälzels Mord an Mozart. Die untauglichen Versuche, musikalische Zeit zu messen." (www.mozarttempi.de/maelzel.htm l). 261 Frederick Neumann, Performance Practices o f the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, 1993, p. 68. 80 Mozart's Tempo-System Doubtful time signatures „tf" Allegro ^ with 16th notes * K 469 Davide penitente, no. 8 Aria soprano, b. 72 „Alme belle, ah si, godete!" (Ex. 094) - K 336 Church Sonata in C for 2 vl, organ, vc and db Ex. 094: Davide penitente, K 469, no. 8 Aria soprano „Alme belle", b. 130 The autograph C of these movements seems to me questionable: are they possibly errors of Mozart's? The 16th notes of „Alme belle" on the word „pace" are expressive of „joy and peace" which the „beautiful souls shall enjoy" - not tiratas of fury. Their coloratura interspersed with sospiri cannot stand on the same tempo step with the chains of virtuoso 16th notes for the piano in the 3rd movement of the Piano Trio in E, K 542 (Ex. 069), or the short 16th note passages in K 281/3 (Ex. 070), or the steeply falling „rockets" before Don Giovanni's dramatic downfall (Ex. 175). As for K 336: every other Church Sonata in even metre is in „Allegro C". Allegro molto ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 249/250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 2nd movement, Serenata, b. 36 (Ex. 095) (Allegro molto) ^ ^ 5 , K 250, II, m. 62 + 116 alj i Ex. 095: Serenade inD, K 250, 2nd movement, Serenata b. 62 and 116 Both tempo word and time signature seem to be authentic. But this Allegro m olto C surely cannot even approximately be played in the same tempo as the first movement of the G minor Symphony or the fourth of the Jupiter Symphony (Ex. 087 and Ex. 088). An error of Mozart's? Presto # (?) ^ with 8th notes * K526 Piano and Violin Sonata in A, 3rd movement (Ex. 096) * K200 Symphony in C, 4th movement I am not sure if these two autograph Presto i i i !. . V ‘ 3 m. w . 3 ü i n 15 3 ^ 5 — y - — x - - - j - P W i- - - .r r iF ‘ W > > > > * * * • Ex. 109: Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, K 454, 1st movement, b. 7 ^ with 32nd notes - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and double-bass, 1st movement ^ with 16th notes - K 205 Divertimento for vl, via, bsn, 2 hrn, db, 2nd movement 297 Mozart letters no. 776 from 20.02.1 784. [app. p. 268]. 90 Mozart's Tempo-System Adagio maestoso 4/4 ^ with 32nd notes - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 2 Aria Idamante „Non ho colpa, e mi condanni" ^ with 16th notes - K 345 Thamos, no. 6 Chorus „Gottheit, über alle mächtig!" ^ with 8th notes [- K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 1st movement] [2/2?]298 Adagio 4/4 with 64th notes K287 Divertimento in B flat (2. Lodronische Nachtmusik), 4th movement with 32nd notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 19 Rondo Sesto „Deh per questo istante solo"225 ❖ K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 25 Rondo Fiordiligi „Per pietä, ben mio, perdona all'error" - K 540 Adagio in B minor for piano - K475 Fantasie in C minor, b. 1 and 161 - K 458 String Quartet in B flat (3rd Haydn-Quartet (Hunt Quartet)), 3rd movement ❖ K 457 Piano Sonata in C minor, 2nd movement (Ex.110) - K 424 Duo in B flat for violin and viola, 1st movement - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and double-bass, 3rd movement ❖ K 332 Piano Sonata in F, 2nd movement102 (Ex. 111) - K282 Piano Sonata in E flat, 1st movement - K 261 Adagio in E for violin and orchestra - K 254 Divertimento ä 3 (Piano Trio) in B flat, 2nd movement - K 242 Concerto in F fo r3 (resp. 2) pianos and orchestra (Lodron Concerto), 2nd i ❖ K219 Violin Concerto in A, 1st movement, b. 40-45 (Ex. 112) ❖ K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 27 Recitativo and Duetto, b. 61 „Tu mi lasci? (oh fiero istante!)" , m. 1+29 movement K 4 57, II Adagio / SS V I- 29 Ott^M 4 r J ^ , f r ^ , t r J 0 Jrr h de --------*— Ex. 110: Piano Sonata in C minor, K457, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 29 In the altogether extremely differentiated shaping of the dynamics and articulation of this piece six 32nd notes in b. 21 attract attention: they are alternately indicated by f, p, f, p, f, p. Nevertheless it was wilful of Glenn Gould, who, after having taken the already too slow tempo of ^= 4 4 , continued by finely chiselling it down to ^ = 7 6 (recording from 1973), and indeed against Mozart's will, who insisted on a steady tempo even in Adagio.— 298 The autograph time signature „C " could be an error of Mozart's. See p. 136 — Mozart's displacement of th irty-two bar lines by half a bar (b. 6-37) by means of erasures, deletions and new settings proves the correctness of the time signature „C " set by the NMA, although the first five bars have not survived in autograph. The displacement would have been impossible in the whole-bar accentuation of C. — The first edition of 1 784 has additional embellishments, among others a tirata in b. 26 in 64th notes. As it is unknown whether they are by Mozart, for the moment I classify them among the pieces w ith 32nd notes as smallest notes relevant for the tempo. — „Everyone is amazed that I always keep accurately in time. They cannot at all grasp that the left hand must know nothing of tempo rubato in an Adagio: w ith them, the left hand always gives way." (Letter from 24.10.1 777, no. 355 [app. p. 260] - If Mozart, Mozart's Tempo-System 91 Adagio A reason for the tradition of playing Mozart's instrumental movements in adagio 4/4 with 32nd notes so much slower than, for instance, Fiordiligi's Rondo of this module „Per pietä, ben mio" (and even slower than the pieces in Largo 4/4 with 32nd notes) could be an erroneous reference of the tempo word to the eighth note unit. Mozart entrusted large melodic arcs in an adagio predominantly to the light playing manner of small notes: the 64th, 32nd, 16th, 8th, and the few quarter notes in the 19 pieces on our lists of adagios are vaulted by the wide arc of the compound 4/4 (2/4+2/4) metre. The demand of Kirnberger, „to play the second half of such a bar more lightly than the first" is not easy to realize in the wide distance from one downbeat to the next; the successful execution of such large adagio-arcs, however, was not for nothing considered in the 18th Century as the greatest proof of artistic mastery. (Adagio 4/4) ^ with 16th-note triplets 3 ❖ K216Viol in Concerto in G, 2nd movement (Ex. 113) Ex. 113: Violin Concerto in G, K 216, 2nd movement, b. 5 The metre is defined here by the very slow steps of the harmony in q u a r t e r notes. Since the prevailing smallest note values here are 16th triplets, and not 32nd notes, the tempo should be a little more flowing than in the Adagio of the Violin Concerto in A (Ex. 112). To disregard this structural feature and the light manner of playing it demands leads inevitably to a ponderous scanning of the e i g h t h n o te s and to overloading the line. An exaggerated vibrato, arbitrarily changed phrasing and articulation as well as instability of tempo follow on its heels. Anne-Sophie Mutter's and Karajan's scanning of the eighth notes in a tempo of ^ MM = 50-44 was a misunderstanding. In their interpretation the listener understands notes twice as large in bars half the length as those Mozart composed. In order to notate melodic arcs with such a heavy manner of playing, such „declamatory, striding singing",302 he would have had to have w rit ten quarter notes and at such a slow tempo as „ Largo tf", which he never used. (Ex. 114): however, really played the twenty-four notes of the second run in b. 29 „accurately in tim e" he must have possessed a stupendous virtuosity on the pianoforte. Perhaps he tacitly shortened the previous syncopated quarter notes by one 16th. 302 Peter Gülke in: Die Konzerte, Mozart-Handbuch, 2005, p. 334, (trans. H.B.). 92 Mozart's Tempo-System $ [Largo] Solo 4 - K216, II, m. 5 (wrong tradition) con sordino W m m r n w Ex. 114: Violin Concerto in G, K216, 2nd movement, b. 5 (wrongtradition) (Adagio 4/4) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 362 March „W ir wandelten durch Feuersgluten" - K 557 Four-part canon „Nascoso e il mio sol" ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 6 Aria Konstanze „Ach ich liebte, war so glücklich!" (Ex. 116) - K 250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 9th movement - K172 String Quartet in B flat, 2nd movement - K 171 String Quartet in E flat, 1st movement (Ex. 115) Ex. 115: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 362 and 371, March The Paminas and Taminos of today hardly stride their solemn trial march 1:1 with the pace of the music, as they probably did in Mozart's time; this music is nevertheless decidedly a march, in calm quarters, not eighth notes. Corresponding to the notation of the wind section and the entrance of the timpani always on the second eighth-note, the wedges on the flute's quarter notes are to be understood as dynamic ac cents, not as signs for shortening. If a naturally flowing tempo is to be found for the sung verses, the flute's 32nd notes should not be used to determine the tempo - it should correspond approximately to the introduction of Konstanze's aria: Adagio mä non troppo 4/4 ^ with 32nd notes ❖ K516 String Quintet in G minor, 3rd movement (Ex. 117) Mozart's Tempo-System 93 Adagio ma non troppo Ex. 117: String Quintet in G minor, K 516, 3 movement Larghetto 4/4 ^ with 32nd notes * K 413 Piano Concerto in F, 2nd movement (Ex. 118) * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 20 b Duetto llia/ldamante „Spiegarti non poss'io" Ex. 118: Piano Concerto in F, K 413, 2nd movement, b. 9 and 14 The dream-like L a r g h e t t o of the Piano Concerto K 413 and of llia and Idamante's Duetto position themselves probably between the A d a g i o with 32nd notes and the more flowing Adagio with 16th notes; with their 32nd note chains they seem to me neither as slow as the former nor as „fast" as the latter - one of the numerous overlappings within this complex ,tempo'-system. Un poco piü Andante 4/4 [from Recitative-Larghetto (see p. 134)] ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 20a Duetto llia/ldamante „S'io non moro a questi accenti" Andante maestoso 4/4 ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K619 „Die ihr des unermeßlichen Weltalls", Cantata for voice and piano, 1st movement * K203 Serenade (=Symphony) in D, 2nd movement, Serenata (Ex. 119) Andante maestoso VI. 1 j f 3 3 3 3 1 Ex. 119: Serenade (=Symphony) in D, K203, II (I), Serenata 16th notes - K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 14 Aria Fiordiligi „Come scoglio immoto resta" ( I6 th notesvirtual) Andante 4/4 with 32nd notes K526 Piano and Violin Sonata inA, 2nd movement (Ex. 120) K492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV „Pian pianin le andro piü presso" K283 Piano Sonata in G, 2nd movement 94 Mozart's Tempo-System Andante K 526, II, m. 1 +30 Ex. 120: Piano and Violin Sonata in A, K 526, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 30 The beginning of Finale IV of Figaro („Pian pianin") and the second movements of the Sonatas K 526 (Ex. 120) and K 283 with their numerous 32nd notes are of course slower than the typical Andantes with 16th notes; however, it is the quarter notes which „walk" here, not the eighth notes. ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 828 „Heil sei euch Geweihten!" (Ex. 121) * K 588 Cosi fan tutte , „Recitativo" (no. 8a Quintetto) „Di... scri... ver...mi o...gni gior...no..." * K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 18 Finale I, b. 429 „Dove son! Che loco e questo!" - K 520 Lied „Als Luise die Briefe ihres ungetreuen Liebhabers verbrannte" - K287 Divertimento in B flat (2nd Lodronische Nachtmusik), 6th movement * [K492 Figaro, no. 19 Sestetto „Riconosci in questo amplesso" (poss. 2/2)] * [K 492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 421 „Contessa perdono!" (poss. 2/2, Ex. 183) The chorus „Heil sei euch Geweihten" with its evenly gliding pace in quarter notes (with lighter second half of the bar, though!) and its legato sixteenth notes, as well as the ironically faltering „Di... scri... ver... mi o...gni gior...no..." in Cosi fan tutte , are so to speak the ideal Andante 4/4. No less, however, the tem po of the convulsions of the „Albanians" awakening from having been mesmerized („Dove son!") and the aloofness, maintained only with difficulty, of Fiordiligi and Dorabella („Sara ver") in no. 18 Finale I, b. 429. The tempo word „Andante" heading the Sestetto no. 19 in Figaro stems from another hand - although it is not marked as such in the NMA by italics or a footnote. Referred to the 4/4 metre it is much too slow. At best it could refer to an ironically sentimental C metre (which is not indicated in the autograph, though likely), which with Susanna's intervention in b. 25 (and several times later on) temporarily tips over into a virtual Allegro moderato 4/4, as the old Breitkopf edition had indicated from the very beginning.303 The Count's „Contessa perdono!" in Finale IV Figaro, b. 421, will be discussed in the chapter „Virtual changes of metre" (p .115 ); it could perhaps be a hidden 2/2 as well (see p. 126). The Andante 4/4 passage in the quartet of Die Entführung is more animated than the typical Andante 4/4 since it has only eighth notes: (Andante 4/4) ^ with 8th notes - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 143 „Ich w ill. Hat nicht Osmin etwan" 303 See the excursus „Virtual changes of metre" p. 115. Mozart's Tempo-System 95 Con un poco piu di moto 4/4 (from Andante 4/4) ^ with 16th notes - K 492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 51 „Partito e alfin l'audace" Piu stretto 4/4 (after a virtual change of metre from Andante 2/2) ^ with 16th notes [- K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 521 „Oi-me! Cos' hai? che gelo e questo mai?" (Ex. 174) (see p. 124)] Allegretto moderato 4/4 with 16th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 23 Rondo Donna Anna, b. 64 „Forse un giorno il cielo" (Ex. 122) Ex. 122: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 23 Rondo Donna Anna „Forse un giorno il cielo", b. 64 and 83 The second part of Donna Anna's Rondo was already misunderstood by Berlioz as „wretched coloratura" —, possibly since the conductor at the Paris Italian Theatre had conducted the deceptive bars at the beginning in half-note beats—, which resulted then in an Allegro, and altered Donna Anna's sighs compo sed by Mozart (b. 84, 87!) into giggling. Allegretto 4/4 ^ with 16th notes - K617 Adagio and Rondo in C minor/C for glass harmonica, fl, ob, via and vc, Rondeau b. 59 — ^ with 8th notes (after a virtual change of metre from Adagio 2/2) [- K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 249 „Was hör' ich, Paminens Stimme?" (Ex. 168) (see p. 121 and p. 130)] Moderato 4/4 ^ with 8th notes - K 345 Thamos, no. 6 Chorus, b. 267 (postlude) Allegro maestoso 4/4 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 8 Finale I, b. 351 „Es lebe Sarastro! Sarastro lebe!" (Ex. 123) - K 503 Piano Concerto in C, 1st movement - K 467 Piano Concerto in C, 1st movement - K375 Serenade in E flat for wind, 1st movement - K 364 Sinfonia Concertante in E flat for violin, viola and orchestra, 1st movement - K 344 Zaide, no. 9 Aria Sultan, b. 65 „Der stolze Löw' läßt sich zwar zähmen" - K310 Piano Sonata in A minor, 1st movement - K 250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 2nd movement Serenata - K 88 „Fra cento affanni", Aria for Sopran and orchestra [- K 366 Idomeneo, nos. 12a and 12b Aria Idomeneo „Fuor dei mar ho un mar in seno"(poss. 2/2?)] „The aria [no. 12 „Fuor dei mar"] is well written for the words - one can hear the - mare [sea] and the mare funesto [fatal sea] - and the [coloratura] passages suited to minacciar [menace] which fully express minac- — „Une deplorable vocalise qui fait tache dans sa lumineuse partition" (Berlioz, Memoires, 1870, chapter XVII). „A deplorable vocalise that is a blot on the radiant score." (Berlioz, Memoires, 1870, chapter XVII). — In view of the chaos in the written records it is even possible that there was wrongly a c here in his score. — Allegretto C is the original indication of the autograph. Mozart's catalogue has Allegro $ - an obvious error. The editor of the NMA, since he thought the indication in Mozart's autograph to be „too slow", high-handedly set the compromise „Allegretto A m m Ex. 127: Quintet for piano and wind in E flat, K452, 1st movement, b. 21 and 51 Mozart's ,m oderato' is often a warning term for pieces which look easier in the beginning than their further course reveals, for instance the Piano Quintet K 452 with its passages of virtuoso 32nd notes, the coloratura aria of the Queen of the Night (Ex. 128), or the second part of Fiordiligi's Rondo with its cascades of 16th notes for the French horn (b. 116). K 452/I differs from the calm Andante 4/4 of the Piano and Vio lin Sonata K 526 with its finely articulated 32nd notes (Ex. 120) by its resolute grip in the forte tiratas and broken chords and its character of forward movement. It is Mozart's fastest piece with 32nd notes. ^ with 16th note triplets K 421 String Quartet in D minor (2 Haydn Quartet), 1st movement 98 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 4 Aria Queen of the Night, b. 61 „Du, du,du" (Ex. 128) - K 590 String Quartet in F (3rd Prussian Quartet), 1st movement— * K 588 Cos) fan tutte, no. 25 Rondo Fiordiligi, b. 35 „A chi mai manco di fede" - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 21a Duetto Zerlina/Leporello „Per queste tue manine" - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 1 Arietta Madame Herz „Ein Herz, das so der Abschied", b. 42 - K378 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 1st movement - K 207 Violin Concerto in B flat, 1st movement - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 21 Aria Fauno „Dal tuo gentil sembiante" - K 70 „A Berenice", Recit. and Aria for soprano and orch.; Aria „Sol nascente in questo giorno" P Ex. 128: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 4 Aria Queen of the Night, b. 64 and 81 Allegro non troppo 4/4 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K428 String Quartet in E flat, 1st movement (Ex. 129, Ex.185)) Ex. 129: String Quartet in E flat, K428, 1st movement, b. 1 and 64 PiÜ moderato 4/4 (from the preceding Allegro 2/2) ^ with 8th notes (the 16th note ,rockets' and tremolos can be disregarded) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 744 „Nur stille! stille! Bald dringen w ir in Tempel ein" On the one hand, the indication Piu moderato slows down the tempo here; on the other hand, an increase of tension is achieved by widening the metre from 2/2 with its whole-bar accentuation to 4/4 with two emphases, further sharpened by additional accents and syncopations. Allegro 4/4 ^ with 16th notes - K 623 „Laut verkünde unsre Freude", Cantata for soli, male chorus and orch., 1st and 4th movements - K621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 2 Aria Vitellia, b. 45 „Chi ciecamente crede, impegna a serbar" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 5 Chorus „Serbate, oh Dei custodi" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 9 Aria Sesto, b. 44 „Guardami, e tutto oblio" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 20 Aria Tito „Se all'impero, amici Dei" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 23 Rondo Vitellia, b. 44 „Infelice! qual orrore!" ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 1 Introduction Tamino „Zu Hilfe! ./., sonst bin ich verloren" (Ex. 130, Ex. 163) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 390 „Triumph, Triumph, du edles Paar" — ln Mozart's catalogue - obviously by mistake - Allegro moderato £ [app. p. 270] Mozart's Tempo-System 99 - K619 „D ie ihr des Weltalls", Cantata for voice and piano, b. 78 and 151„Zerbrechet d. Wahnes" - K612 „Per questa bella mano", Aria for bass, db obbligato and orch., b. 64 „Volgi lieti o fieri" - K 608 Allegro and Andante (Fantasia in F minor) for a mechanical organ, Allegro - K 595 Piano Concerto in B flat, 1st movement - K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 1 Terzetto „La mia Dorabella capace non e" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 3 Terzetto „Una bella serenata" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 13 Sestetto „Alla bella Despinetta" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 14 Aria Fiordiligi, b.15 „cosi ognor quest'alma e forte" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 15 Aria Guglielmo (1st Version) „Rivolgete a lui Io sguardo" * K 581 Clarinet Quintet in A, 1st movement - K 578 „Alma grande e nobil core", Aria for soprano and orchestra - K564 PianoTr io inG,1st movement - K 563 Divertimento for string trio in E flat, 1st movement - K548 PianoTr io inC,1st movement * K 545 Piano Sonata in C, 1st movement (according to Mozart's catalogue) (Ex. 104) - K 538 „Ah se in ciel, benigne stelle", Aria for soprano and orchestra - K 537 Piano Concerto in D (Coronation Concerto), 1st movement - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 22 Duetto Leporello/Don Giovanni „O statua gentilissima" - K 521 Sonata in C for piano four-hands, 1st movement * K 516 String Quintet in G minor, 1st movement (Ex. 107) - K 504 Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), 1st movement, b. 37 - K 502 Piano Trio in B flat, 1st movement - K 496 PianoTr io inG,1st movement - K 495 Horn Concerto in E flat, 1st movement511 - K 493, Piano Quartet in E flat, 1st movement * K492 Figaro, no. 1 Duettino Susanna/Figaro „Cinque, dieci, venti" (Ex. 250) - K 492 Figaro, no. 4 Aria Bartolo „La vendetta" - K 492 Figaro, no. 25 Aria Marcellina, b. 53 „Sol noi povere femmine" - K 492 Figaro, no. 28a Rondo Susanna, b. 44 „Ah! ch'omai, ch'omai piu non resisto" * K488 Piano Concerto inA, 1st movement (Ex. 131) - K 485 Rondo in D for piano - K 482 Piano Concerto in E flat, 1st movement - K 479 „D ite almeno in che mancai", Quartetto for soprano, tenor, 2 basses and orchestra - K478 Piano Quartet in G minor, 1st movement - K 471 „D ie Maurerfreude", Cantata for tenor, male chorus and orchestra - K 469 Davide penitente, no. 6 Aria tenor, b. 75 „Udisti i voti miei" * K466 Piano Concerto in D minor, 1st movement (Ex. 166) - K 465 String Quartet in C (Dissonance Quartet) (6th Haydn Quartet), 1st movement, b. 23 - K 454 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 1st movement, b.14 - K453 Piano Concerto in G, 1st movement - K 450 Piano Concerto in B flat, 1st movement515 - K 423 Duo in G for violin and viola, 1st movement - K417 Horn Concerto in E flat, 1st movement - K415 Piano Concerto in C, 1st movement - K414 Piano Concerto in A, 1st movement - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 6 Aria Konstanze, b .10 „Doch wie schnell schwand meine Freude" * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 11 Aria Konstanze „Martern aller Arten" (Ex. 132) - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett „Ach Belmonte! ach mein Leben!" - K 380 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 1st movement - K378 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 3rd movement, Rondeau, b. 151 (Ex. 098) - K 376 Piano and Violin Sonata in F, 1st movement - K 370 Quartet in F for ob and string trio, 1st movement - K 368 „M a che vi fece, o stelle", Recitative and Aria; Aria b. 25 „ma trasportar mi sento" 2H According to Mozart's catalogue only „Allegro". In the NMA unlabelled addition „maestoso" from the first print o f orchestral parts o f 1803. 212 Concerning the Concertos K 450 and 451 Mozart wrote in a letter to his father on 26.05.1784 (no. 793, [app. p. 268]: „I consider them both to be concertos to make the player sweat. - Yet the one in B flat is harder than the one in D." Mozart's Tempo-System 366 Idomeneo, Overture 366 Idomeneo, no. 7 Aria Idamante „II padre adorato ritrovo, e Io perdo" 366 Idomeneo, no. 10a Aria Arbace „Se il tuo duol, se il mio desio" 366 Idomeneo, no. 27a Aria Idamante „No, la morte io non pavendo" 365 Concerto for 2 pianos and orchestra, 1st movement 333 Piano Sonata in B flat, 1st movement 299 Concerto for flute, harp and orchestra, 1st movement 285 Flute Quartet in D, with vl, via, vc, 1st movement 284 Piano Sonata in D, 1st movement 271 Piano Concerto in E flat (Jenamy Concerto), 1st movement 247 Divertimento inF(1. Lodronische Nachtmusik), 2nd movement 242 Concerto in F for 3 (2) pianos (Lodron Concerto) and orchestra, 1st movement 218 Violin Concerto in D, 1st movement 217 „Voi avete un cor fedele", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 29 216 Violin Concerto in G, 1st movement 205 Divertimento for vl, via, db, bsn and 2 horns, 2nd movement, b. 9 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 24 Aria and Duetto Contino/Nardo „Mirate che contrasto fa" 175 Piano Concerto in D, 1st movement 135 Lucio Silla, no. 1 Aria Cinna „Vieni, vieni ov'amor t'invita" 135 Lucio Silla, no. 6 Chorus, b. 84 „II superbo, che di Roma" 133 Symphony in D, 1st movement 130 Symphony in F, 1st movement 129 Symphony in G, 1st movement 126// sogno di Scipione, no. 2 Aria Fortuna „Lieve sono al par del vento" 126 II sogno di Scipione, no. 10 Aria Scipione, b. 6, 52, 127 „ma non pretendere percio" 126 II sogno di Scipione, no. 11b Aria della Licenza II (Sop.), b. 34 „D i virtu chi prove chiede" 113 Divertimento in E flat, 1st movement 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 3 Aria Venere „L'ombra de' rami tuoi l'amico suolo aspetta" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 5 Aria Ascanio „Cara, lontano ancora" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 14 Aria Silvia „Come e felice stato" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 17 Aria Venere „AI chiaror di que' bei rai" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 19 Aria Silvia „Spiega il desfo, le piume: vola il mio core" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 22 Aria Ascanio, b. 21 „Ah, si rompa il crudo laccio" 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 27 Aria Aceste „Sento, che il cor mi dice" 100 Cassation in D (Serenade), 2nd movement, Serenata 73 Symphony in C, 1st movement 36 „O r che il dover, Recitative and Aria for tenor and orchestra; Aria „Tali e cotanti sono" 35 Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, no. 6 Aria Weltgeist „Schildre einen Philosophen" Mozart's Tempo-System 101 67 (Allegro) K 488, I, m. 67+73 Ex. 131: Piano Concerto in A, K 488, 1st movement, b. 67 and 73 Ex. 132: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 11 Aria Konstanze „Martern aller Arten", b. 61 and 136 What is the playing speed of the „classical" Allegro 4/4 with 16th notes? It is determined by the ,singableness' of the coloraturas, the effortless virtuosity of instrumental runs and figures (e.g. b. 136 etc. of Konstanze's „Martern" aria) and by the ,songfulness' of instrumental passages; also, in opera, by the drama tic Situation, the audibility of embellishments, and the comparison with pieces indicated slower and faster by tempo words. A conspicuously slower tempo for the simple allegro 4/4 with 16th notes results from comparison with the 16th notes in the Allegro con spirito of the 1st movement of the Piano Sonata in D, K 311 or Pedrillo's „Frisch zum Kampfe!" (Ex. 137) than friends of speed would like to believe. This is true also of the dramatic beginning of Die Zauberflöte („Zu Hilfe! zu Hilfe!", Ex. 130) which is often taken con spirito. Many of these allegro movements have rightly been described as ,singing allegros'. Articulation and playing manner, as well, make an essential difference to the listener's impression of the tempo.— Both Johann Friedrich Reichardt's directions about the playing manner of the different characters of tempo, (see p. 026), and Daniel Gottlob Türk's productive comments „About heavy and light exe cution" in the sixth chapter of his School o f Clavier Playing, might be remembered here.317 ^ with 8th note triplets - K 522 „Ein musikalischer Spaß", 1st movement— * K 475 Fantasia in C minor for piano, b. 36 * K 457 Piano Sonata in C minor, 1st movement (Ex. 133) - K196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 27 Recitativo and Duetto, b. 164 „Alme belle innamorate" - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 31 Terzetto, b. 30 (= no. 32) „Che bei piacere io sento" K 457, I, m. 1+21AI legi i f A k - * . ' roi , , P ß 9 i , t + 4 s 0 : Lb. 4 . • - m P i l i l S [>'\ z o ; -0 » / w iS \>-t t Ex. 133: Piano Sonata in C minor, K 457, 1st movement, b. 1 and 21 All autograph sources of the Piano Sonata in C minor, K 457319, have for the first movement only „Allegro". The addition „M o lto " in the NMA comes from first prints; if it were correct the piece would be in parallel with the entrance of the gardener in Finale II of Figaro (Ex. 178), but this would be considerably too fast. The original „Allegro" corresponds on the contrary very well with that of the Fantasia in C minor, K 475 (b. 36) which has triplets too, but 16th notes only as tremolo. — Sol Babitz: „in moderately fast tempos a lightly articulated performance played in metrically accented fashion w ill sound fast at a considerably slower tempo than a heavy modern one." {Modern Errors in Mozart Performance, in: MJb 1967, p. 89). 317 Türk, Klavierschule {'School o f Clavier Playing'), 1 789, chap. 6, sect. 3, p. 358-363, § 43-49 [app. p. 306] — A compendium of grotesque compositional mistakes. 319 Mozart's Autograph, his catalogue and the „dedication copy" corrected by him. 102 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ Since fast pieces w ithout 16th notes („only 8th notes") from allegro upwards are frequently misunderstood as alla breve, and accordingly played too fast, they w ill be treated separately from p. 112 on as ,short 4/4' metres. Allegro vivace 4/4 ^ with 16th notes * K 456 Piano Concerto in B flat, 1st movement (Ex. 134) - K 345 Thamos, no. 6 Chorus, b.13 „Immer neu und immer prächtig!" - K 296 Piano and Violin Sonata in C, 1st movement Allegro vivace K 456, |, m. 9 + 4 7 9 p [ F # ^ ; M.- M M . J rs i £ ..M . 1 - " 4 P; - 0 ’ M M - M E 1 2 z 2 4 “ I P Ü f t 9 H 0---—---^ 0 + P 0 t■) 0 0 k ß 5 S u 5 w - E g ” h / Ü r r r > EgEN t o c f r rrl Ex. 134: Piano Concerto in B flat, K 456, 1st movement, b. 9 and 47 On the use of „vivace", see the quotations of contemporaries on p. 026. Mozart, too, uses this addition not so much for increasing the speed but for livening up the execution, for emphasizing the metrical ac cents more strongly (see p. 082, p. 111, p. 167). Dorabella's Allegretto vivace (Cos! fan tutte no. 28) for instance (Ex. 365, p. 212) is still no allegro. The comparison of the first movement of the Piano Concerto in B flat, K 456 (Ex. 134) with Pedrillo's aria „Frisch zum Kampfe!" (Die Entführung no. 13, Ex. 137) and with the first movement of the Symphony in D, K 385 (Haffner Symphony) (Ex. 136), shows that Mozart's allegro vivace with 16th notes is also less fast than his Allegro con spirito with 16th notes. ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K 338 Symphony i n C , 1 st movement („vivace" added later by Mozart) Allegro vivace assai 4/4 ^ with 16th notes * K 387 String Quartet in G (1st Haydn Quartet), 1st movement (Ex. 135) Allegro vivace assai l r j y“ § $ ä f l / $ CT-j K 387, I 0 M r n Ir c{■ f Ex. 135: String Quartet in G, K 387, 1st movement Not the allegro, nor an allegro vivace conceived as „very fast", is increased here by assai, but only the vi vace itself, which Hummel described as „cheerful and lively, but with more warmth".320 Therefore this movement has not the speed of the Allegro assai 4/4 with 16th notes of „Der Hölle Rache kocht in mei nem Herzen" (Die Zauberflöte, K 620 no. 14, Ex. 140) or of the 1st movement of the Piano Concerto in D, K 451, (see below), - which are themselves not Presto, by the way. Piu Allegro (from Allegro 4/4) ^ with 8th note triplets K 588 Cosi fan tutte , no. 14 Aria Fiordiligi, b. 79 „Rispettate, anime ingrate" 320 Hummel, Anweisung zum Piano-Forte-Spiel, 1828, p. 67. (Compare K 387/I, p. 102; K 458/I, p. 21 7; K 467/III, p. 156). Mozart's Tempo-System 103 Allegro con brio 4/4 ^ with 16th notes - K183 Symphony in G minor, 1st movement (see p. 115, Ex. 161, Ex. 162) - K 344 Zaide, no. 9, Melologo ed Aria Sultan „Zaide entflohen!" Allegro con spirito (Allegro spiritoso) 4/4 ^ with 16th notes - K 448 Sonata in D for two pianos, 1st movement * K 385 Symphony in D (Haffner Symphony), 1st movement (Ex. 136) [Letter no.684: „w ith a lot of fire"] * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 13 Aria Pedrillo „Frisch zum Kampfe! Frisch zum Streite!" (Ex.137) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 2 Aria Idamante, b. 9 „Colpa e vostra, oh Dei tiranni" * K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 1st movement, b. 7 - K 318 Symphony in G, 1st movement * K 311 Piano Sonata inD, 1st movement [see letter no. 386] - K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata in D, 1st movement - K 301 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 1st movement - K213 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement - K190 Concertone in C for 2 violins and orchestra, 1st movement - K182 Symphony in B flat, 1st movement - K181 Symphony in D, 1st movement Mozart's Allegro con spirito lies between simple Allegro and M olto Allegro, as can be seen from his changing of the original simple Allegro for the first movement of the Posthorn Serenade K 320 into M olto Alle gro, which he then crossed out and replaced with Allegro con spirito. Mozart wrote to his father about the first movement of the Haffner-symphony, K 385: „ the first allegro [„Allegro con spirito C"] should go with a lo t o ffire . - the last [„Presto c"] - as fast as possible. "321 In his aria „Frisch zum Kampfe! Frisch zum Streite!" (Allegro con spirito 4/4) Pedrillo's fighting spirit flags each time for 5 bars (b. 12 etc.) to a despondent virtual 2/2 metre when he tries to persuade himself: „Only a cowardly wretch gives up." The 32nd notes in the figure (Ex. 138) portraying his trembling (which are often just heard as 16th notes) restrict the playing speed: 25 (Allegro con spirito) K 384, no. 13, m. 25 f l U . i 0 - ^ 10 - i0 - i0 - i 0 - 0 - Hr * ^X M l . „ tt. ff j — ff- ~fr 0 */ ff ~ f rU l J 111 fl 9 LI V ftP 0 3 tt0 0 0 0 0 0 n 3 3 Ex. 138: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 13 Aria Pedrillo, b. 25 321 Mozart's letter from 07.08.1782, no. 684 [app. p. 267]. 104 Mozart's Tempo-System Allegro molto / Molto allegro 4/4 ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 1 Introduzione, Leporello „Notte e giorno faticar" (Ex. 139) - K251 Divertimento in D for 2 vl, via, bass, ob, 2 hrn (Nannerl Septet), 1st movement - K 208 II re pastore, Overture (identical with Symphony in C, 1st movement) - K137 Divertimento II (Quartet) in B flat, 2nd movement - K131 Divertimento in D, 6th movement, b. 1 5322 - K130 Symphony in F, 4th movement - K102 Symphony i n C , 1 st movement (= Overture to II Re pastore K 208) - K 45 Symphony in D, 1st movement Not- tee gior- no fa- ti- car per chi nul- la sa gra- dir Vo- glio far il gen- til- uo- mo. Ex. 139: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 1 Introduzione, b. 8 and 20 Allegro m olto/M olto Allegro is often misunderstood as ve ry fast. It is a riddle how Hans Swarowsky, teacher of whole generations of outstanding conductors, expected to realize any of the 32nd note figures in Leporello's Introduzione at MM J=112.323 In the duel, b. 167-174, has he allowed the double basses to execute the 32nd note tiratas across the whole octave as glissandi? According to Leopold Mozart's State ment: „M olto allegro is somewhat less than Allegro assai",324 „Notte e giorno faticar" (Ex. 139) should actually be slower than the Allegro assai of the Queen of the Night's 2nd Aria with its extremely high zigzag staccati (Ex. 140), which can in fact be sung with less anxiety in a quite speedy tempo. In a recording from 1937 conducted by Sir Thomas Beecham with the Berlin Philharmonie the wonderful Erna Berger sings the aria pin-sharp cleanly at quarter notes MM = 160! It seldom becomes clear in performances that Leporello's Introduzione Starts with half-bar up-beats, until in b. 20 he puffs himself up putting his foot down distinctly on the first beat of the bar. (Beethoven, though, already quoted the theme of the aria in the 22nd of his Diabelli-Variations op. 120 as an Allegro m olto 4/4 starting not with an upbeat but on the first beat of the bar.) ^ with 8th note triplets 3 * K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 467 entrance gardener: „Ah signor..., signor..." (Ex. 178, p. 134) [* K 303 Piano and Violin Sonata i n C , 1 st movement, b.19 and 109 (after a virtual change of metre from 2/2) (Ex. 169) (see p. 128)] Allegro assai 4/4 ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 14 Aria Queen „Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" (Ex. 140) - K 451 Piano Concerto inD, Ist movement— - K 395 Präludium in C for piano („Capriccio"), b. 26 [all tempi autograph] - K 344 Zaide, no. 13 Aria Zaide „Tiger, wetze nur die Klauen" 322 originally „Allegro n o n molto", - but C. 323 Hans Swarowsky, Wahrung der Gestalt, 1979, p. 64. 324 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School o f Violin Playing'), p. 48, ,Musical Technical Terms' [app. p. 272]. — Concerning the Concertos K 450 and 451 Mozart wrote in a letter to his father on 26.05.1 784 (no. 793, [app. p. 268]: „I consider them both to be concertos to make the player sweat. - Yet the one in B flat is harder than the one in D." Mozart's Tempo-System 105 - K 344 Zaide, no. 15 Quartetto „Freundin, stille deine Tränen" - K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata in D, 3rd movement, b. 187 - K210 „Con ossequio", Aria for Tenor and orchestra - K204 Serenade inD, 2nd movement (Serenata) - K 185 Serenade i n D , 2 nd movement (Serenata) - K 162 Symphony in C, 1st movement - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, Overture Ex. 140: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 14 Aria Queen of the Night „Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen", b. 24 ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 9 Aria Sesto, b. 96 „Guardami, e tutto oblio" ❖ K 588 Cos! fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II „Fate presto, o cari amici" (Ex. 141) - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 3 Terzett „Ich bin die erste Sängerin" ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 7 Terzett, b. 98 „Marsch, fort, fort, fort, fort, fo rt!" (32nd notetiratas!) - K 297 Symphony in D (Paris Symphony), 1st movement [K 297] Allegro assa Ü t i V j i ^ < 588, no. 31 J V ^ 1 * * ß m ß ß V S P f r E T ^ , j > j » i j ' j s J J . . y u . > j . V p 3 ^ f i i wr i i wf i~ Fa-te pre- sto,o ca-ria- mi-ci, al-le fa-ciilfo-co da- te e la men- sa pre- pa- ra- te Ex. 141: Cos/ fan tutte , K 588, no. 31 Finale II Concerning the „Marsch fort, fort, fort" of the Terzett no. 7 in Die Entführung Mozart wrote to his father that it „should go very fast".326 Presto 4/4 ^ with 16th notes - K 344 Zaide, no. 9 Aria Sultan, b.110 „Er brüllet mit furchtbarer Stimme" - K196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 25 Aria Podestä, b. 103 „Lei si prenda il suo contino" 326 Mozart's Letter no. 629, 26.09.1 781. [app. p. 266] 106 Mozart's Tempo-System c) The ,short' 4/4 metre Beside the unproblematic movements in 4/4 metre with 16th notes or 8th note triplets there is a group of 88 pieces with indications from allegro up to presto, which (apart from embellishments, tremolos, tirate and arpeggios) contain only simple eighth notes and are therefore faster than the aforementioned. In my essay about Mozart's even metres327 I have proposed to call the metre of this group ,short' 4/4 metre - by analogy with the 6/8 metre w ithout 16th notes (see below) which I have called ,short' 6/8 metre accor ding to the example of Bernhard Logier.328 70 of these movements have autograph tempo words. While beating time in an Allegro con spirito w ith 16th notes must still change between quarter and half notes, the 4/4 movements w ithout 16th notes in Allegro, Allegro m olto , Allegro assai and Presto are technically unavoidably conducted in half notes. This unfortunately tempts some conductors into regarding them as alla breve pieces and correspondingly they add still more speed.329 Nevertheless, they are all written in compound 4/4 metre, and the quick succession of their two accents per bar makes them seem faster than the corresponding ones in real 2/2 metre that are emphasized in whole bars. What are their tempi - and especially that of the relatively slowest, the ,short' A l l e g r o 4/4? Mostly it is taken too fast since the still faster six modules w ithout 16th notes are not considered: Allegro vivace, Allegro vivace assai, Allegro con spirito, Allegro m olto, Allegro assai und Presto 4 /4 .= Let us find a value for this ,short' A l l e g r o 4/4, Mozart's most frequently misunderstood tempo indica tion, by discussing each single grade, d e s c e n d i n g from the fastest 4/4, the ,short' P re s to . Those movements which after virtual tim e changes switch from 4/4 time to an undeclared 2/2 metre will be treated in the subsequent excursus (p. 115). Presto 4/4 ^ only 8th notes - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 22 Quartetto, b. 71 „Per caritä, partiamo" * K 492 Figaro, Sinfonia (Ex. 142, Ex. 143, Ex. 144) * K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, Overture (originally „Allegro assai") Ex. 142: Figaro, K492, Sinfonia (original) A Cardinal example for an often misguided choice of tempo is the Sinfonia of Figaro. Although neither marked Presto assai nor Prestissimo (!) it usually comes along as a kind of etude for trills at a speed of up to MM J=152 (Swarowsky), since the conductor misunderstands it as Presto £ in the sense of the Overtures to Die Entführung and Cos/ fan tutte, and of the whole-bar phrasing of bars 1-11, 18-28 etc.— Then one hears it like this, two bars in halved note values united into one: Half notes M M = 76 Sinfonia Figaro (corrupted) rgq F JJ JJlä+ 4̂ ^ r,TJL- O T 5 ¥+- { mp) - Ex. 143: Figaro, K492, Sinfonia (erroneous practice) - a boring Allegro moderato C with main notes that are meaninglessly trilled around by 16th notes! It was for nothing that Mozart - even in the hurry of writing down this overture - added 32nd triplet grace-notes 327 Helmut Breidenstein, Mozarts Tempo-System II. Die geraden Taktarten, Teil 1, in: Mozart-Studien, vol. 16, 2007, p. 290. 328 Johann Bernhard Logier, System der Musik-Wissenschaft und der praktischen Composition, 1827, p. 289. — On this see: Max Rudolf, „Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Temponahme bei Mozart", MJb 1976/77, p. 219. — If Friedrich Rochlitz' Anekdote aus Mozarts Leben is true, this was no different even already in Mozart's lifetime: „M ozart complained about nothing more vehemently than about the ruining of his compositions in public performances - mainly by exaggeration of the speed of the tempos. - They believe it would become more fiery like that. Well, if the fire is not in the composition it w ill definitely not be brought into it by rushing." (AmZ I/6, 7.11.1798, col. 84, 85). ^ An anonymous reviewer of the Allgemeine musikali sche Zeitung reported from Paris in 1811: „I remember exactly hearing Mozart and Haydn perform their symphonies in Vienna: they never took their first Allegros as fast as one hears them now here and probably by many German orchestras. Both let the minuets pass swiftly; Haydn liked to take the finales faster than Mozart - which, however, results from the character and manner of w riting of these movements, but is now sometimes forgotten by other directors." (AmZ, XIII/44, 30.10.1811, col. 737). — In the piano score of the French publisher Schlesinger the Overture (Sinfonia) has even the time signature C; metronome indication: whole notes = M M 84 ! Mozart's Tempo-System 107 in bars 14/15. Like this they are scarcely playable and in any case no longer audible. His own Presto 4/4, however (in his ,catalogue' it is only Allegro assai 4/4!), definitely allows for their clear execution. The two emphases of the compound 4/4 metre are after the whole-bar accentuation of the beginning splendidly realized by the gruppetti and changes of harmony on the second halves of b. 14-1 7 (Ex. 144). In the density of their accents they are so full of energy that the C-version with its ,trills' appears insipid beside it. Ex. 144: Figaro, K492, Sinfonia, b. 12-1 7 For the turbulent Overture to Der Schauspieldirektor K 486, presenting a chaotic Company of actors, Mozart sharpened his original Allegro assai 4/4 to Presto 4/4 - a borderline speed for the double basses. PiÜ Allegro (from Allegro assai 4/4, i.e. still not completely Presto) ^ only 8th notes - K 492 Figarof no. 16 Finale II, b. 783 „Son confusa, son stordita" (Ex.180) PiÜ StrettO (from Allegro assai 4/4, i.e. still not completely Presto) ^ only 8th notes - K 479 Quartetto for soprano, tenor, 2 basses and orch., b. 163 „Qui v'e tutta l'apparenza" Allegro assai 4/4 ^ only 8th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I „Presto, presto - pria ch'ei venga" ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 468 „Soccorriamo l'innocente!" (Ex. 145) ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 20 Aria Leporello „Ah pietä, signori miei" (Ex. 146) ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 21b Recit. accompagn. Donna Elvira „In quali eccessi, o Numi" (Ex.192) ❖ K 492 Figaro, no. 7 Terzetto „Cosa sento! tosto andate, e scacciate il seduttor" (Ex. 147) ❖ K492 Figaro, no. 15 Duettino Susanna/Cherubino „Aprite presto aprite" - K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 697 „Voi signor che giusto siete" ❖ K 492 Figarof no. 18 Aria II Conte, b. 48 „Ah no, lasciarti in pace" (Ex. 167) ❖ K 492 Figarof no. 29 Finale IV, b. 335 „Gente, gente, all'armi all'armi!" (Ex. 148, Ex. 182) - K 479 „D ite almeno in che mancai", Quartetto for 4 soli and orch., b. 83 „Eccolo Io smargiasso" - K 431 „Misero! O sogno", Rec. and Aria for tenor and orch.; aria, b. 67 „Ho mille lorve intorno" - K 420 „Per pietä, non ricercate", Aria for tenor and orch., b. 76 „Ah, tra l'ire e tra gli sdegni" - K416 „M ia speranza", Rec. and Aria f. soprano and orch., Rondo b. 79 „A quai barbare vicende" ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 11 Aria Konstanze, b. 160 and 242 „Doch du bist entschlossen" ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 155 „Da nimm die Antwort drauf!" - K 366 Idomeneo, 3rd act, no. 29 Appendix, Seena X, Aria Elettra „D'Oreste, d'Aiace ho in seno" - K 344 Zaide, no. 4 Aria Gomatz „Rase, Schicksal, wüte immer" - [K 255 Aria en Rondeau „Ombra felice!", b. 46, „il piü barbaro tormento"]332 - K 209 „Si mostra la sorte", Aria for tenor and orchestra, b. 40 „Ma sempre nemica" - K203 Serenade in D, 2nd movement, Serenata, b. 8 - K 135 Lucio Silla, no. 13 Aria Silla „D'ogni pietä mi spoglio perfida" - K120 Symphony in D, 1st movement (= Overture to Ascanio in Alba, K111) The already slower A l l e g r o assai 4/4 (only 8th notes) is also a candidate for an exaggerated tempo: in Finale I of Don Giovanni („Presto, presto pria ch'ei venga"), which is mostly started already too fast as an £ metre, after 468 bars follows „Soccorriamo l'innocente!" (Ex. 145) that always defies its explicit notation as 4/4 time. Actually it shows as clearly as possible the two stresses per bar of the compound ,short' 4/4 332 (after virtual change of metre from 2/2, p. 74) 108 Mozart's Tempo-System metre. At the speed of MM J=12 6333, frequently to be heard, no orchestra can any longer play the 32 notes inb .473 : nd Ex. 145: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 13 Finale I, b. 470 „Soccorriamo l'innocente" f p f Ex. 146: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 20 Aria Leporello, b. 8 and 55 Leporello's aria no. 20 „Ah pietä, signori miei" (Allegro assai 4/4, Ex. 146) can often be heard in the Allegro assai £ of the fourth movement of the G minor Symphony (Ex. 091). The expressively complicated f/p syncopations and articulation of bars 8-18 and 73-82 are then skated over, the likewise syncopated gracenotes of the bars 33 etc. become superfluous, the chain of staccato eighth notes in octaves in the 1st and 2nd violins (from b. 53) is executed only approximately. In the Figaro Terzetto no. 7 („Cosa sento!", Ex. 147) the hypocritically writhing legato half notes of Basilio („In mal punto", b. 16 and „Ah dei paggio", b. 85) and the slimy-malicious rubbing of his hands (b. 1 75) are actually s l o w gestures. And the effect when the Count, influenced by Basilio, takes over the gliding half notes in b. 129 - slowly tearing down the coat from Cherubino's hideaway in the armchair legatolegato in a descending line until the paralysis of surprise (an 8-bar pedal point in oboe, horns, violas) - is it actually not worth making the most of it?— K 492, no. 7, m. 129 ^ _______________ ^129 (Allegro assai) ^ 1 m i s W w w k k M f f i P i - V o r i f T r f fsII Conte: ed al- zan- do pian pia- ni- no il tap- pe- to al ta- vo- li- no ve- doil pag- gio Ex. 147: Figaro, K492, no. 7 Terzetto, b. 129 „Cosa sento!" , b. 129-140, „ed alzando" The Duettino no. 15 („Aprite presto, aprite") is mostly rattled off w ithout consideration for the 16th notes of bars 53/54 and their crescendo from pp to f (within half a bar!) depicting Cherubino's leap out of the window. „Gente, gente, all'armi all'armi!" in Finale IV, b. 335 (Ex. 148), suffers from its ,empty' first bars, which, in spite of Mozart's time signature ,C', from a cursory reading look like C bars, and are correspondingly conducted like that. In such a fast tempo the 16th- (more exactly 32nd-) turns from b. 368, which even in a moderate tempo are extremely quick, take up half a bar instead of a quarter: 333 Michael Gielen's indication in: Über die Tempi in Mozarts ,Don G iovanniprogramme book Frankfurt Opera, IX, 1977, p. 1 7. — „ I f the three strands - the Count's ire, Basilio's hypocritical smoothness, and Susanna's little comedy - are all brought under one arc, w ithout pushing or pulling back, then we have the one right tempo" (Erich Leinsdorf, The Composer's Advocate. p .1 1 0). ^ About the paralysis of the tim e-flow in bars 129-146 see also: Ivan Nagel, Autonomie und Gnade. Über Mozarts Opern, 1985, p. 112f. {Autonomy and Mercy. Reflections on Mozart's Operas, trans. by Marion Faber and the author, 1991.) Mozart's Tempo-System 109 p f p Ex. 148: Figaro, K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 335 and 368 The quick part of Konstanze's aria „Martern aller Arten" (b. 160 and 242 „Doch du bist entschlossen" 335) where the 14 bars of Mozart's final stringendo could turn out to be all the more thrilling the less fast one has been before - and Blonde's „Da nimm die Antwort drauf" (bar 155 in Quartett no. 16 Entführung) are further examples of frequently exaggerated tempi.— The 4/4 after a virtual change of metre from the preceding 2/2 metre at „Ah no, lasciarti in pace" (Ex. 167) in the Count's aria in Figaro no. 18, b. 48 and the passage „il piü barbaro tormento" at b. 46 in the Aria en Rondeau, K 255, „Ombra felice!" are ,short' 4/4 metres as well (see p. 120). Allegro molto / Molto Allegro 4/4 (according to Leopold M ozart less fast than Allegro assai) ^ only 8 notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 6 Terzett „Du feines Täubchen, nur herein" („Schön Mädchen" Ex. 149) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 6 Aria Idomeneo, b. 51 „Qual spavento, qual dolore" - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 1st movement, b.15 - K 270 Divertimento in B flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement - K 16 Symphony in E flat, 1st movement According to Leopold Mozart still somewhat slower (see above) is the M o l t o A l l e g r o 4/4 of the Ter zett „Du feines Täubchen, nur herein!", no. 6 in Die Zauberflöte. Frequently the conductor who looks only at the first bars and the wrongly understood „m o lto " ruins the entrance of Papageno, leisurely strolling in 31 bars later, and his quietly naive „Wo bin ich wohl! wo mag ich sein?" („Where have I got to? Where could I be?") — With „Schön Mädchen jung und rein" („Lovely maiden, young and pure") he sees Pamina, who has fainted. Then he runs into the black Monostatos: „H u—!", fermata! - and both: „das ist .. der Teu .. fei si .. cherlich" („that is quite certainly the devil.") (Ex. 149) In Mozart's tempo the anxiously increased heartbeat of them both between the syllables is distinctly audible in the compound 4/4 metre, whereas a brisk alla breve with only one emphasis per bar obliterates it.— 335 Die Entführung, K 384, Aria n o .1 1 ,b .1 60. — The Allegro assai of the 2nd part of the Count's aria no. 18 in Figaro („Ah no, lasciarti in pace") belongs here as well (Ex. 167); after a virtual change of metre in b. 43 (see below) it is nothing eise but a ,short' 4/4. — A primal theatrical scene: Punch's entrance w ith studied indifference, being warned by the children in vain of the crocodile lurking in the corner. — Mozart's famous comment about Belmonte's aria „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig klopft mein liebevolles Herz" (Ex. 199) perhaps allows my interpretation to appear not entirely unfounded. (Letter from 26.09.1 781, no. 629 [app. p. 266]). 110 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 149: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 6 Terzetto, b. 49 Allegro SpiritOSO 4/4 (less fast than Allegro molto and Allegro assai) ^ only 8th notes K 425 Symphony in C (Linz Symphony), 1st movement, b. 20 PiÜ presto (from Allegro 4/4, i.e. still several steps below Presto) ^ only 8th notes - K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 24 Duetto, b. 72 „Che turbine sidesta, che tuoni, che tempesta" PiÜ allegro (from Allegro 4/4, not necessarily like Allegro con brio and Allegro agitato) ^ only 8th notes K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 19 Rondo Sesto, b. 104 „Disperato vado a morte" K 430 Lo Sposo deluso, no. 1 Quartetto, b. 167 „Che seccature orrib ili" K418 „Vorrei spiegarvi", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 124 „Partite, correte" K 366 Idomeneo, no. 16 Terzetto, b .117 „ tempesta" (from Allegro con brio 4/4, 16th notes not relevant) Allegro COn brio 4/4 (somewhat slower than AHegrospiritoso) ^ only 8th notes ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 3 Aria Osmin „Solche hergelaufne Laffen" [b. 32 and 85 tem po probably identical] (Ex. 150) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 16 Terzetto „Deh cessi il scompiglio", b. 63 K 384, no. 3, m. 2 Allegro con brio _____ Sol- che her- ge- lauf- ne Laf- Ex. 150: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 3 Aria Osmin, b. 2 Allegro agitatO 4/4— (less brillian t than Allegro con brio) ^ only 8th notes K 294 „Alcandro, Io confesso", Rec. and Aria for sopr. and orch.: Aria, b. 72 „Nel seno a destarmi" K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 13 Aria Arminda „Vorrei punirti indegno" K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 21 Aria Sandrina „Crudeli, fermate, crudeli, oh Dio!" — Compare Allegro agitato 2/2, p .74 Mozart's Tempo-System 111 Allegro vivace assai 4/4 (less fast than Allegro con brio) ^ only 8th notes - K 345 Thamos, no. 5 Interlude Allegro vivace 4/4 ^ only 8th notes * K 551 Symphony in C {Jupiter Symphony), 1st movement_(Ex. 151) * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II „Giä la mensa e preparata" (Ex. 152) A11 . K 551, I, m. 1+101 Allegro vivace . o = L q yQ = -gI 7 gea i *? pfe i i i *i r 0. r* ff f it VI- ü : i f > / ^3 3 k * y * ^ 1 P v ■ J 1 U fS j® i—-— ß M r * j ä IM Ex. 151: Symphony in C, K 551, 1st movement, b. 1 and 101 Already not at all „fast" any more - and the last essential degree downwards before the Allegro 4/4 w ith only 8th notes we are looking for - is A l l e g r o v i v a c e 4/4 (only 8th notes): the first movement of the Jupiter' Symphony with its manifold metrical characters (for instance its third theme originally consisting of cosy Allegretto 2/4 bars112) as well as Don Giovanni's juicy, voluptuous „Gia - la - mensa e pre-parata" at the beginning of Finale II (Ex. 152), bursting with vitality and a-vowels. Both pieces could profit from Türk's criticism: „I have especially noticed that pieces marked with Vivace are usually played too fast. Presumably this expression, which applies principally to the manner o f playing, has been mistakenly applied only to the speed."341 and from the note of De Meude-Monpas: „Vif, vivace: lively mouvement, hearty execution full of fire. It is n o t a matter of hurrying the beat, but giving itw a rm th ,"342 Allegro vivace 17 Nr. 24, Finale II Don Giovanni C 0 Ü ■ -m- l g g ' g f i g f - g J l fe 1 g : f f f f g g t / *):|U J i - Giä la J K u p ] men- sae pre- - pa- i 6 rata. £L 1 r > r > l r r1 1 v i r * r ‘ ■de r ! r r Ex. 152: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 24 Finale II (with cut from b. 5-17) As at „Gente, gente!" here too the modern conductor's arm can be the reason for a tempo that's too fast: often he marks the rests in bars 1 and 2 by a vehement upbeat for the forte of the next bar, whereas the sense of the music is just the lack of any occurence, which only increases the suspense for what follows. The Capellmeister of Mozart's time with his violin could simply have waited during the rest before he raised his arm for the coup d'archet on the first beat of the next bar. Now we have reached A l l e g r o 4/4 without 16th notes, 28 movements or parts of movements that ex actly like the aforementioned ones are often taken too fast, since they are misunderstood as hidden 2/2 metres - as rightly criticised by Harnoncourt. — The theme is a quotation from the ariette K 541 „Un bacio di mano", b. 21. There it is indicated Allegretto 2/4\ Text: „Voi siete un po tondo, mio caro Pompeo, l'usance dei mondo andate studiar!" („You're rather tubby, my dear Pompeo; go and study the ways of the w orid!") 341 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), 1 789, chap. VI, sect. 3 ,§ 5 1 , p. 364 [app. p. 307]. 342 J.J.O. de Meude-Monpas: „Vif, vivace: Mouvement anime, execution hardie et pleine de feu. H ne s'agit pas de häter la mesure, mais de lui donner de la cha le u r." (Dictionnaire de Musique, 1787, p .2 1 0) 112 Mozart's Tempo-System Allegro 4/4 ^ only 8th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, Overture - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 8 Aria Tito „Ah, se fosse intorno al trono" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 10 Terzetto „Vengo... aspettate... Sesto!..." - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 12 Quintetto with Chorus „Deh conservate, oh Dei, a Roma" - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 19 Rondo Sesto, b. 38 „Disperato vado a morte" - K 583 „Vado, ma dove? oh Dei!", Aria for soprano and orchestra * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 4 Aria Leporello „Madamina, il catalogo e questo" (Ex. 153) * K 525 „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", 1st movement (Ex. 157, Ex. 158, Ex. 159) - K515 String Quintet in C, 1st movement * K492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II „Esci omai garzon malnato" (Ex. 156a]) * K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 167 „Susanna, son morta: il fiato mi manca" (Ex. 156c) - K 492 Figaro, no. 20 Aria Contessa, b. 52 „Ah! se almen la mia costanza" - K 492 Figaro, no. 26 Aria Basilio, b. 102 „Cosi conoscere mi fe la sorte" - K 480 „Mandina amabile", Terzetto, b .117 „Eccellenza, seguitate" - K 432 „Cosi dunque tradisci", Recit. and Aria for bass and orchestra: Aria „Aspri rimorsi atroci" - K 430 Lo Sposo deluso, Overture (instrumentation fragmentary) - K418 „Vorrei spiegarvi, oh Dio!", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 82 „Ah conte, partite" - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 2 Lied and Duett Osmin/Belmonte, b. 55 „Verwünscht seist du" - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 20 Duett Konstanze/Belmonte, b. 95 „Ich w ill alles gerne leiden" - K 369 „Misera, dove son!", Rec. and Aria for soprano and orchestra; aria, b. 81 „Non cura il ciel" - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 21 Quartetto „Andro ramingo e solo" - K 345 Thamos, no. 2 Entr'acte - K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 16 Aria Sandrina, b. 61 „Ah mi fugge, non m'ascolta" - K166 Divertimento in E flat for wind, 1st movement - K 126 II sogno di Scipione, no. 8 Aria Fortuna, b. 88 „Ma se taluno io giro" - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 16 Aria Ascanio, b. 9 „Se le virtu di lei tutte saper pretendi" - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 23 Aria Silvia, b. 36 „Ah quest' alma, eterni Dei" - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 24 Chorus of shepherdesses „Che strano evento" - K 35 Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, no. 2 Aria Barmherzigkeit „Ein ergrimmter Löwe" Ex. 153: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 4 Aria Leporello „Madamina", b. 1 and 16 Leporello's „Madamina" aria is a classic example of a piece misconceived as alla breve, and consequently played too fast. Mostly we hear it in the speedy Allegro 2/2 of Donna Anna's „Fuggi, crudele, fuggi"343 (Ex. 77), or in that of the first movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata in E minor, K 304 (Ex. 76). The pieces in 4/4 metre with only 8th notes, however, are compounded of two 2/4 bars exactly like those with 16th notes and like them have the metrical structure: | = v - v |; that is, contrary to the alla breve, they have a distinct secondary stress on the second half of the bar. Conducting with the violin or from the clavier, as was usual in Mozart's time, they did not have the technical problem of modern conductors that the ,short' Allegros are too fast to be conducted throughout in quarter notes and too slow for comfortable half-note beating, which wrongly leads one to speed up. In order to do justice to the different rhythmical structures in the moderate tempo propagated here, one may perhaps regard it as necessary to change between the two kinds of beat (for instance b. 1 in half notes, b .1 6 in quarter notes). 343 Duetto no. 2 Don Giovanni, b. 63. Mozart's Tempo-System 113 Astonishingly, Nikolaus Harnoncourt in his Salzburg Figaro 2006 entirely suppressed the question of the smallest note values, which is so important in the 18th Century: „a specific tempo word always indicates the same tem po."344 In 2002 he said about his Don Giovanni there: „Elvira's aria („Ah, chi mi dice mal")— and that of Leporello („Madamina"), which follows immediately are written in the same tempo [Allegro 4/4]. I am quite sure that Mozart wanted them to be played in the same tempo. Today they are practically never played in the same tempo."346 Donna Elvira: Ah chi mi di- ce ma- i quel bar- ba- ro dov' e, che per mio scor- noa Ex. 154: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 3 Aria Donna Elvira But are the two arias really written „in the same tempo"? Leporello's aria (Ex. 153) contains, besides bro ken chords and tremolos that are irrelevant for fixing the tempo, only eighth notes; Elvira's aria (Ex. 154) on the contrary has characteristic passages with articulated sixteenth note figures. May one disregard that? Is one allowed to play „everything marked Allegro at one and the same speed" - as Quantz criticises?347 It would quite decidedly contradict the classical tempo giusto, the determination of tempo by metre a n d note values. In brief: a false notion, which for Leporello results in a tempo that is much too slow . Step by step down from Presto in ,short' 4/4 metre we have arrived at a tempo for the Allegro which is somewhat slower than the Allegro vivace of the first movement of the Jupiter Symphony (Ex. 151), but still far from the Allegro 4/4 of Donna Elvira's aria, and just as far from the usual Allegro C. In ,short' Allegro 4/4 w ith only 8th notes Leporello's graphically baroque scales of laughter gain a completely different fullness, the lyrical passages of the Countess in Finale II of Figaro (especially from b. 171) show their urgency. How heartlessly syncopated sounds in many performances her softly pleading legato motive (Ex. 155), which - beginning pianissimo, and interrupted by harsh 32nd (not 16thü)-note gestures of the Count finally bears in the coda a premonition of their reconciliation. Finale II Figaro, T. 234 + 253 2 5 3234 ^ -------- = A = Q lU hl r ' r r ' c I M £ / T O ! ! ] : P Ex. 155: Figaro, K 492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 234 and 253 The architectural balance between the first part of this Finale („Esci omai garzon malnato", Ex. 156a) and the third („Susanna, son morta", Ex. 156c) - both Allegro 4/4 without 16th notes - and the middle part with Susanna's ironic M olto Andante 3/8 („Signore", Ex. 156b and Ex. 352), is severely disturbed if the outer parts, instead of their ,short' Allegro 4/4 unreel in Allegro m olto 2/2 and, on the other hand, the M olto Andante 3/8 of the middle part is overstretched into a ,heavy' Andante 3/4 with three accents per bar.— The opposite method of Harnoncourt, who plays the dramatic outer parts slowly at MM J=138, and the middle part „flo tt" (briskly) at MM J)=126, distorts Mozart's relationships within the formal structure no less.— 344 Programme book of the Salzburger Festspiele „Le Nozze di Figaro” 2006. — H.B.: The tempo word „A llegro" fits well here, it's true, but it's not authentic; for this reason it cannot really bear the responsibility of such a fundamental discussion of tempi. 346 Interview w ith Nikolaus Harnoncourt „ Don Giovanni als Herausforderung" „Salzburger Nachrichten", 27.07.02, Festspielbeilage. 347 Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung ('On Playing the Flute'), 1 752, p. 286), chapter XVIII, §15 [app. p. 328]. — „From the orchestra it sounds like a heart failing to beat." (Hermann Abert, W.A Mozart, 1919, I, p. 551 and II, p. 271). — „Briskly" („flo tt") is Harnoncourt's characterization of the M olto Andante in the programme for Figaro of the Salzburg Festival 2006, p. 29. His unusually slow tempo for parts 1 and 3 results from his opinion, repeated there, that all Allegro 4/4 movements had to be played at the same speed; w ith that he left the important role of the smallest note values out of consideration. 114 Mozart's Tempo-System / v i-de r v i-de Ex. 156 a,b,c: Figaro, K 492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 1, 126 and 167 Allegro / M olto andante / Allegro M y explanations should have made clear tha t the assertion o f low -num bered tem po p roportions (here, because o f w ro n g tem pos, about 4:1, J = ^ between Allegro and M olto Andante) is not tenable fo r the advanced style o f the late 18th Century. P roportions deprive the in te rre la tion o f tem p i o f the ir practica lly o rien ted - and at the same tim e theore tica lly jus tified - fle x ib ility tha t can react w ith sensitiv ity to the actual Situation o f the perform ance: one o f the finest features o f the system w e are describ ing. Why have I listed „Eine kleine Nachtmusik" together with the Allegros of the „Madamina" type? From the Computer of German Telecom it sounds like this: devoid of accents (Ex. 157): Quarter notes MM= 126 K 525, I, ä la Telecom ■PpPfrf j f .ff$ Ex. 157: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, 1st m ovem ent (a la Telecom) in num erous concert perform ances like th is (Ex. 158): 1 / C ) - | i n . . / m n n r a n r l n r i n n J. Allegro > > ^ 1 ~W — ~W~ - ~W - — > i / f j |frr]= p Ex. 158: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K525, 1st movement, (wrongly in 2/4 metric) However, according to Türk (Ex. 101) the accentuation should be like this, - in the brisk tempo of the Overture to La clemenza di Tito (Ex.159): Allegro l \ r f1 • mf o tE f -s O ♦ 9- ■Pr* KV 5 O-9- — 25, 9 1. Satz ^ 4 > . fh tr [ f f H m # = * = / 9 # # 9 ä -̂-----7 T9- , -9- T 9 V — 4 i ü iy Ti r - L - = - Ex. 159: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, 1st movement, (in metric ä la Türk) The 16th notes in the violas being only repetitions have no influence on the determination of the tempo; the prevailing note values of this movement are 8th notes. This piece, which in traditional performances often sounds almost wooden, gets a new, leaping freshness when taken up into the group of the ,short' 4/4 Allegros around Leporello's „Madamina" aria. For the entire group of ,short' 4/4 Allegros I would like to propose for consideration a pulse of MM J=72- 80. For Leporello's aria and the two Allegros in Finale II Figaro this is unusually slow compared with tradi tional conceptions, for „Eine kleine Nachtmusik" it is unusually fast. For most of the other pieces one will perhaps find it appropriate. It seems to me that whenever Mozart marked the metre with C— and composed two emphases per bar but no relevant 16th notes, he meant such a tempo between Allegro 4/4 with 16th notes and Allegro 2/2 with 8th notes. — Errors, mistaken documentation and false traditions left aside here. Mozart's Tempo-System 115 Excursus: Virtual Changes of Metre In a whole series of cases Mozart composed virtual changes of metre in the course of a piece, often con nected with changes of tempo, the verbal indications of which cannot apply to the previous time signature. This concerns especially the operatic finali that are organized in a chain of different movements with up to 16 tempos following each other. They are one of the reasons for which Mozart's tempo indications are said to be contradictory or arbitrary; on the one hand they are compulsively mathematized by admirers of simple tempo relations, and on the other hand still corrupted in practice by 19th Century misunderstandings, superficial theoretical knowledge of performance practice or indifference towards Mozart's „inconsistent" indications. In the first chapter of his textbook in the form of a dialogue „Anfangsgründe zur musicalischen Setzkunst" („Fundamentals o f musical com position") Joseph Riepel in 1752 warns his Student of composition: „We have here a very tight knot to untie, of which perhaps twenty discantists know nothing." Can the knot be undone? Yes, Riepel continues with an example in 4/4 metre (and has it printed big and bold): „Al legro, A l leg ro assai, pres to or pres t iss imo can of ten adop t the m anner o f an Al labreve te m po a lmos t t h ro u g h o u t or in the m id d le o f a p iece; and he who has no good understanding of that can easily confuse it with the common metre [4/4]."351 Obviously he is talking about virtual changes of metre - here at first w ithout any change of tempo; they can be found in many of Mozart's compositions. Riepel comments on his Discantist's work as follows: t Laufern vermenget Ex. 160: Joseph Riepel, De Rhythmopoeia, p. 47 „alla breve manner" „Now the ,singer' [in bar 1] has really got you into the alla breve manner I mentioned, which is no mistake. Here it should be noted that the Allabreve manner is counted like the A//a breve-tempo it self ." Is this not strongly reminiscent of the beginning of the „little " G minor Symphony, K183 (Ex. 161)? - ± H 0 0 0 0 0 k k : J J I / Ex. 161: Symphony in G minor, K 183, 1st movement The young Mozart begins here - like later in the Allegro 4/4 of the Prague symphony and the Piano Con certo in D minor - in whole-bar accentuation with ,singers' in the ,a//a breve manner' (the oboes play along in whole notes); in the fifth bar, however, he switches to a real 4/4 metre with two distinct emphases per bar. There are now frequent changes to and fro between „2/2" and 4/4. The second theme (b. 59) could even be notated in 2/4 (Ex.162): [Allegro con brio] t . K 183, I, m. 59 n * J n f r f r r rp F fi- r r r Ex. 162: Symphony in G minor, K183, 1st movement, b. 59, 2nd theme Such virtual changes of metre are not at all seldom in Mozart; w ithout any claim to completeness, I have found 58 pieces up to now in which they play a role. „In Mozart's works the simultaneity o f 4/4 and 2/2 tim e is characteristic o f the quality o f metre in the ,singing AllegroV '352 Let's hear some other opinions about this phenomenon: 351 Joseph Riepel, Anfangsgründe zur musikalischen Setzkunst ('Principles o fth e Art o f Composition'), chap. I, „D e Rhythmopoeia", p. 47 [app. p. 320]. 352 Carl Dahlhaus, article „Takt" in: Riemann Musiklexikon (Schott 1967, Brockhaus 2000). 116 Mozart's Tempo-System „The second special kind of parenthesis [insertion] is that sometimes in a piece which is set in compound metre melodic parts are inserted which have a simple metre as basis."353 „In order to be capable of distinguishing both metres in a piece where 2/2 is exchanged with 4/4 metre for some time, it is necessary to know the nature of each single melodic division."354 Fr ie d r ic h W il h e l m M a r p u r g had expressed himselfabout that conservatively and critically still in 1763.— S im o n Se c h te r , composition tutor to Schubert and Bruckner, explained this topic quite clearly in 1854: „Just as a piece of music shall have a Pr in c ip a l Scale [t o n a l it y ], from which one switches into the next related scales [tonalities], so it shall also have a Pr in c ip a l M etre, from which one switches into similar metres; and as one dislikes changing the general accidentals [key-signature] in the middle of a piece, but adds them to the notes in individual bars, so one also dislikes changing the time signature in the middle of a piece: one is content with indicating this just by subdivisions, i.e. the notes themselves."356 W. J. Allanbrook named as a reason for this phenomenon that was new in Mozart's time: „the enlistment of contrast as a compositional procedure. [...] Since Baroque composers generally al lowed one spun-out affect to dominate an entire movement, they could choose a time signature which would notate that affect with precision. Classic composers began to shape each movement around several affects. [...] The practice necessitated the choice o fa f le x ib le , ch a m e le o n like tim e s igna tu re , harmonious not just w ith one affect but with a particular handful of them. Precision of notation was partially sacrificed in exchange for the freedom to play over a wide ränge of expressive gestures in one piece. [...] Composers preferred to choose a metrical ,lo w e s t com m on d e n o m in a to r ' fo r a tim e s igna tu re , avoiding the radical metrical extremes."357 In many places Mozart's changes of the affect give rise to such virtual changes o f metre: V irtual C hanges of M etre w it h o u t C hange of Tempo - ln his Aria „Frisch zum Kampfe! Frisch zum Streite!" (Allegro con spirito 4/4) Pedrillo's fighting spirit flags each time for 5 bars (b. 12 etc.) to a despondent virtual 2/2 metre when he tries to persuade himself: „O nly a poor cowardly wretch gives up" (Ex. 137); - Don Ottavio, however, after the rather weak utterances in the first part of his aria „II mio tesoro intanto" (Don Giovanni no. 21, Andante grazioso 2/2) rouses himself after all to an oath of revenge and to knightly rhythms in the virtual change of metre to a resolute 4/4 (b. 29) (Ex. 58); - Don Ottavio's and Donna Anna's aristocratically elated Larghetto $ („O r che tutti") in Finale II o f Don Giovanni (b. 712) changes into a civically active virtual C metre when in b. 740 Donna Elvira, Zerlina, Masetto and Leporello make up their minds to lead a new life (Ex. 176); - Don Alfonso gets to the heart of the cool resume of his psycho-social experiment in the (Ariette) An dante 2/2 of no. 30 in Cosi fan tutte by a virtual change of metre to 4/4 in bars 9-11 (see p. 061 , Ex. 057): inconstancy is necessary to women's hearts. In bars 16-19 he prepares the wise advice of old age in a virtual recitative 4/4 metre (see p. 131 ): „Cosi fan tutte" (b. 20-26) - this is again in 2/2; - the Three Ladies in b. 62 of the „In troduction" to Die Zauberflöte turn Tamino's dramatically agitated Allegro 4/4 („Zu Hilfe! zu Hilfe! sonst bin ich verloren", p. 130, Ex. 130) into lyrical flattery in a soft, virtual alla breve (b. 68 „Ein holder Jüngling sanft und schön!" Ex. 163). 353 Koch, Anle itungzur Composition (‘Essay on an Instruction Manual for Composition'), vol. III, 1 793, chapter 3 „O n the means for extending the m elody” , § 71 [app. p. 319]. 354 Koch, Musical Dictionary (,Musikalisches Lexikon'), art. „M etre" II „O n compound metres", footnote [app. p. 314, footnote 782 p. 315]. 355 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe (Critical Letters about the Art o f Music'), vol. II, 67th letter, p. 25-27, § 78. [app. p. 333] 356 Simon Sechter, Die Grundsätze der musikalischen Komposition ('The Principles o f Musical Composition'), 1854, section 2, part 1: Von den Gesetzen des Taktes in der Musik (‘About the rules o f metre in music'), p . 9 , § 4 [app. p. 347]. 357 W. J. Allanbrook, Rhythmic gesture in Mozart. 'Le Nozze d i Figaro' and 'Don Giovanni', 1983, p. 24. Mozart's Tempo-System 117 Ex. 163: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 1 Introduction, b. 62 - Extreme changes of the affects of the six protagonists cause Mozart to change five times from 2/2 to 4/4 and back (see p. 056 /057) in the first part of the Sestetto no. 19 in Don Giovanni (Andante 2 /2) (Ex. 044, Ex. 045, Ex. 046, Ex. 047). - In the M olto Allegro of the Overture to Don Giovanni, K 527, the wind instruments in b. 38-39 and the strings in b. 48-55 burst with a brutal forte staccato in virtual 4/4 metre into the piano legato 2/2 metre. - in concertante Allegro 4/4 movements „singing" places like the sweetly drawing second theme of the Allegro vivace in the Jupiter' Symphony, K 551, (b. 56) are often ,virtually' alla breve. There is moreover in b. 101 a change of metre to a virtual 2/4 with the disrespectful third theme, so remote from Jupiter (b. 101, Ex. 150), which at its place in the ariette „Un bacio di mano", K 541 is Allegretto-2/4. - Starting with a stretto of the theme already in b. 13 (Ex. 164) there is a whole series of virtual changes of metre from 2/2 to 4/4 and back in the first movement of the Symphony in A, K 201 (b. 27, 32, 37, 44 etc.). lrw»J . »:ya< i ä ä S J: . , ä ä ä * *i C n r— y\ 'rJr 1 K 201, I, m. 1+ 13 [4/4] / f £ m / 1 1 Ex. 164: Symphony in A, K 201, 1st movement, b. 1 and 13 (accents added) - In the Romance of „Eine Kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, (Andante 2/2), the floating metre of the first section (Ex. 052) changes for the interplay of motives in the middle section into the more active virtual 4/4 metre (Ex. 165): K 525, II, m. 3838 (Andante) (2/2) fZA i - C\3m Ex. 165: „Eine kleine Nachtmusik", K 525, 2 movement, Romance, b. 38 sf p sf p Even the ,large' C-metre of the church music can in some passages change into classical 4/4-metre - as can be seen at several places in the Allegro m olto of the Gloria in the Mass in C, K 337 (especially b. 75 84). The ,Credo' of the Missa longa, K 262, (Ex. 395) provides an example of the virtual changes of metre be tween ,heavy' and ,light' 3/4-metre (see p. 243) mentioned by Marpurg.358 358 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe ('Critical Leiters about the Art o f Music'), vol. II, 1 763, 67th letter, p. 25-27, § 78, [app. p. 334]) 118 Mozart's Tempo-System M ovements w ith D eceptive Beginnings Consequences for determining the tempo can arise from changes in the metrical structure, such as when a piece in 4/4 metre Starts in the „alla breve manner" like the Allegro con brio of the Symphony in G mi nor, K 183 (Ex. 161), the Allegro of the ,Prague' Symphony, K 504, or the first movement of the Piano Con certo in D minor, K 466 (Ex. 166), about which Leopold warned Nannerl: „Similarly one must take the first Allegro according to the fast passages"359, so that she should not take Riepel's ,singers' in the apparent 2/2 of the beginning too fast. Allegro K 466, I, m. 1+316 L - « \^ m j _ Ex. 166: Piano Concerto in D minor, K466, 1st movement, b. 1 and 316 - The beginning of Donna Anna's „Forse un giorno il cielo sentirä pietä di me" (Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 23, b. 64) feigns an alla breve metre as well; that is probably what caused Berlioz's misunderstanding of the „miserable coloraturas" (Ex. 122). - Later on it w ill be shown how a seemingly simple piece like the Giovanni/Zerlina Duetto „La ci darem la mano" (Don Giovanni no. 7) can deceptively appear to be a 2/4 metre until it unmasks its true virtual 4/8 metre 18 bars later. (Ex. 214) - The second movement of the Piano Concerto K 246 (Lützow Concerto) feigns at the beginning a simple 2/4 metre too; it got the Abbe Vogler who was playing at sight into an awkward plight with the many 32nd notes on the following pages (Ex. 211) (see p. 142 and letter no. 405, p. 261). The third movement of the Piano Trio in E, K 542 (Allegro 2/2), beginning so simply, consists for a great part of passages in virtual 4/4 metre with virtuoso 16th notes and distinctly fwo harmonies per bar (Ex. 069). Sometimes there are in Mozart virtual changes of metre in compound 6/8 metre, too: - After whole-bar accentuation from the beginning of the Adagio 6/8 of the Piano Sonata in F, K 280 (Ex. 257), changing harmonies from b. 9 and 43 prepare a change into the compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre of the bars 19-32 and 53-60. - In the Duett no. 9 in Die Entführung (Ex. 348) Osmin and Blonde quarrel in a compound Allegro 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8)-metre until from b. 26 Osmin becomes authoritarian in whole bar accentuation: „bis -/du -/zu ge-/hor-/chen mir /schwörst" (until you swear to obey me) - whereupon Blonde from b. 44 stubbornly repeats in similarly ,big tones': „und -/wenn -/du -der/Groß-/mo-gul/ wärst" („even if you were the Great Mogul himself".) - then follows attacca Osmin's „Oh Engländer, seid ihr nicht Toren" (Die Entführung no. 9, b. 56, Ex. 348); it seems to begin convincingly as a 2/4 metre with triplets and one harmony per bar; however, with Blonde's dissonant melodic accents on „Herz", „Freiheit", „niemals" and „sklavisch" from the sixth bar (= b. 61) and later with changes in the harmony, mfp accents and full closes on the second half of the bar (b. 76, 80, 82) it reveals itself clearly as a compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre. - The second movement of the Prague Symphony, K 504 (Ex. 346) also looks at first like a simple 6/8 me tre, until from bar 8 on by changes of harmony on the second half of the bar, and the Is t violins and vc/db imitating each others in quick succession, the compound 6/8 metre (3/8 + 3/8) which then dominates the rest of the movement can be recognized. - The ,Lied' „Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge" („Komm, lieber Mai, und mache"), K 596, with its indica tion „Fröhlich" („cheerful", Italian: „allegro") begins in simple 6/8 metre; in b. 9-12 and 16-20, however, it changes to a compound 6/8 metre increasing the expression with two accents per bar. 359 Letter of Leopold Mozart from 04.01.1 786, no. 916, [app. p. 269]. Mozart's Tempo-System 119 V irtual C hanges of M etre w ith a N ew Tempo - ln the aria of the Count in Figaro (no. 18), the Allegro assai of his small-minded decision for revenge („Ah no, lasciarti in pace", b. 48, Ex. 167) can in no way be any more sung in the overbearing 2/2 metre of the beginning of the aria („Vedro mentre io sospiro", Ex. 068). As 2/2 it would correspond to the turbulent tempo of the fourth movement of the G minor Symphony, K 550 (Ex. 091). After repeated virtual changes between 2/2 and 4/4 Mozart obviously finally kept to the 4/4 metre from b. 43 so that this passage convincingly follows the other ,short' Allegro assai 4/4 metres in Figaro (see p. 107) such as the Terzetto no. 7 „Cosa sento!" (Ex. 147) and the Duettino no. 15 „Aprite presto, aprite" (if these for their part are not taken too fast). Ex. 167: Figaro, K 492, no. 18 Aria Conte, b. 48 - In Finale II of Die Zauberflöte the mood changes radically when Pamina calls from the temple to Tamino who is prepared for the life-threatening trial: „Tamino, halt, ich muss dich sehn!" (Ex. 168) Actually, the ritual alla breve of the adagio Choral of the Armed Men from b. 190 is still valid here. With Tamino's surprised reaction Mozart changes the tempo to a bright Allegretto „Was hör ich? Paminens Stimme?" w ithout a new time signature. As a 2/2 this tempo would be that of Elvira's aria „M i tradi quell' alma ingrata" (Ex. 066), which cannot be the case. (Adagio 2/2, resp. Larghetto 4/4) + ^ i . T T f K 620, no. 21, m. 247 S i ! ! !Pamina: Ta- mi- no k , halt! ich muß dich sehn!' P Tamino: 2 Geharnm schte: v k k k k. fp [4 /4] Was hör ich? Pa- mi- nens Stim-me? Ja ja, das ist Pa- mi- nens : r r 7 u fp p Ex. 168: Die Zauberflöte, K620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 249 „Was hör' ich? Paminens Stimme?" It seems clear to me that 10 bars before, with the beginning of the repeated portato eighth notes in the strings („Mich schreckt kein Tod"), Mozart had transformed the 2/2 o fthe Adagio into a virtual 4/4 metre Larghetto. If this now continues to be valid, then the tempo of the Allegretto „Was hör ich?" (4/4, only 8th notes) corresponds according to my rule of thumb to the Andante 2/2 with 8th notes „Nie werd' ich dei ne Huld verkennen" (Ex. 055); as a ,short' 4/4 metre (see p. 106) though, it has fwo emphases per bar. This tempo fits perfectly the jubilant „Welch Glück, wenn w ir uns wiedersehn" in b. 263 and the sharp fp accents in b. 267-68. K 303, I, m. 19 + 39 P F #3 Klavier Ex. 169: Piano and Violin Sonata in C, K 303, 1st movement, b .19 and 39 - The first movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata i n C ,K 303 (Ex. 169), changes inb .19 from Adagio 2/2 to M olto Allegro, which would be considerably too fast as 2/2 metre (cf. the 1st movement of the G minor 120 Mozart's Tempo-System Symphony, K 550, Ex. 087). Its virtual 4/4 metre identifies itself at the end: the movement concludes in b. 167 on the second half of the bar, which would not be possible in The tempo corresponds to tbe A lle gro 2/2 with 8th note triplets at the entrance of the furious gardener in Figaro Finale II (b. 467, Ex. 178), (which, however, is often taken too fast w ithout thought for the subsequent increases of speed.) - In the Aria en Rondeau „Io ti lascio" (b. 24 of K 255 „Ombra felice!") the metre changes four times from 2/2 (Andante moderato, b. 23, 74, 131, 156; Allegretto b. 136) to a virtual 4/4 metre (Allegro assai, b. 46, 97, 142 and 165) and back w ithout indicating the change by a time signature. The structure with half-bar upbeats would have made new time signatures each time in the middle of the bar very impractical. Yet in no way could these Allegro assai passages be played in the main 2/2 metre (the tempo, for instance, of K 550, 4th movement, Ex. 091). Fin a li: C h a in s o f Tempos The remarks of Riepel, Marpurg, Koch and Sechter about simple metres that can be mixed with com pound metres provide the explanation for many a puzzling tempo term, especially those within Mozart's finali that often consist of a chain of varying tempo words. Sechter's term ,principal metre' w ith ,switches' into other metres - corresponding to a ,principal tonality' with its modulations - offers a possible solution, for example, to the problems in Mozart's first D on - G io van n i F ina le (no. 13). After Zerlina's scream for help (b. 468) has abruptly concluded the dance scene, a series of tempo chan ges follows: - the A l l e g r o assa i 4/4 („Soccorriamo l'innocente!"), b. 468 (Ex. 145): like the beginning of the Finale („Presto, presto pria ch'ei venga") it is most often played as an alla breve; - the A n d a n t e m a e s t o s o 4/4 („Ecco il birbo", b. 499, Ex. 170): it cannot possibly be as slow as Fiordiligi's „Come scoglio"360 or the Andante 4/4 o fthe chorus „Heil sei euch Geweihten" (Ex. 121); - the AI l e g r o („Trema, trema, o scellerato!", b. 533, Ex. 171) for which actually still the 4/4 metre of the beginning is valid. It is generally taken as an Allegro m olto 2/2 in which there is no longer any question of 32nd note turns (b. 541 etc.) It is very amusing to watch the double-bass players w ildly faking the eighth note triplets from b. 577. - the Pi u s t r e t t o („Se cadesse", b. 623, Ex. 173) can now definitely not be 4/4 metre any more. How can these riddles be solved? First we must recognize the ,principal metre' of the two A l l e g r o as sai sections at the beginning of the Finale (b. 1, „Presto, presto", and b. 468, „Soccorriamo") as ,short' 4/4 metre, since they have no essential 16th notes but two emphases per bar (see p. 106 ). From bar 486, however, the second emphasis gets lost; Mozart switches into Riepel's „alla breve manner". Since a constant pace can be taken for granted, the fitting term for this tempo would now be Allegro 2/2 (as indeed follows ,virtually' in bar 533), replacing Allegro assai 4/4. Here now Sechter's remark becomes relevant, that one does not like changing a main indication in the middle of a piece - neither concerning metre nor key. Since tempo words are but loosely connected with the metre and smallest note values, and have only subordinate influence on the ,tempo giusto‘, it is not necessary to change them in mid-flight. After this virtual change of metre, the 2/2 is in my opinon now still valid for the following A n d a n t e m a e s to s o „Ecco il birbo", where Giovanni with a great gesture, w ithout any scruple, pulls Leporello out of the wings to be the scapegoat. (The tempo then corresponds to the Chorus no. 24 in La clemenza di Tito „Che dei ciel", Ex. 040.) 360 No. 14 Cosi fan tutte, K 588. Mozart's Tempo-System 121 Ex. 1 70: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 1 3 Finale I, b. 499 „Ecco il birbo" After a general pause full of suspense the A l l e g r o „Trema, trema, o scellerato!" (Ex. 171) follows in b. 533. Obviously Mozart has continued to take 2/2 for granted - related, however, to his moderate term Allegro, not to Allegro m olto or Allegro assai - even though, as so often, the seemingly „empty" beginning is deceptive. In Allegro 2 /2 are: Donna Anna's „Fuggi, crudele, fuggi" (Ex. 077), the main part of the Over ture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 078), its Quintets nos. 5 and 12 (Ex. 053 and Ex. 079), the entrance of Monostatos („Na, stolzer Jüngling; nur hierher!"361) and the Is t movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata in E minor, K 304 (Ex. 076). I must admit, however, that they have no eighth note triplets - which is why „Trema, trema" is actually even slower. Nevertheless: should it not be possible to get close to them? Allegro (4/4) K 527, no. 13, m. 533 533 , , n , n , n , n Simile mm # § § § $ crescendo a Tre- J J J J [2/2] / S T ' \ m s P crescendo crescendo J J J J ■l i rr f * ' ff r U r , , , r , r , ry ^ ^ ^ r r ' crescendo j* Ex. 1 71: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 13 finale I, b. 533 „Trema, trema, o scellerato!" The three threatening „C" beats with slides of sixteenth-note triplets (b. 533) need time to resonate in order to be recognizable as an pre-echo of the Commendatore's powerful knocks at the gate of Giovanni's final banqueting hall.362 It was certainly not by mistake that Mozart notated d o t t e d half notes! The thunder of the timpani and the crescendo of the conspirators emerging from piano (b. 537-540 and 543-546) sound the more threatening, the longer a restrained tempo allows them to grow. The breathless rests between the syllables of Giovanni's and Leporello's perplexed interjections („E • confu • -sa la • mia testa") are actually only perceptible if a seemingly dramatic „con br/o" of the conductor doesn't blur them to a banal dotted rhythm. I have already mentioned the mordents on the sixteenth notes of the violins in b. 542 etc. and the wild eighth note triplets of the strings from b. 577, which can be produced as a thundering vendetta-iorte only in a moderate tempo. (Ex. 1 7 2 ) .= 361 Finale I, b. 441. 362 Finalell, b. 406-418. — Louis Spohr, a virtuoso on the violin and experienced conductor, writes about this Allegro in his autobiography 1860/61 (vol. II, p. 127) after a performance in Paris: „D o the directors not at all consider that the triplet figures of the violins cannot be produced clearly and strongly at such a terrific speed, and that in the end one gets to hear only a skeleton outline w ithout any filling?" ^ Talsma solves the problem w ith M M J=88 ! {Wiedergeburt der Klassiker, p. 191). 122 Mozart's Tempo-System 3 ^ 3 ^ 3 ^ 3 ^ 3 Ex. 1 72: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 13 Finale I, b. 575 The P/ü s t r e t t o in b. 623 („se cadesse ancor il mondo", Ex. 173) remains to be discussed: of course the 2/2 metre stays valid here too. If the preceding Allegro 2/2 has not been too fast, even a dramatic increase of speed can allow the eighth note triplets of the violins to be played really fortissimo and the slides not as usual - as eighth note triplets, but as the sixteenth note triplets that Mozart certainly not unintentionally wrote: Piü stretto (from Allegro) i (4/4) K 527, no. 13, m. 623 mm 3 3 3 3 ca- poin que- sto mon- do, i m 3 3 3 3 % ggior- noil suo fsea:des- i n cor 3 3 3 3 ful- mi- ne camon- do i Ex. 1 73: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 13 Finale I, b. 623 „Se cadesse" In the second Finale of Don Giovanni after 156 virtual, relentless strides of the Commendatore in the half notes of the Andante-2/2 Don Giovanni cockily breaks the metre in b. 512 into a chivalrously-wanton jagged 4/4 metre. When he accepts the return visit demanded by the Commendatore („verro!") the music comes to a standstill; the Commendatore demands Giovanni's hand as pledge: „Dammi la mano in pegno!" - pianissimo II fortissimo. The cold shock that Giovanni suffers from the Commendatore's hand (b. 521 „Oime! che gelo e questo mai?") causes the metre to freeze in the shivering, nearly pulseless piano 16th notes of the strings - Mozart later crossed out the original indication „fremo/o" in all parts! Yet ex actly a trem olo they become in the traditional transition from Andante to P iü s t r e t t o in a relation 1:2 with an unchanging pulse; the necessary c h a n g e of tempo at this place is thus left unrealised. (Piü stretto [from Andante]) The threatening gestures of the tirate in 32nd (not 16th!) notes in the basses flaring up in forte from b. 525 confirm the virtual 4/4 (2/4+2/4) metre by the two heavy accents per bar of „Pentiti!" and „N o!" that follow each other in ever quicker succession. (Ex. 174). Mozart's Tempo-System 123 After the rests in which Giovanni's last two „No's!" reverberate (b. 547), the „Ah tempo piu non v'e" of the Commendatore remains without harmony, in whole-bar accentuation, quasi w ithout tempo; the 4/4 metre dies out. In b. 554 a new change to 2/2 („Da qual tremore insolito") jerkily bursts out (not J = J !): Al leg ro : „earthquakes" (tottering double-basses, syncopations in 2nd violins and violas), flickering „fire from every side" (the written-out 16th-note turns of the violins). With half-bar sforzati of brass, strings and timpani and steeply falling 16th-note „rockets" the „muffled voices" of an Underground chorus of demons set from b. 563 two heavy strides per bar against the alla breve metre until the clock of the villain's life runs down. If categories of metre are still at all applicable here, then perhaps at best a 4/2 alla breve of the ecclesiastical Stile antico which conducts its rigid rule in the pseudo-Gregorian chant of the underworld chorus (Ex. 175). From the entrance of the Commendatore to Don Giovanni's end, three sharply contrasted characters of tempo and structure, absolutely no simple „proportions". N Tut- toa tue col- pee po- co. Ex. 175: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 24 finale II, b. 563, Chorus In the Seena u l t i m a (b. 712) after Don Giovanni's descent into hell, the characters who remain behind try to reorganize their lives: Don Ottavio and Donna Anna, corresponding to their class, full of elation in a lyrical Larghetto-AI la b reve („Or che tutti"); Donna Elvira (in the minor) and the three peasants (in the major) in changes of mood for a more realistic view of the world in a prosaic (virtual) „Andante" 4/4 metre (b. 740, Ex. 176): All together curse the villain to a stay with Proserpina und Pluto (b. 746) - „Resti dunque quel birbon". A nice corroboration of my rule of thumb already mentioned above - „Larghetto 2/2 =Andante 4/4" - is that, on a supplementary sheet with replacement bars for the Vienna version's abridgement, Mozart notates the Larghetto C - which is actually still valid here from the beginning of the scene („Or che tutti") - as A n d a n t e C !364 (Ex. 177, b. 795-798) The tempo of course stays the same. The inserted sheet verifies the virtual change of metre of the mezzo carätteri from the elated 2/2 to the civically active (virtual) 4/4 me tre, which had been caused by their decision to lead a new life. 364 Foreword of the NMA vol. 11/5/17, p. XIX; reproduction there in the appendix I, 8, p. 526. 124 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 177: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 24 Finale II, Original b. 746/ / alternative, Viennese version b. 795 In Finale II o f Figaro there is another case of a virtual change of metre that has consequences for the following time indication. In b. 467, with the entrance of the furious gardener, a motive in dactylic rhythm Starts in A l l e g r o m o l t o 4/4 („Ah, signor... signor..!", Ex. 178); its two distinct emphases per bar prove that it is not, as usually assumed, a 2/2 metre but a ,short' 4/4. With the usual speedy 2/2 tempo the 32nd note slides of bar 469 etc. inevitably become 16th note slides, the sciolto 8th note triplets from b. 495 (like those in the „Trema, trema" of the first Finale of Don Giovanni) are for the double-basses hardly any longer playable clearly.— Ex. 178: Figaro, K492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 467, gardener's entrance: „Ah signor..., signor...", and b. 499 A tempo not much faster than Leporello's M olto Allegro 4/4 „Notte e giorno faticar" (which has 16th no tes, Ex. 139), would enlarge the extent of the long tempo chain Allegro m olto / Allegro assai / Piu Allegro / Prestissimo beginning here. After the inserted Andante 6/8 Mozart increases the rhythmic motive in b. 697 at first to A l l e g r o assai (with 32nd, not 76th note tirate, b. 738, Ex. 179): Finale II Figaro, T. 697, 729 + 738 tt_Marc. 729 . ------^ ™ Allegro assai f f t w*S tS Voi si-Bas. gnor che giu- sto Bart. P d Marcellinc h nII Conte 0 lä!Un im- pe- gno nu- zi- Ex. 1 79: Figaro, K492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 697, 729 and 738 The error of thinking Allegro assai to be slower than Allegro m olto shows here very clearly. Mozart increased the same rhythmic motive, however, even more to Piu A l l e g r o (b. 783, Ex. 180): — The parallel between the manner of playing in the two places, to which Leinsdorf points (Composer's advocate, p. 108, footnote 5) shows at the same time the tempo sim ilarity of the Allegro m o l t o in ,short' 4/4 metre to the s i m p l e Allegro 2 /2. Mozart's Tempo-System 125 Ex. 180: Figaro, K492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 783 and 891 From here we have two metres taking turns with and partially overlapping each other: the ,short' 4/4 metre for the „goodies" Susanna, the Countess and Figaro, who have lost the thread („Son confusa, son stordita") and a piano 2/2 metre with triumphant „Cheshire-cat grin" and „infernal piety" (Allanbrook) for the commentary of the „baddies" Marcellina, Basilio, Bartolo and the Count („Che bei colpo, che bei caso!"). With their maliciously cheerful floating piano in b. 875 the virtual 2/2 metre takes control, so that Mozart's last drive for the most extreme speed in his operas, the already mentioned P res t is s im o from b. 907 (Ex. 181), is an alla breve with whole-bar accentuation. It somewhat surpasses even the Presto 2/2 Overtures to Die Entführung and Cos/ fan tutte. Erich Leinsdorf warned emphatically not to take the initial Allegro m olto too fast, since otherwise, after the two steps of increase in between, this Prestissimo would become unplayable.366 [2 /2 ] sf P crescendo f Ex. 181: Figaro, K 492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 907 „Certo un diavol dell'inferno" Regarding F in a le IV of Figa ro either some questions must remain unanswered o rwe shall have to do some serious rethinking at one place. However, I would like to put the possibilities on the table: The Seena ultim a beginns at b. 335 („Gente, gente", Ex. 148) as an A l l e g r o assai in ,short' 4/4 metre (not as a speedy 2/2 as is mostly to be heard). After repeated changes to a virtual Allegro 2/2 and finally again in ,short' 4/4 with two sforzati per bar - the furious refusals of the Count to excuse the night's deceptive games („No! no, no, no, no, no!"), the mood changes completely when the Countess - to the Count's enormous embarrassment - reveals her identity and asks forgiveness for her fellow campaigners (b. 399). Mozart changes from the ,short' 4/4 of the Count with two accents to a floating 2/2 metre in pianissimo with only one harmony per bar (Ex. 182). (Allegro assai)(4/4) Finale IV Figaro, T. 398 JPm m £fw s f La Ci PP sotto voce Basilio PP [2/2 ] Al- me- noio per lo- ro per- do- no ot- ter- PPV) II Conte Antonio (Oh T E L 1o’ \p Holzbläser PPs f P Ex. 182: Figaro, K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 398 In the rests in the middle of their baffled words, delivered sotto voce, („Oh de • -Io, • • • che veg • - gio! • • • deli • -ro! • • • vaneg • -gio!"), and mockingly imitated by the orchestral wind, Basilio, Antonio and the Count gape with mouths open. Now follows the famous „Contessa perdono!" of the imploringly kneeling Count (with long fermatas at the end, reached in chromatic steps): A n d a n t e (Ex. 183). There is no new time signature - is 4/4 again valid? After a rest that contains the entire drama between husband and wife, in double affirmation (even though in a suspended sixth chord position) the diatonic and level-headed forgiveness of the Countess 366 Erich Leinsdorf, The Composer's Advocate, 1981, p. 104 and 110. 126 Mozart's Tempo-System „Piü docile io sono" in b. 430, followed by the violin melody from Susanna's aria „Deh vieni non tardar" (b. 40 „incoronar -- di rose"367) which - „like a longlost benediction in pre-Babel language"368 - initiates the reconciliation of them all with a crescendo's opening arms. There are few places in the operatic literature which surpass the beauty of this climax, so humane in its dialectics of the establishment of a peace that is nonetheless not yet entirely crisis-proof: Ex. 183: Figaro, K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 420 However: precisely the beauty holds within it the danger of leading us far from Mozart into kitsch. As an Andante 4/4 with melodic 16th notes (b. 429 and 435) this passage would stand on the same step as the solemn hymn of the chorus „Heil sei euch Geweihten!" in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 121), and it is often heard like that. Would it not, however, be worth considering if the previously established virtual alla breve with its whole-bar structure (and its impression of ,high style') continues to be valid here too? Mozart's treatment of the poetic metre suggests it. It would mean that the passage would receive a diffe rent look, one that would perhaps more honestly leave open the prospect of this restrained reconciliation that is not entirely free of doubt. Consequently perhaps Andante 2/2 with 16th notes - and there is a whole scale of fine degrees of this tempo indication between the marble strides of the avenging Commendatore (Ex. 048) on the one hand369 and the passage „Drei Knäbchen, jung, schön, hold, und weise" (virtual 16th notes, Ex. 53) floating above a pizzicato on the other370 - according to the character of the piece. O f course the ensuing A l l e g r o assai b. 448 („Questo giorno di tormenti") i sa/ / a b r e v e (Ex.i84)as well. Contrary to the traditional comfortable proportion J=o between the two tempos, where only the note values change but not the rhythmic pulse, it Starts as something surprisingly new, as unprepared as the sudden forte in b. 451, a tempo just like the final movements of the G-minor symphony K 550 (Ex. 091) and the Piano Concerto K 488; not Presto, if the triplet slides from b. 464 are to be sixteenth and not merely eighth notes. Ex. 184: Figaro, K 492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 445 / 448 How right Wye Jamison Allanbrook was in this regard: „A wide ränge of expressive gestures in one piece necessitated the choice of a f lex ib le , chameleonl ike t im e s ignature, harmonious not just with one affect but with a particular handful of them."371 367 Figaro no. 28, aria b. 40: Figaro had eavesdropped on and misunderstood it; then in no. 29, b. 190 - disguised as and in imitation o fth e Count - had vengefully quoted it; in b. 255-260, however, on the way to a reconciliation, he had already sung it in canon with Susanna. (I owe the hint to the melodical parallel to Georg Knepler in his excellent book Wolfgang Amade Mozart. Annäherungen, 1991, p. 367/ 370/ 371, ex. 170, Ex. 1 72, Ex. 1 73.) 368 Ivan Nagel, Autonomy and Mercy. Reflections on Mozart's Operas, 1991, p. 32 [translation amended.] 369 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 433 etc. 370 Die Zauberflöte, no. 5 Quintett, b. 214. 371 W. J. Allanbrook, Rhythmicgesture in Mozart. 'Le Nozze di Figaro'and 'Don Giovanni', 1983, p. 24. Wilhelm Seidel in MGG confirmed the phenomenon of virtual changes of metre with the example of the String Quartet in E flat, K 428. The first movement begins apparently like a 2/2, but from b. 5 it acknowledges its nature as a classical 4/4 metre. During the development section, however, it changes repeatedly between the two metres (Ex.185): Allegro non troppo K 428, I, m. 1 +64 Mozart's Tem po-System 127 Ex. 185: String Quartet in E flat, K 428, 1st movement „The fact that the concrete metrical motion has become the embodiment of the metre opens for the composer the possibility of combining different metrical movements without formally changing the time signature."372 372 W. Seidel, Article Rhythmus, Metrum, Takt in MGG2, vol. 8, col. 295. 128 Mozart's Tempo-System Movements in 4/4 which after a virtual change of metre become 2/2 Adagio (4/4)^2/2 ^ with 16th notes - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, n. 3 Terzett, b. 90-94 „Adagio, adagio, adagio" J with quarter notes (virtual 16th notes) - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 188 „Dem Belmont sagte man" Andante maestoso (4/4)^2/2 J) with 1 6th notes - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 499 „Ecco il birbo che t'ha offesa" (Ex. 170) Allegro (4/4)^2/2 ^ w ith 8th note triplets 3 - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 533 „Trema, trema, o scellerato!" (Ex. 171, Ex. 172) Piu Stretto (from Allegro) (4/4)^2/2 ^ w ith 8th notes (triplets quasi tremolo) - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 623 ,,se cadesse ancor il mondo" (Ex. 173) Allegro assai (4/4)^2/2 ^ w ith 8th notes - K 492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 448 Questo giorno di tormenti", (Ex. 184) Prestissimo (4/4)^2/2 ^ w ith 8th notes - K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 907 „Certo un diavol dell'inferno" (Ex. 181) Movements in 2/2 which after a virtual change of metre become 4/4 Allegretto (2/2)^4/4 ^ w ith 8th notes - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 249 „Was hör' ich, Paminens Stimme?" (Ex. 168) Piu Stretto (from Andante) (2/2)^4/4 J) with 1 6th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 521 „Oi-me! Cos' hai? che gelo e questo mai?" (Ex. 174) Molto allegro (2/2)^4/4 ^ w ith 8th notes triplets 3 - K 303 Piano and Violin Sonata in C, 1st movement, b.19 and 109 (Ex. 169) Allegro assai (2/2)^4/4 ^ w ith 8th notes * K 492 Figaro, no. 18 Aria Count, b. 48 „Ah no, lasciarti in pace" (Ex. 167) - K 255 Recitative and Aria „Ombra felice!", Aria en Rondeau, b. 46 „il piu barbaro tormento" Mozart's Tempo-System 129 Doubtful „C" Time Signatures Adagio maestoso „C* ^ with 8th notes * K 320 Serenade in D, 1st movement The first movement of the Serenade in D, K 320, has 4/4 metre in the autograph and also in Mozart's catalogue. However, the renewed time signature „C" at the Allegro con spirito in b. 7 could speak for an error of Mozart at the beginning, as it would be necessary only after a previous C. As 2/2 metre without 16th notes the tempo of the introduction would fit very well with that of the Priests' Chorus no. 18in Die Zauberflöte („O Isis, und Osiris, welche Wonne!" Ex. 033), slowed down just a little by the addition „maestoso". Adagio „C* ^ with 16th notes * K 504 Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), 1st movement (Ex. 186) * K258 Missa in C, „Agnus Dei" * K 118 Betulia Uberata, no. 14 Aria Amital b. 9, 30, 61 „Pieta, Signor, pietä" [must be c!] The - autograph - time signature „C" at the beginning of the first movement of the „Prague" Symphony, K 504, could be an error like that in K 320. Its renewed indication at the Allegro in b. 37 is actually superfluous. The introduction can also not really be meant to be as slow as the Adagio of Konstanze's „Ach ich liebte, war so glücklich" (Ex. 116). The Adagio 2/2 with 16th notes of the Overture to Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 032) would be exactly fitting. Even the Adagios of the Symphony in E flat, K 543, and of the ,Masks' Ter zetto in Finale I of Don Giovanni („Protegga il giusto cielo", Ex. 030) which are a little slower because of their 32nd notes, have 2/2 metre! Adagio [2/2 ] / P f K 504, I, m. 1, 7, 24 m Ex. 186: Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), K 504, 1st movement, b .1 ,7 , 24 In the autograph of the Mass in C, K 258, Leopold has added ,Andante' in pencil to the Agnus Dei in C metre; in 11 of the orchestral parts Mozart has added ,.Adagio' in ink himself. Both indications could have the same sense if Mozart's marking in the parts referred to C; the whole structure speaks for that, but I could not verify it. I cannot see any solution to the problem of the „Adagio" marking in Betulia liberata, which, after 8 bars marked „Andante $" by Leopold, is written above a new time signature „C" by Wolfgang. In b. 30-48, and again in b. 61-85, it takes over from Leopold's „Andante C", each time changing the signature to „C". Here, too, Adagio £ would actually be right (particularly for the 16th-note coloratura in b. 75). Why did the 15-year-old composer change the time signature here? Andante „C" ^ with 16th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 6 Aria Tito „Del piü sublime soglio" (Ex. 187) 130 Mozart's Tempo-System Andante Aria Nr. 6 La Clemenza di Tito, T. 1 + 2 0 Ex.187: La Clemenza di Tito, K621, no. 6 Aria Tito, b. 1 and 20 Each single System of the autograph score has a big „C" as time signature for this aria, the autograph tempo word is Andante. But this can absolutely not be the Andante 4/4 of „Heil sei euch Geweihten" (Ex. 121). As C, however, the aria would have the tempo of „Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden" (Ex. 050), „Non ti fidar, o misera"(Ex. 043) or „Sola sola in buio loco" (Ex. 044), which would be perfect. Allegro maestoso „C" ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 366 Idomeneo, no. 12a and 12b Aria Idomeneo „Fuor del mar" Mozart writes in letter no. 570 concerning this aria: „The aria is very well written for the words - one can hear the - mare [sea] and the mare funesto [fatal sea] - and the [coloratura] passages suited to minacciar [menace], which fully express minacciar, the threatening - and this is altogether - the most magnificent aria in the opera - and has been applauded everywhere." As Idomeneo's description of a stormy ocean in his breast this aria cannot actually be Allegro maestoso 4/4 like „Es lebe Sarastro, Sarastro soll leben!" (Die Zauberflöte, no. 8, b. 351, Ex. 123). As 2/2 metre, howe ver, it could well be compared with the Count's Aria in „Figaro" (K 492, no. 18b, b. 41) „Vedro mentre io sospiro" which even has 32nd notes. Mozart's Tempo-System 131 d) The Recitative Metre Unlike the French Recitatif, which frequently changes the time signature in accordance with the respec tive metre of the text, all Recitativos of Mozart are in 4/4 time in the Italian way, the secco-recitatives as well as the Accompagnato-Reci ta t ives which we w ill now look at.— Jo h a n n M a t t h e s o n 1737: „The Recitative indeed has a metre, but it does not make use of it: i.e. the singer should not tie himself down to it. But if it is an accompagnement, with various instruments, it's true one respects the metre more than otherwise, in order to keep the players in equilibrium; however, this should be scarcely noticeable in the singing. It's ,closing time' for the metre."374 Fr ie d r ic h W il h e l m M a r p u r c 1762: „The newer recitative which is also called Italian, is written throughout in the same metre, namely in even metre [4/4]. The older one, which is also called French recitative, does not only exchange at every moment the even metre (for which now 4/4, now 2/2 metre is taken) with an uneven metre; but it differs from the newer one also by the treatment of the melody and other circumstances concerning the harmony. Although the recitative must be written down correctly in the bar in a way that sets the long and short syllables, incisions, paragraphs and cadences in their proper place : it is nevertheless not at all subject to the constraints of metre in the execution. Where would be the similarity it should have with speech, if the sequence of notes is not to be only regulär but also brought into motion in a fixed tempo?" 375 Jo h a n n A d a m H ille r 1774: „Recitative is written in 4/4 time, but it is sung w i t h o u t m e t r e . There are, however, places in accompanied recitative which because of the accompaniment must be played strictly in time and must be marked by the word ,a tem po' in the part of the singer. Yet here, too, the singer must take care not to cling too firm ly to the notes. In which tempo is recitative sung? It is left to the singer if he wants to declaim quickly or slowly."376 In the recitative metre - as in all metres - the first beat is certainly the essential organizing element; how ever, it has no „natural tempo" of its own and does not preset a firm metrical Organisation. It is a neutral „shell" which, in spite of the routine setting of the recitative-signature „C", can incorporate every expres sion, every changing tempo, and every other [!] even metre already in the first bar. The tempos within the accompagnati - which contain up to 15 different tempo terms - are defined in each place by a connection of the verbal indication with the prevailing dass o f note values. In each place they create their own metre - even without tempo word - within the unstructured frame of the bar.— Mostly it is the classical 4/4, in early pieces sometimes the ,large' 4/4—, often a ,short' 4/4—, occasionally a virtual 4/8, not seldom a 2/2 metre. From Largo to Presto all verbal indications appear. Altogether there are 212 places from 1 up to 65 bars in length, 186 of them with autograph tempo words. Explicit changes of metre occur only four times.— — „W hile the French in their recitative - often also in their airs - change the metre in almost every line, we and the Italians observe in sung recitative no regulär metre at all, unless in an obbligato setting. It is anyway nearly the same to have no metre at all or at every moment a different one." (Mattheson, Capellmeister, 1739, p. 146; § 84 [app. p. 338]). A „The Germans and Italians normally set recitative in 4/4 metre, and arrange the notes in such a way that the metre is given its right; the French, however, mix all kinds of metres; because o fth a t their recitative is very hard to grasp and to accompany." (Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon (‘Musical Dictionary’), 1802, col. 1232, „Recitativ" Footnote ** [app. p. 316, Footnote 787] A Schulz in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie ( 'General Theory'), IV, p. 4 [app. p. 288]. 374 Mattheson, Capellmeister, 1739, p. 213/214, Chap. 13, § 22 und in Kern melodischer Wissenschaft, 1737, p. 97 [app. p. 338]. 375 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe ('Critical Letters'), II, 97th letter from 12.6.1762, „Unterricht vom Recitativ", § 3 and 4 [app. p. 334]. A See also: Mattheson, Capellmeister, 1739, p. 146, § 84 [app. p. 336] and A Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung (‘On Playing the Flute'), 1 752, chap. XVII, sect. 7, p. 272, § 59 [app. p. 327]. 376 Joh. Ad. Hiller, Anweisung zum musikalisch-richtigen Gesänge ('Instruction for Musically-Co r r e c t Singing'), 1774, p. 201, § 14 and p. 203 [app. p. 331 ]. TFT E.g. La Finta semplice, K 51, Recitative (Pantomime) after no. 17, twenty-one accompagnato-bars w ith 16th note triplets w ithout verbal indication. Likewise in Die Schuldigkeit des ersten Gebots, K 35, 16 bars in no. 2, b. 185 (partly w ith 32nd notes) and 23 and 4 bars in the recitative after no. 3, here partly w ith autograph tempo words. 275 La Finta semplice, K 51, recitative before no. 5, b. 66, 88-90 and before no. 19, b .5 7f. — The recitativo accompagnato after no. 10 in I! Sogno di Scipione, K 126, Starts as Allegro in ,short' 4/4 metre, then changes in b. 20 w ithout indication to the ,large' and in b. 31 - again marked as Allegro - back into the ,short' 4/4 metre; from b. 43 the metrical character is hard to identify; from b. 57 the indication is anewAllegro - again in ,short' 4/4 metre. 252 Apart from the „Ribaldo, audace" of the Commendatore in the graveyard scene in Don Giovanni, K 527, only two places in La Finta Ciardiniera, K196 (in no. 12 and no. 19) and one in Ascanio in Alba, K 1 11 (Seena II, b. 41). 132 Mozart's Tempo-System Classical 4 /4 metre: The Andante-p\aces in the Recitative no. 8 of Die Zauberflöte (traditionally overstretched into a solemn Adagio) show in b. 94 the 16th notes in reality which virtually underlie bars 88, 102-104, 106-107. The always dragged Andante of bars 137-145 („Sobald dich führt der Freundschaft Hand" etc.) and 149-151, with virtual 16th notes too, should be adapted to the Andante 4/4 of the chorus „Heil sei euch Geweihten" (Ex. 121), which is anyway a natural tempo for Tamino's syncopations of uncertainty in b. 139-140. 2 /2 : Largo, Adagio, Larghetto and Andante in the recitatives of Mozart take often a temporary virtual change of metre to 2/2 for granted: the Commendatore's „D i rider finirai" in the graveyard scene in Don Giovanni (Ex. 188) is just as unthinkable as a classical Adagio 4/4 as „W o willst du kühner Fremdling hin?", b. 85 in Finale I of Die Zauberflöte, or „Welch ein Geschick! o Qual der Seele!", no. 20 in Die Entführung (Ex. 189). For each of these recitative passages Adagio 2/2 (e.g. as in the Overture to Die Zauberflöte) (Ex. 032) would be an appropriate tempo. Adagio (4 / 4 ) K 527, 2nd act, Recit. scena XI, m. 51 m [2/2 ]Di [2/2 ] r der fi- T T pria dell' au- T r r T »r r r r w Ex. 188: Don Giovanni, K 527, 2nd act, scena XI, graveyard scene, b. 51 s f P s f P Ex. 189: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 20, Recitativ und Duett „Welch ein Geschick! o Qual der Seele!"— Nor does the Allegro maestoso of the entrance of the Queen of the Night (no. 4, b. 1 before: „O zittre nicht, mein lieber Sohn", Ex. 190) with its whole-bar changes of harmony refer to a classical 4/4 metre (such as „Es lebe Sarastro! Sarastro soll leben!", Ex. 123). (In such a slow tempo the at first weak synco pations would at best paint a solemnly flowing robe.) No, it refers to the thunder accmpanying her en trance, and, within just 10 bars, the dramatic parting of the flats with their painted mountains. In spite of the time signature „C", here, too, 2/2 seems to be taken for granted, its tempo corresponding to the Allegro maestoso 2/2 of the aria of the Count, no. 18 in Figaro (b. 41 „Vedro mentre io sospiro", Ex. 068). (See also the Recitative „Misero me!" K 077, Andante „4/4"). crscendo------------------------- f Ex. 190: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 4 Recitative, (entrance Queen of the Night) — Like in the upper strings of b. 5 and 7 of the overture for Die Zauberflöte here, too, the sf-markings on the top notes of the first violins must be understood as sforza n d o (reinforcing) - as the Crescendi show lying beyond. Mozart's Tempo-System 133 , S h o r t ' 4 / 4 metres (with only 8th notes, see above), to be conducted in half bars. Among others are the Allegros of Tamino „Wo Tätigkeit thronet und Müßiggang weicht"382 and Ferrando „In qual fiero contrasto".383 Their tempo corresponds to Leporello's „Madamina"-aria, if this is not, as so often, played too fast (Ex. 153). The Allegro vivace assai at the beginning of Susanna's recitative before her „Rose"-Aria384 („Giunse alfin il momento"), the Allegro assai of Donna Anna's „Ma qual mai s'offre, oh Dei"385 and of Sesto's „Oh Dei, che smania e questa"386 are ,short' 4/4 metres as well, the tempo of the last two corresponding to the movements in Allegro assai 4/4 (with 8th notes) listed onp. 116. Donna Anna's great recitative „Don Ottavio, son morta!" (Ex. 191) is a ,short' 4/4 metre as well and faster than the Allegro assai 4/4 „Der Hölle Rache kocht in meinem Herzen" with its racing 16th note scales (Ex. 140) - even if this is not taken too slowly from a supposed consideration for the singer. Ex. 191: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 10 Recitativo accompagnato, „Don Ottavio, son morta!" b. 3 The Allegro assai of Donna Elvira's churned up recitative (Ex. 192) can also be conducted in half notes (except, of course, the obvious ritardando in b. 5). The 16th notes in b. 18 and 20 represent the „fatal flash of lightning" („la fatale saetta") on Don Giovanni's head, foreseen by Elvira. Ex. 192: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 21b Recitativo accompagnato Donna Elvira „In quali eccessi", b .1+18 (The „sf" in b. 1 and 3 and other places are, by the way, like those in the Overture to Die Zauber flöte (Ex. 032, strings b. 5, 7, 13) not sfp-accents, sforzat i , but siorza n d i , i.e. with emphasis until the fo llow ingpiano. See the notation i n b . 1 , 3 , 1 0 and 15.) The rapid one-bar runs in 16th notes Allegro assai in the recitatives of Tamino („Ich wage mich mutig zur Pforte hinein"387), Dorabella („disperato affetto" and „odio me stessa"388) and Idamante („barbaro fato!" 389) cannot be compared with the virtuosity of the Allegro assai 4/4 maintained through long passages in the Piano Concerto in D, K 451/1 (which according to Mozart „makes the player sweat"390). They serve for a gestural description of resoluteness, fury and despair and stand outside the System of regulär mou vements. sf p sf P f f C h a n g e o f M e t r e : In the great recitative of Finale I in Die Zauberflöte after the explicit change of me tre to 2/2 at the Andante „W ie stark ist nicht dein Zauberton" (b. 160) the question arises, which metre is valid further on: from b. 206 the free 4/4 recitative metre unmistakably takes Charge again. The Presto „Vielleicht sah er Paminen schon!" in b. 212 is 4/4 as well (however, virtual 16th notes must probably be 382 Die Zauberflöte, K 620, Finale I, no. 8, b. 50. 383 Cosi fan tuttef K 588, Seena IX, before his Cavatina no. 27 384 Figaro, K492, no.28. 385 Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 2 386 La Clemenza di Tito, K 621 ,no .11 387 Die Zauberflöte, K 620, Finale I, no. 8, b. 56, 58, 64. 388 Cosi fan tutte, K 588, Recitative before no. 11. 389 Idomeneo, K 366, Recitative before no. 4, b. 3, 5, 33, 36. 390 Mozart's letters, no. 793 of 26.05.1784. [app. p. 268] 134 Mozart's Tempo-System taken into consideration here too). Now follows in b. 227 „Schnelle Füße, rascher M ut" (Ex. 056) mostly played in the same tempo J=J (!) - that is, considerably too fast. Can it be possible, however, that the 4/4 metre is still valid for this Andante and the ensuing Allegro b. 265 („Ha! Hab ich euch noch er wischt!", Ex. 073)? No, in b. 225 a virtual change of metre back to 2/2 must have taken place, which makes this passage comparable with „Nie werd ich deine Huld vergessen" in Die Entführung (Ex. 055). This hypothetical C is indirectly confirmed by the new time-signature „C" in bar 351 („Es lebe Sarastro! Sarastro lebe!" Ex.123). In La finta giardiniera, K 196, there are two cases where the virtual Adagio 2/2 of the recitative becomes a - slower - classical Adagio 4/4 in the following aria: 1) Recitativo no. 27 (b.1-60) / Duetto (b. 61, repeated indication „C"!), 2) Recitativo no. 19 (b. 39-46) at the change to the Aria (b. 47) (Ex.193): f f Ex. 193:La Finta Giardiniera, K 196, no. 19 Recitativo ed Aria, b. 39, 44, 47 In the „Seena con Rondo", no. 10b in Idomeneo, K 366, there are several virtual metre changes: b. 1-17 Allegro: ,short' 4/4; b. 19-27 Adagio 2/2; b. 28-33 Andante 2/2; b. 35-40 Allegro assai: ,short' 4/4; b. 44-51 Andante 2/2. The Andante of bars 44-51 of the Recitative is followed by Idamante's Rondo w ithout being separated from it in the autograph by a double bar, and with neither a new time-signature nor a tempo word. The NMA interpreted the (inauthentic) indication „in tempo deWAria" at b. 48 of the Recitative as an Andante for the Rondo as well, w ithout seeing that this indication - corresponding to the Chorus „Heil sei euch, Geweihten" in Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 121) - would result in an impossibly slow tempo. Taking over the Recitative's virtual 2/2 of b. 44 seems to me to solve the difficulty: it would allow a fluent Andante 2/2 (like „Bald prangt, den Morgen zu verkünden" (Ex. 050) for the Rondo's opening (which has at first no 16th notes) and serve as well for the (authentic) Allegro moderato at b. 66 (which has no time signature) with the solo violin's chains of non legato 16ths racing up and down, painting the excitement of Idamante's „pene" „torm ento", „so ffrir" and „stelle barbare". In the Recitative Idomeneo no. 23 the Largo and Adagio are 2/2, the Andante 4/4, the Maestoso and the Allegros ,short' 4/4. The richly varied tempo indications of the Accompagnatos that often follow each other very quickly show on the one hand that expert knowledge of their character could be expected from the musicians, and good coordination with the singers from the conductor; on the other hand they show that because of the rhythmically free places w ithout tempo in between, no „proportions" could come to their assistance contrary to Swarowsky who claimed simple proportions like 1:1 or 2:1 between the different tempos and the free passages.— Where no tempo word was indicated the orchestra took the tempo from the — Swarowsky's assertion that the „tem po of the orchestra" and the „speaking tempo", as he called it, were always in the relation 1:2 resp. 2:1 would only make sense - if at all - if the secco parts were sung in a constant, fixed tempo (Wahrung der Gestalt, 1979, p. 65). Mozart's Tempo-System 135 singer222; at places where both parts overlap, the concert master conducted with the violin or the capellmeister from the keyboard. Melodrama A form akin to the accompagnato recitative, the melodrama or „melologo" about which Mozart was enthusiastic around 1 778/79393, shows how well the musicians mastered even the slightest sudden tempo changes. In the melologo in Zaide, K 344 no. 2, the actors speak without musical accompaniment be tween 24 orchestra ritornellos of a few bars each, in no. 2 even in 33 bars set in 11 different tempos! Our example begins at the ninth bar of an Adagio in virtual 2/2 metre and passes into a 3/4 metre with wholebar accentuation, which changes between Andantino and Allegro w ithout transition (Ex. 194): Ex. 194: Zaide, K 344, no. 2 Melologo, b. 50-63 In the melodrama (no. 4) of the incidental music for Thamos, K 345, after the introductory Allegro 3/4 the music runs for sixty bars w ithout interruption underneath the monologue. In an emotional zigzag follow each other in virtual 4/8 metre: Allegretto - Andante - Piü Andantem - Piü Adagio - Allegretto - Adagio. The demands involved in spontaneously finding a common tempo were still higher here than in the many new Starts in the melologo of Zaide or in the ritornellos of the accompagnato recitatives there, which are separated by places without tempo. I describe this in such detail since it shows that it must have been possible for the performers of the time to master the not at all simple transitions between the numerous often only slightly different tempos that had no seemingly logical „proportions". Peter Gülke speaks of Mozart's „grosso modo gigantic confidence in the performers".395 — „The instruments must pay good attention always to fo llow the singer properly". (Joh. Ad. Scheibe, Critischer Musicus, part IV, 1745, „Abhandlung vom Recitativ", p. 749). 393 Mozart's Letters no. 504 [app. p. 264], no. 508 and no. 510 [app. p. 265] — The indignation of Sais („me, the too l offa ithlesstraitors?") is the reason for the in c r e a s e o f s p e e d to Piü Andante. 395 Peter Gülke, Triumph der neuen Tonkunst, 1998, p. 229. 136 Mozart's Tempo-System e) Compound 2/4 (4/8) metre For 2/4 metre we must return to the topic of the compound metres. That its „double nature" - still known at the beginning of the 19th Century - was completely lost sight of has contributed considerably to the confusion surrounding Mozart's tempo indications. The 2/4 metre with whole-bar accentuation, today regarded as Standard, was in the eighteenth Century considered to be the more fleet-footed equivalent of the 2/2 metre with the same structure (= v ) . Mozart, however, obviously saw more possibilities for a differentiated metrical shaping in the ,4/8' metre (= v - v ) , compounded of two bars in 2/8 metre (2/8+2/8), the more graceful little brother of 4/4 metre (2/4+2/4). Unfortunately (like Haydn and Beethoven) for 4/8 metre he used generally the same time signature as for the ,true' 2/4. Kirnberger said: „Today's Compo sers no longer designate pieces with 4/8, but always with 2/4 instead."396 G. W. Fin k 1809: „The characteristic difference of the C [4/4] metre from the compound 2/4 metre [4/8] is, that for the first the heav y , for the other the l i g h t accent is essential. It w ill first be ne cessary to examine the nature of the 2/4 metre more thoroughly. The reason lies in the often wrong use o f the 2/4 metre and in its not yet considered d o u b l e n a t u r e . I could not see M o zart's aria: „Batti, batti, o bei Masetto" („Batti, batti") in C-metre w ithout ruining its character." 397 (Ex. 195) Ex. 195: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 12 Aria Zerlina (left side: Mozart's original, right side: G.W. Fink) „This first kind of 2/4 metre [4/8 metre!] which is played with the light accent belongs among the c o m p o u n d metres. As compared with 4/4 it is just the same as 3/8 compared with 3/4. The o t h e r kind of this metre, which really is 2/4 metre, differs from the first in that it does not belong among the compound metres, but among the simple ones. It has only two beats and one main one, therefore it is on a small scale what the C is on large-scale." (= v) [see app. p. 345, G.W. Fink, „About the Bar, Metres, and their Characteristics", col. 216] The assertion of the editor in chief of the Leipziger Allgemeinen musikalischen Zeitung, Gottfried Wilhelm Fink, who described in 1809 the virtual 4/8 metre as the first kind of 2/4 metre, is confirmed by Mozart's compositional practice: he wrote 246 movements in compound 2/4 (4/8) metre, but (apart from contre dances) only 109 in ,simple' 2/4 metre. Here two striking examples showing the difference between seemingly equal „tempo indications" in 2/4 and 2/4 (4/8) metre: Wel- che Won- ne, wel- che A l le g r o ------- Blonde:T Aria Nr. 12 Entführung aus dem Serail Lust herrscht nun- mehr in mein- ner Brust! W Ex. 196: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 12 Aria Blonde, b. 9 What has the Allegro 2/4 of Blonde's aria „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 196) in common with the Allegro 2/4 of the first movement of the Piano Sonata in B flat, K 281 ? (Ex. 197 and Ex. 230) Ex. 197: Piano Sonata in B flat, K 281, 1st movement 396 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes ('The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), II, 1 776, p. 123, 3) [app. p. 278]. 397 G.W. Fink, Ueber Takt, Taktarten, und ihr Charakteristisches ('About the Bar, Metres and their Characteristics'), AmZ, year XI, no. 14, 04.01.1809, compiled from col. 215-217 [app. p. 346]. Mozart's Tempo-System 137 Very little, except the number of eighth notes, since in Blonde's high-spirited aria 16th notes are the smallest relevant notes; the emphases are on the first beat on „Wonne" and „Lust"; the first movement of the Piano Sonata in B flat by contrast is teeming with 32nd notes and has clearly two emphases per bar (the second one lighter than the first). There are just the same incompabilities in Andante 2/4: has Papageno's „Der Vogelfänger bin ich, ja" (Ex. 198, Ex. 235, Ex. 268) the same tempo as Belmonte's „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig" (Ex. 199)? - O f course not! In spite of its time signature „2/4" the metre of the latter is in fact 4/8 time, seemingly equal yet in fact completely different. Andante K 620, no. 2, m. 27 Andante Der Vo- gel- fän- - ger bin ich ja, stets lu- stig hei- ßa hop- sa- sa! Ex. 198: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 2 Aria Papageno, b. 27 [4/8] ängst- lieh, / feu- rig PP 4 klopft mein 5 * K 384, no. 4, m. 5 lie be- vol les • n n / PP m Herz! Ex. 199: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 4 Aria Belmonte, b. 5— In contrast to compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre, the tempo of which can be ascertained with the help of identically indicated 3/8 metres (see below), there is no such comparison possible for the 4/8 (2/8+2/8) metre, since the all too fleeting 2/8 metre does not appear as such in Mozart. However, its tempos can be inferred from crosswise comparisons with pieces indicated by the same tempo word, the same dass of note values and the same rhythm of the main harmonic steps, as well as with pieces which are by definition slower or faster. Autograph verbal tempo indications by Mozart have survived for 134 movements in 2/4 (4/8) metre; let us Start again with the slowest; in order to be clear I mark the appropriate music examples now with „4/8": Adagio 2/4 (4/8) Viol. Klav with 64th notes - K 379 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 1st movement [see letter no. 587, p. 265] * K 379 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 2nd movement, Variation V (Ex. 200) [see letter no. 587] (Adagio) — ^ , V a r ia t io n , V, m. 11 Ex. 200: Piano and Violin Sonata in G, K 379, 2 movement, Variation V,b. 11 — See Mozart's famous letter from 26.09.1 781, no. 629 [App. p. 266] 138 Mozart's Tempo-System (Adagio 2/4 (4/8) with 32nd notes K415 Piano Concerto in C, 3rd movement Rondeau, b. 49 K 382 Rondo in D for piano and orchestra, b. 121 K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 6th movement, Tema con Variazioni, Var. V K219 Violin Concerto in A, 2nd movement (Ex. 201, Ex. 202) K 131 Divertimento in D for wind and strings, 6th movement Adagio K 219, II, m. 1+16 m W M = f p -1 1 1 /■ ’ Ex. 201: Violin Concerto in A, K 219, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 16 The second movement of the Violin Concerto in A, K 219 is a good touchstone for the understanding of the structure of compound 2/4 (2/8+2/8) metre. The hierarchy of the accents is, on a smaller scale and with a lighter manner of playing, the same as with classical 4/4 metre: | = v - v |; the 32nd notes are in the ,small' metre considerably more flowing than in the Adagio 4/4 part of the first movement (Ex. 112). Kirnberger's demand „to play the second half of such a bar more lightly than the first" (here indicated in the music example) is the best means of avoiding a ponderous scanning of the eighth notes and the droning pairs of sixteenth notes. The following version, to be heard even by renowned violinists, is definitely wrong (Ex. 202): Solo K 219, II, m. 23 in false traditionf if r i f f i r>iig / Ex. 202: Violin Concerto in A, K219, 2nd movement (in false tradition) Un poco Adagio 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 23 Aria Silvia „Infelici affetti miei, sol per voi sospiro" Larghetto 2/4 (4/8) with 32nd notes K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 3 Aria Tamino „Dies Bildnis ist bezaubernd schön" (Ex. 203, Ex. 204, Ex. 205) K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 15 Aria Sarastro „In diesen heil'gen Hallen" (Ex. 206) K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 23 Aria Donna Anna, b.16 „Non mi dir, bell' idol mio" K513 „Mentre ti lascio, oh figlia", Aria for Bass and Orchestra [K492 Figaro, no. 11 Cavatina Countess „Porgi amor"— ] Larghetto w t K 620, no. 3 Dies =P==FBild- nis ist be- zau- bernd schön, ten. ten. noch kein Au- g e jeg e- sehn. m Ex. 203: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 3, Aria Tamino (original, but with time-signature 4/8) The arias of Tamino and Sarastro in Larghetto ,4/8' time suffer mostly from sounding like a Larghetto 4/4 in doubled note values, with four fat, heavy steps per bar (Ex. 204): — The indication „Larghetto" has been added by another hand; musically, however, it is quite possible. Mozart's Tempo-System 139 Ex. 204: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 3, Aria Tamino (in false tradition) The „livelier m otion" of the „small" metres, however, as described by all authors, and their „ lighter exe cution" (G.W. Fink's „lighter accent") is valid particularly here as well: Mozart did not write these pieces without intention in 2/4 (4/8) metre instead of 4/4 or 2/2. Kirnberger/Schulz say: „4/8 metre is the lightest of the quadruple metres in execution and tempo."400 Tamino's aria has at first of course only one emphasis per bar; from b. 16, however, with the duet of the two clarinets, where Tamino begins to be aware of being in love, the metre becomes more active, and a distinct 4/8 time with two harmonic steps per bar emerges. In b. 34 the powerful desire overwhelms him actually to find the portrayed beauty (Ex. 205): (Larghetto) K 620, no. 3, m. 36 ^ cresc. O wenn ich sie nur fin- den e j / P * i könn te! O wenn sie doch schon vor mir stün de! ^ P cresc. f n f PJ r cresc. J r Ex. 205: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 3 Aria Tamino, b. 36 Thirty-second notes, six changes of harmony per bar, syncopations, crescendo to forte become necessary to depict this surge of emotion. The tempo should be determined by this impassioned passage. Played in the traditional Larghetto 4/4 Tamino remains completely contemplative. In Mozart's 4/8 metre, however, the yearning carries him away so much that he must bring himself back to his senses in the general pause at b. 44. After fully holding this rest, what relief then in the light-footed tempo of the 4/8 metre the new beginning with the vision of a union on his „hot bosom"! Ex. 206: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 15 Aria Sarastro „In diesen heil'gen Hallen", b.11 Placed side by side, Tamino's and Sarastro's arias depict quite similarly the way to their desired aims by their upward striving scales, Sarastro of course less passionately. Mozart had originally marked „In diesen heil'gen Hallen" above Sarastro's stave with Andantino sostenuto, a light-weight yet restrained walking of the eighth notes. Only later - probably as he arrived at the 32nd notes in b. 12 - he crossed that out and wrote Larghetto above the whole score. The ponderousness, to be heard so often, of four equally „deep" 400 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst reinen Satzes {'The Art o fS trict Musical Composition'), II, p. 123 [app. p. 278]. 140 Mozart's Tempo-System emphases ( | = --------1) as in ,large' C metre, contradicts totally, however, the always dance-like mouve ment of the 18th Century even in slow tempos121 - here 2/8+2/8 ( |= v - v |) with 16th and 32nd notes, not entirely dissimilar to the plies and pas of the ,pas de menuet' (see p. 230). Andante (mä) sostenuto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes - K 416 „M ia speranza", Recitativo and Rondo for Soprano and Orchestra; b. 28 = 1 Rondeau „Ah non sai qual pena sia" - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 11 Aria llia „Se il padre perdei" Andante un poco sostenuto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes * K 456 Piano Concerto in B flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 207) Andante un poco sostenuto „ ^ K 456, II, m. 1+51 S f m g S jg g m p Str. m m =f=F=FH*f f t Fffl m 1=F ffl= f t# - v — itT = F " - 0 0 - Ex. 207: Piano Concerto in B flat, K456, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 51 Andante moderato 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes - K 344 Zaide, no. 3 Aria Zaide, b. 53 „Ihr süßen Träume, wiegt ihn ein" - K319 Symphony in B flat, 2nd movement Andante con espressione 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes * K 311 Piano Sonata inD, 2nd movement (Ex. 208) Andante con espressione K 311, I, m. 1 + 7 4 P1 K i m Ex. 208: Piano Sonata in D, K 311, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 74 „she [Rose Cannabich] plays the Andante (which must not go swiftly) wi_th_al[_possib_le_feeling."^^^ — „Dance pieces contain most - if not all - of those elements contained in our good and bad pieces of all kinds: the latter differ from the former only in that they are made up of many dance pieces which are well or poorly brought into a coherent whole." (J.A.P. Schulz in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie ('General Theory'), vol. 4,1 774, p. 711, IV/711, [App. p. 294/295]. — Letter no. 386, W.A. M. to his father, from Mannheim, 06.12.1777 [app. p. 261]. - Contrary to the assumption of Wilhelm Fischer („Selbstzeugnisse Mozarts", MJb 1955, p. 11) and the commentary of the NMA, it seems to me that K 311/11 is the „An dante" referred to in this letter, not K 309/11. Rose Cannabich played the piece in question to Mozart's „quite indescribable pleasure" „w ith all possible feeling" - according therefore to K 311's autograph indication „ con espressione". Mozart warns of playing it too fast, since - w ith significant 32nd notes appearing first only in b. 73-74 - the beginning feigns a more flowing tempo, so that the virtual 4/8 metre might not be recognized. The „Andante un poco adagio" in ,heavy' 3/4 metre, however, (from Leopold's copy of K 309 - the autograph has not survived) w ith its 32nd notes and dotted 16th notes already on the first page, is not in danger of being „played too fast". Mozart's Tempo-System 141 ^ with 32nd notes - K 616 Andante in F for a mechanical organ (originally „Larghetto") * K 588 Cos} fan tutte , no. 20 Duetto Fiordiligi/Dorabella „Prendero quel brunettino" (Ex.209) - K 501 Andante with five variations in G for piano, Theme, Var. I-V * K492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 398 „Conoscete signor Figaro questo foglio chi vergo?" - K 464 String Quartet in A (5th Haydn-Quartet), 3rd movement * K 385 Symphony in D (Haffner Symphony), 2nd movement (Ex. 210) * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 4 Aria Belmonte, b. 5 „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig" (Ex. 199) - K315 Andante for flute and orchestra in C - K 253 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement, Theme and Variations l-IV - K250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 7th movement * K246 Piano Concerto in C (Lützow Concerto), 2nd movement (Ex. 211) - K204 Serenade in D, 6th movement - K201 Symphony i n A , 2 nd movement - K 200 Symphony in C, 2nd movement - K196 La finta giardiniera, no. 15 Aria Contino „Care pupille, pupille belle" - K 184 Symphony in E flat, 2nd movement - K 134 Symphony in A, 2nd movement - K126 II sogno di Scipione, no. 1 Aria Scipione „Risolver non osa" Andante 2/4 (4/8) There are three goups of pieces in Andante 4/8 with two emphases per bar, each formed from different smallest note-values: 32nd, 16th or 8th; neither the eighth notes nor the quarter notes „walk" here at a human pace. The underlying ,small' 2/8 metre and the light manner of execution cause all Andante ,4/8' pieces to have agrazioso character, even without the increase in speed to an explicit „Andante grazioso". Belmonte's aria „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig" (Ex. 199) or the - at first deceptive - Fiordiligi/Dorabella duet „Prende-/ro quel brunet-/tino" with its 32nd note coloraturas later on (Ex. 209), can be models for the right tempo for the other pieces too. No conductor would allow the frivolous mood of the two girls here to drag as is traditional in the orchestral works and the „Conoscete" passage in Figaro (Finale II, b. 398); in accordance with Kirnberger's advice, the natural prosody of the words demands a lighter stress in the second half of the bar than the first. All Andante 2/4 movements in Mozart's symphonies (like most by Haydn and many by Schubert) are actually in 4/8 metre. Until the emergence of „historical performance practice", as „slow movements" they suffered from the misunderstanding that the term Andante related to the eighth notes, which therefore should be conducted in the grave strides of the quarter notes in an Andante 4/4.— To conduct the 4/8 metre, however, in two „walking" half bars, though considered „historically correct", misses the complex structure as much as it does in Andante 2/2. In nearly three quarters of Mozart's tempo indicati ons the tempo words do n o t refer to the counting units or beats.— They merely modify the character of the mouvement which is set by the metre and the smallest relevant note values. Except in choral works and opera ensembles Mozart's music was never conducted by beating time, so that the question of the speed of the conductor's arm did not arise in symphonies and the like.405 — Hans Swarowsky comments on this very well in his chapter „D irig ieren" („conducting") (Wahrung der Gestalt, 1979, p. 76). — See my article „Mozart's Tempo Indications: What do they refer to?" on www.mozarttempi.net. 405 „O n bat la mesure a l'eglise dans la musique latine, mais jamais a l'Opera, quelque nombreux que soit l'orchestre." (Letter from a journey of Charles de Brosses 1739/40 from Rome); cited after Georg Schünemann, Geschichte des Dirigierens, 1913, p. 154f. 142 Mozart's Tempo-System In the instrumental works, too, where there is no prosody to help, the richness of nuances of the double structure of two 2/8 metres compounded into one 2/4 | = v - v |, not visible in the musical text, should be made audible in the execution by a subtly differentiated prioritization of the different groups of thirtysecond notes (Ex.210): Ex. 210: Symphony in D, (Haffner Symphony), K 385, 2nd movement, b. 18 (metrical markings after Türk) 406 Ex. 211: Piano Concerto in C (Lützow Concerto), K 246, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 72 Concerning the „Lützow" Concerto we have a priceless account by Mozart about the visit of Abbe Vogler: „Before eating he scampered through my concerto at sight. The first movement [Allegro aperto 4/4] went Prestißimo, the Andante [2/4 (2/8+2/8)] allegro, and the Rondeau [„Tempo di Menuetto 3/4' ä 3] truly Prestißißimo."407 If Vogler played this Andante 4/8 „allegro", it shows that before starting he had probably only looked at the beginning, which appears to be a ,simple' 2/4 metre; he obviously had not noticed the many 32nd notes following on the next pages.= Probably he began in the tempo of a ,simple' Andante „2/4", which then actually almost came up to an Allegro 4/8. With the 32nd and 64th notes he could not have avoided running into serious problems: „He played the bass mainly other than it's written, and sometimes with another harmony and also melody; at that speed it cannot possibly be otherwise: one's eyes cannot see, nor hands grasp it. The listeners can only say that they've - - seen music and clavier being played. They hear, think and feel - as little about it - as he. You can easily imagine that it was unendurable, because I didn't have the courage to say to him: „ much too fast!" (Mozart's letter no. 405, app. p. 261) (Andante 2/4 (4/8)) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 * K 183 Symphony in G minor, 2nd movement (Ex. 212) - K133 Symphony in D, 2nd movement - K 1 6 Symphony in E flat, 2nd movement 406 See p. 86 and p. 303, Ex. 101. 407 PostScript by Mozart in the letter of his mother to Leopold of 1 7.01.1 778, no. 405 [app. p. 261 ] — Mozart warns exactly of this mistake in his letter of 06.12.1 777 concerning the „Andante (which must not go fast)" in the Piano Sonata K 311, the 2/4 (4/8) metre of which, after a deceptively simple beginning, has thirty-second notes only from b. 73 (letter no. 386. [app. p. 261] ^ J. Haydn sets the same trap w ith his Andante 2/4 „O wie lieblich ist der Anblick" (The Seasons no. 8): only after 62 bars do the numerous thirty-second notes reveal it to be a 4/8 metre. Mozart's Tempo-System 143 Andante K 183, II, m. 1+16 Ex. 212: Symphony in G minor, K183, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 16 The tempo here is determined not by the fleeting legato 32nd notes, but by the articulated 16th triplets in b. 32-34. ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 20 Aria Papageno „Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen" (Ex. 213) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 7 Duettino Ferrando/Guglielmo „AI fato dän legge quegli occhi" * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 7 Duettino Giovanni/Zerlina „La ci darem la mano, lä mi dirai di si" (Ex. 214) - K213 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 2nd movement * K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 14 Aria Nardo, b. 53 „Ah mio ben, dite, dite" (compare Ex. 223)— - K186 Divertimento in B flat for wind, 3rd movement - K129 Symphony in G, 2nd movement - K124 Symphony in G, 2nd movement - K112 Symphony i n F ,2 nd movement - K100 Kassation in D (Serenade), 7th movement - K 73 Symphony in C, 2nd movement - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III „Se le pupille giro amorosette" - K 48 Symphony in D, 2nd movement Ex. 213: Die Zauberflötef K 620, no. 20 Aria Papageno (2nd and 3rd refrains combined with verse) The virtuoso 32nd notes of the glockenspiel in Papageno's „dream-aria", becoming more numerous in every verse, do not in my view really determine the tempo; however, together with the two harmonies per bar they prevent an equation with the ,simple' 2/4 metre of „Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja". (Ex. 198, Ex. 231, Ex. 268) — Andante: w ith the intention of a caricature, a slowing down of the Andantino grazioso (4/8) of the aria's beginning. About that see below „Con un vezzo all'ltaliana". 144 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 214: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 7 Duettino „La ci darem la mano", b. 40 Like Tamino's „portrait" aria, „La ci darem la mano" also feigns a simple metre at the beginning.— Only the increased urging of Don Giovanni with „Vieni, mio bei diletto" (b. 19, and esp. b. 40) and the at first squirming, and then chromatically downwardly wavering sixteenth notes of Zerlina's faltering resistance (b. 25 and 43-44) reveal with their two harmonies per bar the actual metre, a 4/8 time (Ex. 214): Don Giovanni's powers of persuasion and Zerlina's hesitation. Most beautiful then, after the fermata, is her sur render in the softly swaying, irrationally more animated, compound 6/8 metre (see p. 196 - w ithout any proportional relation to the preceding 4/8 metre - „Andiam, andiam, mio bene": an image of her blithely naive unfaithfulness (the chromatic line sinking down in b. 56-57!). The tempo word „Allegro" is not authentic but apt; the slides in 32nd triplets reveal the virtual presence of 16th notes. „Giovani liete" in Figaro (Ex. 372), Papageno's „Dann schmeckte mir Trinken und Essen" have comparable tempos. Andante grazioso 2/4 (4/8) with 32nd note K 542 Piano Trio in E, 2nd movement (Ex. 332), and „Komm, lieber Mai", K 596, K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 12 Aria Zerlina , K 384 Die Entführung, no. 8 Aria Blonde , „Batti, batti, o bei Masetto" (Ex. 1 9 5 )^ ,,Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln" (Ex. 215) K 305 Piano and Violin Sonata in A, 2nd movement, Theme and Variations l-V— K287 Divertimento in B flat for 2 vl, va, db, 2hrn (2nd Lodronische Nachtmusik), 2nd movement K166 Divertimento in E flat for wind, 3rd movement (Arrangement of an Andantino by Paisiello) K128 Symphony in C, 2nd movement K 23 „Conservati fedele", Aria for soprano and orchestra, 1st movement Andante grazioso K 384, no. P Durch Zärtslich- keiF t + t . und m Schmei- cheln, Ge- fäll- lig- keit und Scherzen Ex. 215: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 8, Aria Blonde, b. 9 and 90 — Swarowsky, who d idn 't know compound metres in the sense of Kirnberger and Schulz, accordingly indicated the duet marchlike w ith M M J=76. (Wahrung der Gestalt, 1979, p. 64). — Contrary to Karl Böhm's „both parts of Zerlina's aria are in the same tempo" (Karl Böhm, „Problems in Mozart", in: Opera Annual 1955/56, p. 48) the 6/8 (3/8+3/8) metre of the second part of this aria (w ithout tempo word in the autograph) is faster than the first, if one understands this correctly as 4/8 metre, since uneven metres are faster than even ones. Does Zerlina not promise her beloved a reconciliation „in allegria"? — In the autograph originally „Andantino". Correction in pencil (by Mozart?) to „Andante grazioso" Mozart's Tempo-System 145 2 with 16th notes triplets 3 * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 1 Aria llia „Padre, Germani, addio!" ^ with 16th notes * K 543 Symphony in E flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 216) * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 10 Aria Konstanze, b. 20 = 1 „Traurigkeit ward mir zum Lose" Even if Richard Strauss, against a ponderous scanning in four eighth notes, advised feeling the second movement of the Symphony K 543 without subdivisions and possibly even conducting it like that,413 A n d a n te con m o t o 2/4 (4/8) does not of course mean an „animated walking" of the quarter notes: it's the eighth notes of the 4/8 metre which are animated,111 like Konstanze's in her „Traurigkeit" Aria and llia's in „Padre, Germani, addio!". However, when conducting, it is quite possible to change between them and slow quarter-note beats. IX r- / i o I I . . . w , , i x Andante con moto Andante con moto 2/4 (4/8) 2 . 7 t i x -x 1 - x , 11, -0- , f & \— 0 0 / * \)-9 ' b ä r a r / Ex. 216: Symphony in E flat, K 543, 2nd movement, b. 1and 46 Already in the first bar the weighty step to the subdominant, forming a second emphasis, shows unmistakably that the bar consists of two compounded 2/8 metres, exactly as in the Andante con m oto of Beethoven's „Appassionata" Sonata, Op. 57. Just as he writes the broad adagio-cantilena of the Violin Con certo in G, K 216, in small note-values (Ex. 113), so in this A-flat Andante Mozart dialectically gives over the dramatic interruption of the singing (b. 30/96ff. and 46/116ff) to the grazioso notation of 4/8 metre; the thirty-second and sixty-fourth notes of which protect the rugged melody against false pathos. As in G.W. Fink's thought experiment with „Batti, batti" (Ex. 195) a notation in double-size note values as 4/4 metre would give all these movements a truly distorting metrical weight. Andante di molto piü tosto Allegretto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes * K 338 Symphony in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 217) Andante di m olto piü tosto A llegretto m M K 338, II f M iJ fS f f Ex. 21 7: Symphony in C, K 338, 2nd movement This combination of tempo words is the most striking proof that, contrary to the tradition stemming from the 19th Century, Andante di m olto does not mean „very slow". Mozart wrote the additional „piü tosto Allegretto" later into the part of the concertmaster of the Donaueschingen orchestra; possibly a Violinist, seduced by the gruppetti in the first bar, had adopted too slow a tempo. 413 After Max Rudolf, The Grammar o f Conducting, 1980, p. 340. — Compare Schubert's more robust - and also more animated - second movement o fth e ,Great' Symphony in C, D 944. 146 Mozart's Tempo-System with 32nd notes K 379 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 2nd movement (Theme and Variations l-IV)— (Ex. 218) THEMA Andantino cantabile 2/4 (4/8) Ex. 218: Piano and Violin Sonata in G, K 379, 2nd movement, Theme and Variation III, b. 9 [see letter no. 587] Andantino sostenuto 2/4 (4/8) ndwith 32 notes * K 527 Don Giovanni no. 10a Aria Don Ottavio „Dalla sua pace la mia dipende" (Ex. 219) Already my earlier studies have shown that, considering the smallest note values relevant for the tempo, Andantino is in Mozart always faster than Andante.4̂ 6 However, Andantino cantabile and Andantino soste nuto with 32nd notes are of course slower than the animated Andante di m olto piu tosto Allegretto with only 16th notes. Ex. 219: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 10a Aria Don Ottavio, „Dalla sua pace", b. 2 and 18 Mozart set for „Dalla sua pace" and the Piano and Violin Sonata in G K 379/II the term Andantino to ensure a lighter manner of playing, as previously for the Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, K 378/II (Ex. 060), and then moderated it immediately by the addition sostenuto (resp. cantabile), instead of simply choosing Andante, which he wrote in the autograph „Catalogue of my works". By his carefully considered indica tion Mozart certainly did not mean the culinary singing of some operatic tenors who perform the aria „close to Adagio"; otherwise he would have notated it in 4/4 metre or even alla breve. After the beginning that feigns a 2/4 metre, the 4/8 metre with its two harmonies per bar appears, hidden at first, in b. 4, but then distinctly from b. 8. The movements in compound 2/4 (4/8) metre - like their brothers in 6/8 (3 + 3) metre - have generally promoted the error that Mozart's Andantino is slower than his Andante— . But this impression arises only if one compares them with a ,simple' Andante 2/4 like Papageno's „bird catcher" song (Ex. 198, Ex. 235, Ex. 268). Compared correctly with the pieces in Andante 4/8 with the same dass of note values their eighth notes are faster - or should be so. Andantino 2/4 (4/8) ndwith 32nd notes * K 492 Figaro, no. 20 Aria Contessa „Dove sono i bei momenti di dolcezza" (Ex. 220) * K 449 Piano Concerto in E flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 221) — The theme comes back after five variations, now increased to Allegretto 2/4 (4/8), but nevertheless w ith 32nd notes. 416 Breidenstein in: Mozart Studien vol. 13 and 1 7. — Max Rudolfs book The Grammar o f Conducting (1980), otherwise so excellent, has regrettably been spreading this error for more than th irty years now among prospective conductors (p. 341). + Frederick Neumann, too, feil into the trap of the „Andantino" as an allegedly slower „ little Andante" (Performance Practices, 1993, p. 67) Mozart's Tempo-System 147 Ex. 220: Figaro, K 492, no. 20 Aria Contessa „Dove sono" „Dove sono" is in the autograph Andantino.— It is one of the numerous pieces that are played too slowly since one does not distinguish between 4/8 and 4/4. The indication „Andante" in the AMA (old Mozart Edition) - which the 19th Century understood as „slowly" - had an additional influence to that. The six 32nd notes of the oboe in b. 8 and 44, however, decide the tempo on account of their melodic intensity (stressed grace-notes). Ex. 221: Piano Concerto in E flat, K449, 2nd movement, b. 23 and 107— ^ with 16th notes K 344 Zaide, no. 12 Aria Zaide „Trostlos schluchzet Philomele" K270 Divertimento in B flat, 2nd movement K251 Divertimento in D (Nannerl Septet), 3rd movement Andantino grazioso 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes - K 208 II re pastore, no. 11 Aria Tamiri „Se tu di me fai dono" ❖ K162 Symphony i n C , 2 nd movement (Ex. 222) Andantino grazioso p 1 M J S J J J v • i r r • r ' m r r r J f j r p 0 ä ^ with 16th note triplets Ex. 222: Symphony in C, K 162, 2nd movement - K199 Symphony in G, 2nd movement ^ with 16th notes - K204 Serenade in D, 8th movement ❖ K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 14 Aria Nardo „Con un vezzo all' Italiana" (Ex. 223) - K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 20 Aria Serpetta „Chi vuol godere il mondo" - K182 Symphony in B flat, 2nd movement — ln the first edition of the NMA the aria had also been indicated as Andante. The autograph, that has meanwhile come to light, has Andantino. The online-edition of the NMA has now been corrected. — Mozart's 32nd grace-notes in bars 107 and 108 should actually be notated as 64th grace-notes. — NMA: Andante grazioso; Critical Report and autograph: Andantino grazioso. 148 Mozart's Tempo-System m Andantino grazioso i 1 K 196, no. 14, m. 1 -8 and 9-11 combined J~*j »Qi m tf Con un vez- zoall' I- ta- U M l lia- na vi dih X rö che quel vi- set- to PT =P -h -hf Ex. 223: La finta giardiniera, K 196, no. 14 Aria Nardo— Typically enough Mozart prescribes the Rococo-tempo A n d a n t i n o g r a z io s o only up to 1 775; twice in 3/4 and twice in 3/8 metre, seven times in 2/4 (4/8) metre, already graceful in itself. W ithout doubt its tempo is lighter than that o f the A n d a n t e grazioso 4/8, e.g. of Zerlina's „Batti, batti, o bei Masetto" (Ex. 195), or of Blonde's aria „Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln" (Ex.215). Nardo's aria (Ex. 223) relates three medium tempos in 4/8 metre to each other: after the jokingly affected portrayal of the ,ltalian way of flattering' at the beginning in Andantino grazioso (which reveals its 4/8 metre only in b. 6-7) and after the ,French way' in 3/4 metre, Nardo depicts the more ponderous ,English' way from b. 61 in the slower Andante (4/8, with two distinct harmonies per bar) in a languishing minor key („Ah mio ben, dite, dite"). Since Serpetta does not like this either, he reacts angrily (b. 65): „Maledetta indifferenza" - „damned indifference, I am losing my patience!" in the melody of the aria's beginning but now Allegretto (see p. 150). Andantino con moto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes * K202 Symphony i n D , 2 nd movement (Ex. 224) This indication, unique in all of Mozart's works, is already in itse lf a refutation of Harnoncourt's thesis that Andantino is neighbour to Adagio (see p. 030). In reality Andantino con m oto is for our coarse perception scarcely distinguishable from A l l e g r e t t o . The beginning unmistakably feigns a 2/4 (a 1) metre, until from b. 7, and especially in b. 9, the 4/8 metre clearly reveals its two emphases. Tempo grazioso 2/4 (4/8) ndwith 32 notes - K 135 Lucio Silla, no. 10 Aria (Cavatina) Celia „Se il labbro tim ido scopir non osa" The tempo is determined by the light „4/8" metre and the 32nds as the smallest dass of notes; the manner of playing is „grazioso". A more exact indication would be: „fempo giusto grazioso". Compare Fauno's aria no. 8 in Ascanio in Alba, K111, ,Tempo grazioso' in light 3/4 metre (see p. 148). Allegretto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes - K 521 Sonata in C for piano four-hands, 3rd movement - K 481 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 3rd movement, Theme and Variations l-V * K414 Piano Concerto in A, 3rd movement Rondeau (Ex. 225) - K 379 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 2nd movement, repetition of the Theme after Variation V — — Since the 4/8 metre appears distinctly only in bar 6 and 7 the introduction and the beginning of the aria are combined in the music example. One may notice that because of its capricious content the aria is predominantly non legato. — Speedier return o fth e theme, at the beginning indicated by Andantino-cantabile-4/8. Mozart's Tempo-System 149 - K131 Divertimento in D, 4th movement * [K 386 Rondo in A for piano and orchestra (fragment)] - [K 537 Piano Concerto in D, 3rd movement]— RONDEAU Allegretto fr, * ' t y v # 4 * T K 414, III, m. 1 + 52 “ P W » Ex. 225: Piano Concerto in A, K414, 3rd movement, Rondeau, b. 1 and 52 The three rondos for piano and orchestra K 414, K 386 (fragment), and K 382 (Allegretto grazioso, Ex. 226) show clearly, how two or more harmonies per bar together with a melody divided into small sections, form two metrical emphases, the first heavier than the second. In K 414 already the upbeat is an inde pendent 2/8 metre, even with two harmonies, because of which the 32nd scales in b. 129-130 are no surprise. Allegretto grazioso 2/4 (4/8) with 32nd notes K 382 Rondo in D for piano and orchestra (Ex. 226) Ex. 226: Rondo in D for Piano and Orchestra, K 382, b. 57 In the first German edition of this book the Rondo K 382 had been classified as a little slower than the other Allegrettos in 4/8 metre with 32nd notes. The addition „grazioso", however, demanding a lighter manner of playing, signals in all other metres an increase o f speed over the basic tempo word. Thus the piece sets a speed lim it for the more moderate ones in the unmodified Allegretto 4/8 with 32nd notes w ithout yet being an Allegro 2/4 (4/8) with 32nd notes (see Ex. 230). Allegretto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th note triplets - K 374 „A questo seno deh vieni", Rec. and Rondo for sopr. and orch., Rondeaux „O r che il cielo" * K 330 Piano Sonata in C, 3rd movement (Ex. 227) - K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata in D, 3rd movement Allegretto Ex. 227: Piano Sonata in C, K 330, 3rd movement, b .1 ,16 ,3 9 ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cos! fan tutte , no. 12 Aria Despina „In uomini! In soldati! sperare fedeltä?" * K 492 Figaro, no. 13 Aria Susanna „Venite inginocchiatevi" (Ex. 228, Ex. 254) * K 476 „Ein Veilchen auf der Wiese stand", Lied — The indication „A llegretto" is by a different hand; in comparison w ith K414/III it seems, however, quite possible; the piece could even be a model for others. 150 Mozart's Tempo-System (Allegretto 2/4 (4/8) with 16th notes) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 9 Chorus, b.117 „Su conca d'oro" - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 5th movement, Romance, b. 25 - K 253 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement, Variation VI - K 251 Divertimento in D for 2 vl, via, db, ob, 2 hrn (Nannerl Septet), 3rd mov., b. 72 - K239 Serenade in D (Serenata notturna), 3rd movement Rondeau - K126 II sogno di Scipione, no. 6 Aria Emilio, b. 128 „Quassu di voi si ride" * K 196 La Finta Giardiniera, no. 14 Aria Nardo, b. 65 „Maledetta differenza"— (cf. Ex. 223) - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 18 Aria Rosina, b. 45 „Quando sono cinque o sei" - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b. 331 „Oh vedi la semplice" - K 23 „Conservati fedele", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 87 „Ch'io per virtu d' amore" Ex. 228: Figaro, K 492, no. 13 Aria Susanna „Venite inginocchiatevi", b. 1 and 23 Un poco Allegro 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K 38 Apollo und Hyacinth, no. 5 Aria Zephyrus „En! Duos conspicis" ^ with 16th notes - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 20 Chorus of Shepherdesses „Giä l'ore sen volano" Allegro comodo 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 9: Chorus of shepherds and shepherdesses or nymphs, and Dance: "Hai di Diana il core" Allegro moderato 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes ❖ K 330 Piano Sonata in C, 1st movement (Ex. 229) Allegro moderato K 330, I, m. 1+23 /~i km , r r r-— Lr -m- -0- -0- -0- -0- _ ■ Ex. 229: Piano Sonata in C, K 330, 1st movement, b. 1 and 23 Allegro ma non troppo 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes - K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 4th movement, Rondeau Mozart changed the original Allegretto for the Rondeau of the Posthorn Serenade into Allegro ma non troppo - do we still see a difference there today? The ,4/8' metre with four accented harmonies does not come to light until b. 15, the beginning feigns a 2/4 metre with whole-bar accentuation. — Speedier return of the theme that had at the beginning been indicated by Andantino cantabile 4/8. Mozart's Tempo-System 151 Allegro 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 32nd notes * K 281 Piano Sonata in B flat, 1st movement (Ex.197, Ex. 230) Allegro K 281, I, m. 1+14 öS i m Ex. 230: Piano Sonata in B flat, K281, 1st movement, b. 1 and 14 In all these pieces one can see how the smallest prevailing note values dominate the tempo words. K 281 shows already in the first bar its 4/8 metre, compounded of two 2/8 metres, in its further course it is completely dominated by 32nd notes; in b. 129 of the first movement of K 330 (Ex. 229) there are even mordents [fr] placed on top of them. Like nearly all Mozart's movements, this one, too, does not stay rigidly with the metrical pattern of its metre (= v - v), but gains its liveliness particularly from changing with groups of bars which have only one harmony and emphasis per bar (= v). ^ with 16th notes * K 590 String Quartet in F, 4th movement (Ex. 252) * K282 Piano Sonata in E flat, 3rd movement (Ex. 231) - K279 Piano Sonata in C, 3rd movement - K239 Serenade in D (Serenata notturna), 3rd movement, Rondeau, b. 54 - K196 La finta giardiniera, no. 15 Aria Contino, b.110 „Padrone stimatissimo" - K186 Divertimento in B flat for wind, 5th movement - K166 Divertimento in E flat for wind, 5th movement - K 100 Cassation in D (Serenade), 5th movement - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 3 Aria Giacinta, b. 61 „In somma io desidero un uomo d'ingenio" - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 20 Aria Fracasso, b. 69 „Fanciullette, ritrosette" - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b.116 „La prendo, l'accetto" Allegro $ i m f f f f ü m m f m. 1 +42 / t t m tg ¥ Ex. 231: Piano Sonata in E flat, K282, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 42 The beginnings of many of Mozart's movements are deceptive, e.g. the third movements of the Piano Sonatas K 279 and K 282; they Start with whole-bar accentuation, but a few bars later, with up to four harmonies per bar and embellishments on the 2nd or 4th eighth note, they reveal their character as a 4/8 metre. A comparison with Allegro movements in ,simple' 2/4 metre (Ex. 239, Ex. 240, Ex. 251, Ex. 253) like Blonde's „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex 270) shows the difference. Allegro vivace 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 31 Chorus „Scenda Amor" (Ex. 232) Ex. 232: Idomeneo, K 366, no. 31 Chorus „Scenda Amor" 152 Mozart's Tempo-System If one allows oneself to be deceived by Mozart's authentic "2/4" indication, Osmin's „O, wie will ich triumphieren!" (Ex. 241) will be taken as the reference piece in Allegro vivace. In that tempo, however, real 64th notes (here in b. 28) are not possible; „Scenda Amor" is in fact in a virtual 4/8 metre and the remarks of Leopold Mozart, Riepel, Türk, De Meude-Monpas concerning the relativity of the indication v ivace (see p. 023) apply here all the more. Allegro molto / Molto allegro 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes * K 448 Sonata in D for two pianos, 3rd movement (changes to 2/4 a 1 metre: b 42 -98 ,159-214 , 231-290) (Ex. 233) - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 7th movement, Finale [M olto Alegro] K448, III, m. 9 f m L L i f m m f i m P p Ex. 233: Sonata in D for two pianos, K 448, 3rd movement (combinednotation) This m olto allegro 4/8, too, can only be found through its smallest note values, here the "fr" on 16th-notes in b. 4, 12, etc. Presto 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes * K 425 Symphony in C (Linz Symphony), 4th movement (Ex. 234) - K 353 Twelve Variations for piano in E flat on „La belle Frangoise", Var. XII - K 207 Violin Concerto in B flat, 3rd movement - K 205 Divertimento for vl, via, bsn, db and 2 hrn, 6th movement - K 157 String Quartet no. 4 in C , 3rd movement - K136 Divertimento I (quartet) in D, 3rd movement - K124 Symphony in G, 4th movement Presto m K 425, IV m es f- r ¥ SP f Ex. 234: Symphony in C (Linz Symphony), K425, 4th movement Here it becomes clear again how much influence the smallest note values have on the tempo: the 4th mo vement of the „Linz" symphony is of course less fast than Don Giovanni's Presto 2/4 „Fin ch'han dal vino" which has only eighth notes (p. 159, Ex. 247) - though this, for its part, is mostly played too fast. Hummel and (probably copying him) Czerny gave for K 425/IV MM J=92425. If this were the case Mozart could have spared himself the 32nd notes in b. 26 etc.. Presto assai 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes - K181 Symphony in D, 3rd movement Prestissimo 2/4 (4/8) ^ with 16th notes - K203 Serenade in D, 9th movement 425 William Malloch, Carl Czerny's metronome marks for Haydn and Mozart symphonies, in: Early Music, Febr. 1988. Mozart's Tempo-System 153 f) The simple, „true" (genuine) 2/4 Beside the virtual 4/8 metre discussed on p. 147 (Fink's „first" kind of a 2/4 metre) Stands the „other" kind, the ,simple' or „true" 2/4 with whole-bar accentuation (here marked „ä 1") which Mozart used more seldom. Only 66 of his 109 movements in this metre (excepting contre dances) have autograph tempo words, of which the slowest is A n d a n t e . For Cherubino's aria „Voi che sapete"426 the term is unfortunately not authentic, although very fitting. Papageno's bird-catcher song, however, also has only one emphasis per bar; with its suburban theatre ,hopsasa' (,hop and skip'), marked by the French horns, which Schikaneder in the role presumably performed choreographically, it confirms in every second bar quite amusingly Fink's observation of the „heavy accent" (Ex. 235). Its tempo is „ that movement o f the metre which holds the m idpoint between fast and slow",427 not Allegretto (as one often hears it), but quite smugly somewhat s l o w e r than the Andante 4/4 of the chorus „Heil sei euch Geweihten!"428 (Ex. 121) As will be shown in the excursus from p. 160, 2/4 (ä1) is in Mozart's works not half a 4/4 metre, although this itself is a compound of two virtual 2/4 metres. Andante 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 2 Aria Papageno „Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja" (Ex. 235, Ex. 198, Ex. 268) - K 484 „Ihr unsre neuen Leiter", Lied for solo voice, 3-part male chorus and organ Andante - K 620, no. 2, m. 27 Der 1*1 Vo- gel- fän- ger j> in « 8 T O bin ich ja, stets j> J> j> Ex. 235: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 2 Aria Papageno, b. 27 Andante grazioso 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes - K 302 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 2nd movement, Rondeau - K 240 Divertimento in B flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 2nd movement * K218 Violin Concerto in D, 3rd movement, Rondeau (Ex. 236) Andante grazioso K 218, if t r g ir r c j a p m m Jsl / w m m f Ex. 236: Violin Concerto in D, K218, 3rd movement Rondeau Andantino 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cos! fan tuttef no. 15 Aria Guglielmo „Non siate ritrosi occhietti vezzosi" (Ex. 237) 426 No. 12 in Figaro, K 492 427 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary,'), 1802, „Andante") [app. p. 312]; Kirnberger in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie der chönen Künste ('General Theory o fth e Fine Arts'), 1/139 [app. p. 284]. 428 Finale II Die Zauberflöte, b. 828. 154 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 237: Cos/ fan tutte , K 588, no. 15 Aria Guglielmo, „Non siate ritrosi", b. 9 and 50 The only A n d a n t i n o in „true" 2/4 metre, Guglielmo's aria „Non siate ritrosi occhietti vezzosi" (no. 15 in Cos/ fan tutte) is a good piece of evidence for the discussion, whether Andantino is slower or faster than Andante: it is quite clearly faster than Papageno's Andante 2/4 (Ex. 235) - though not, as with some singers, Allegretto. Maestoso 2/4 (a 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 360 „Venite pur avanti, vezzose mascherette!" Allegretto 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cos! fan tuttef no. 26 Aria Guglielmo „Donne mie, la fate a tanti a tanti a tanti" (Ex. 238) - K 556 „Grechtelt's enk", four part canon - K 541 Ariette „Un bacio di mano", b .17 „Voi siete un po' tondo, mio caro Pompeo"— - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 139 and 439 Contradanza (Ex. 414), p. 238 and Ex. 420, p. 246) - K 492 Figaro, no. 23 Finale III, b. 61 and 186 „Amanti costanti seguaci d'onor" (Ex. 255) (p. 162) * K 285 Quartet in D for flute, vl, via and vc, 3rd movement, Rondeau („Allegretto" autograph!) - K 83 „Se tutti i mali miei", Aria for soprano and orchestra, b. 89 Allegretto ^ K 588, no. 26 (shortened) Crescendo vi-de Don- ne mie, la fa- tea tan- tia tan- tia / t t f l Ex. 238: Cos) fan tutte , K 588, no. 26 Aria Guglielmo „Donne mie" (beginning abridged) Mozart had originally outlined both Guglielmo's Allegretto aria „Donne mie, la fate a tanti" and the Ari ette „Un bacio di mano" K 541 in double-size note values as Allegro in 2/2 metre - which means: in a heavier manner of playing, though at the same speed, i.e. the tempo of „Könnte jeder brave Mann" (Ex. 075) and „Das klinget so herrlich, das klinget so schön!" (Ex. 074) - bad news for those baritones who like charmingly to tease the ladies in the stalls in the tempo of Blonde's „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 270). One sees how the different types of tempo are linked: Allegretto 2/4 a 1 « Allegro 2/2. It's the manner of playing that makes the difference. It may surprise some flute virtuosos that Mozart had not meant the Rondeau of the Flute Quartet K 285 as a superficial „throw-you-out" piece, but as a charming „A llegretto", which he indeed wrote in his autograph (and which remains to be added in the NMA). — As already mentioned, Mozart used the theme of this ariette as the third theme in the first movement of the Symphony in C, K 551, (Ex. 150), there in Allegro vivace as 4/4 (2/4+2/4) metre. Mozart's Tempo-System 155 Allegretto grazioso 2/4 (ä 1), ma non troppo presto, perö non troppo adagio. Cosi-cosi-con molto garbo ed espressione ^ with 16th notes - K298 Quartet i nA fo r flute, vl, va and vc, 3rd movement „Rondieaoux" Such high spirits go beyond the boundaries of musicology. Allegro 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 13 Aria Monostatos „Alles fühlt der Liebe Freuden" (Ex. 239) - K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 846 „Es siegte die Stärke und krönet zum Lohn" - K614 String Quintet in E flat, 4th movement - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 4 Duetto Fiordiligi/Dorabella, b. 72 „Se questo mio core mai cangia " ❖ K 543 Symphony in E flat, 4th movement (Ex. 240) ❖ K 492 Figaro, no. 2 Duettino Susanna/Figaro „Se a caso madama la notte ti chiama" (Ex. 251) - K 487 Twelve Duos for two horns, no. 1 - K 465 String Quartet in C („Dissonance" Quartet), 4th movement - K 388 Serenade in C minor for wind (arrang. of String Quintet K 406), 4th movement - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 5b Chorus of the Janissaries „Singt dem großen Bassa Lieder" (Ex. 253) ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 7 Terzett „Marsch, marsch, marsch! tro llt euch fort!" ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 12 Aria Blonde „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 196, Ex. 270) ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 14 Duett Osmin/Pedrillo „Vivat Bacchus, Bacchus lebe!" - K 375 Serenade in E flat for wind, 5th movement, Finale - K 365 Concerto for 2 pianos and orchestra, 3rd movement, Rondeau - K250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 5th movement, Rondeau - K219 Violin Concerto in A, 3rd movement, Rondeau, b. 132 - K 185 Serenade in D (Serenade), 4th movement Blonde's merry aria „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 196, Ex. 270) has in spite of its often two harmonies per bar such a distinct whole-bar accentuation that it even changes in b. 22 for eleven bars into a virtual 1/2 metre. It is a classic example of a movement pattern frequent in Mozart for very populär pieces. Unfortunately, often exaggerated performance tempos have probably spoilt some of them („Vivat Bacchus"!) for ever. Al- les fühlt der Lie- be Freu- den, schnä- beit, tän- delt, her- zet, küßt Ex. 239: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 13 Aria Monostatos, b. 10 The aria of Monostatos is no etude for piccolo flute (the original indication had been „A llegretto"\) but a character piece. Schikaneder demands in the libretto: „everything is sung and played so piano as if the music were in the far distance", and Mozart writes sempre pianissimo, which is brought out better in the moderate tempo of the other pieces in Allegro 2/4 than in the usual Presto. The fourth movement of the Symphony in E flat (Ex. 240) is traditionally executed (in both senses) as Presto, too, i.e. four grades faster than indicated by Mozart. The crazy metronome indication J=152, proposed by Hummel and Czerny for piano arrangements of this movement in the virtuoso-loving era of Paganini, makes it architecturally so much slighter that the whole symphony becomes „top-heavy" (Gülke) in relation to its heavyweight beginning. In this tempo the sixteenth notes lose their quality as melodies, their counterpoint is swallowed up in a senselessly whirling kaleidoscopic perpetuum mobile; the end appears without motivation to be „snapped off"430 for lack of power. Absurdly and typically enough, Monostatos's aria and this movement of the Symphony in E flat are submitted to flautists and violinists in orchestral auditions because of their exceptional difficulty in the usual P res to . 430 Peter Gülke, Triumph der neuen Tonkunst, 1998, p. 126ff. 156 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 240: Symphony in E flat, K 543, 4th movement (Allegro 2/4 (a 1)) ^ with 8th notes - K 240 Divertimento in B flat for wind, 4th movement - K188 Divertimento in C for 2 fl, 5 tpt, 4 timp, 2nd movement - K110 Symphony in G, 4th movement Allegro vivace 2/4 (a 1) ^ with 16th notes - K428 String Quartet in E flat (4th Haydn Quartet), 4th movement ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 19 Aria Osmin „O, wie will ich triumphieren" (Ex. 241) - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 21b Chorus of the Janissaries „Bassa Selim lebe lange" Allegro vivace 94|2f~----------t a t o im r F -u u * i ---r n i OTrrHrr O, wie will ich tri- um- phie- ren, wenn sie : , r r r euch zum Rieht- platz f f f f fuh- ren -|__ L̂ Koloratu U J ___ _____ ̂Osmin i m Ex. 241: Die Entführt 1 1 jng, K 384, rio. 19 Aria Osmiin, b. 20 and 154 * r i11 K 384, no. 19, m. 20+154 A ritenuto for the long coloratura from b. 154 for Osmin's heavy bass voice is not necessary if Riepel's, Türk's and De Meude-Monpas' warnings of a too fast execution of vivace are heeded. („Vif, vivace: anima ted mouvement, hearty execution fu ll o f fire. It is n o t a matter o f speeding up the beat but giving it w a r m t h "). Leopold Mozart: „Vivace means animated, and forms a m idpoint between fast and s/ow"431 however, with neat metrical emphases. Allegro vivace assai 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 467 Piano Concerto in C, 3rd movement (Ex. 242) K 467, III, m. 1 + 2 7 8 ilP fp 0 \>m PP P P Ex. 242: Piano Concerto in C, K467, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 278 Assai refers here to the characfer-indication vivace - very lively, strongly emphasized - not to the Allegro itself; therefore the movement should not have the speed of the Allegro assai 2/4 (ä 1) with 16th notes in K 459 (Ex. 244) which itself, however, is not yet Presto.— 431 Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School o f Violin Playing'), p. 48 [app. p. 272] See also: Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), p. 364, § 51 [app. p. 307]) ^ Compare K 387/I, p. 102; K 458/I, p. 21 7; K 467/III, p. 156. Mozart's Tempo-System 157 Allegro (di) molto (Molto allegro) 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes - K 451 Piano Concerto in D, 3rd movement ^ with 8th note triplets 3 ❖ K 499 String Quartet in D, 4th movement (Ex. 243) - K 45 Symphony in D, 4th movement Contrary to the appearance of the music example, the 4th movement of K 499 has throughout only one harmony per bar; it presents a combination of a 2/4 metre with a 6/8 notated as triplets, both equally legitimate.— Elsewhere Mozart has sometimes notated polymetrics in the modern way: e.g. Blonde's 12/8 metre in the alla breve Quartett of Die Entführung (Ex. 064) or the bars in 2/4 metre within the 6/8 of the Piano Concerto in B flat K 456, III (b. 171-200, Ex. 376) or the C-metre of the oboe in the 6/8 Rondeau of the Oboe Quartet, K 370 (Ex. 371). „M o lto " was added only later (probably by Mozart himself), showing that this movement had not been conceived as very fast from the beginning, but so that the complicated structure could still be discerned. ^ with 8th notes - K213 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 4th movement, Contredanse en Rondeau - K114 Symphony in A, 4th movement Allegro assai 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 459 Piano Concerto in F, 3rd movement (Ex. 244) - K 458 String Quartet in B flat (Hunt Quartet), 4th movement Ex. 244: Piano Concerto in F, K459, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 160 ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K319 Symphony in B flat, 4th movement - K172 String Quartet in B flat, 4th movement ^ with 8th notes - K 253 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 3rd movement — Hugo Riemann misinterpreted it in a grotesque way as being phrased throughout by u p beats. (System der musikalischen Rhyth m ik und Metrik, 1903, p. 253). 158 Mozart's Tempo-System Presto 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 8th note triplets 3 * K 504 Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), 3rd movement (Ex. 245) - K 364 Sinfonia Concertante in E flat for violin, viola and orchestra, 3rd movement - K160 String Quartet n o .7 in E flat, 3rd movement Presto K 504, I ■ M t o m m Ex. 245: Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), K 504, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 120 The triplets and their manner of interfering with the simple eighth notes make this movement (whose beginning is again deceptive) slower than Don Giovanni's „Fin ch'han dal vino" (Ex. 247) which has only eighth notes. ^ with 8th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 11 Aria Don Giovanni „Fin ch'han dal vino" (Ex. 246, Ex. 247) - K 522 „Ein musikalischer Spaß" for 2 vln, via, db and 2 horns, 4th movement * K492 Figaro, no. 3 Cavatina Figaro, b. 64 and 123 „L'arte schermendo" * K 310 Piano Sonata in A minor, 3rd movement - K202 Symphony in D, 4th movement Nobody would play the third movement of the Piano Sonata in A minor in the tempo which has become usual for „L'arte schermendo" and „Fin ch'han dal vino", the so-called „champagne"-aria, of Don Giovan ni, which is - next to the Figaro Overture (Ex. 142) and the fourth movement of the „Jupiter" Symphony (Ex. 088) - one of Mozart's most ill-treated pieces. A tempo determination for „Fin ch'han dal vino" which does not Start out from the smallest notes - mordents on the 16th notes - but from conducting in whole bars (Schlesinger:434 MM J=138!, Marty:435 MM J= 120) does not allow the alleged Champagne to sparkle in the hand of the hero. Too fast is here again too slow. With Gardiner's MM = 126 for the whole bar the listener understands instead of four Presto 2/4 bars an apparent Allegro 4/4, which because of its superficiality paradoxically enough does not even seem really fast (Ex. 246): Only if the quarter notes of the Presto 2/4 remain present as the driving force— do the shifted accents on the second half of the bar (b. 36-42) and the fortepianos exploding in series make sense at all. Instead of a lame tremolo the second violins and violas can then let their bows spring, as is proper in a truly sparkling Presto 2/4 (the dots in the lower system of my music example are added, but go without saying): 434 Anonymous metronome indication in the piano score of the Paris publisher Schlesinger, ca. 1823, communicated by Max Rudolf in: Ein Beitrag zur Geschichte der Temponahme bei Mozart (MJb 1976/77, p. 215). 435 Jean-Pierre Marty, The Tempo Indications o f Mozart, 1988, p. 169. — I am certainly not supporting Retze Talsma's M M J=116 ! {Wiedergeburt der Klassiker, 1980, p. 194). Mozart's Tempo-System 159 Ex. 247: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 11 Aria Giovanni (original) As with „L'arte schermendo", Figaro no. 3, b. 64 (the tempo of which must consider the virtual fencing cuts of the 32nd notes (b. 88) and the parries of the syncopations in b. 96-99 and 125-127) Mozart has indicated here again neither M olto Presto nor Presto assai, tempo words which he reserved for pieces of the really utmost speed: Molto Presto 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes K 358 Sonata in B flat for piano four-hands, 3rd movement Presto assai 2/4 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes * K 252 Divertimento in E flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 4th movement (Ex. 248) * K 102 Symphony in C, 3rd movement (finale for the Overture to H re pastore, K 208) Mozart's fastest tempo word „Prestissimo" occurs only in longer metres, and therefore does not desi gnate his fastest pieces: the Prestissimo in Finale II of Figaro („Certo un diavol dell'inferno") is actually a 2/2 metre (Ex. 181), the Prestissimo of the Serenade K 203 (9th movement) is a 2/4 (4/8). The fastest and most lightly flying pieces are the finale of the Symphony K 102 with the indication Presto assai 2/4 (a 1) and the fourth movement of the Divertimento for wind, K 252, which have only eighth notes as smallest note values (Ex. 248): Presto assai / / x m f = F X X i V T x i X L t K 252, IV r X m m r m Ex. 248: Divertimento in E flat, K252, 4th movement The dichotomy amongst 2/4 metres exists, as we have seen, even in faster tempos: they can be ,simple' and ,compound'. The glaring difference between the Allegro 2/4 of Blonde's „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 270) and the first movement of the Piano Sonata K 281 (Ex. 230), presented at the beginning, can be explained: 2/4 (4/8) metre and ,simple' 2/4 are metres each with its own rights. 160 Mozart's Tempo-System Excursus: How do even metres relate to each other? In contrast to the neu tra lity o f the m odern use o f metres regarding t e m p o , a r t i c u l a t i o n and e x p r e s s i o n , metres in the 18th Century defined each o f these parameters d iffe ren tly , according to the „n a tu re " ascribed to them , even w ith o u t verbal add itions - as already described on p. 011, and substantiated by the previous examples in M oza rt's w orks. Kirnberger and Schulz once placed, as quoted, the whole scale of even metres one below the other: „For solemn and pathetic pieces, alla breve is especially appropriate and is therefore used in motets and other solemn church pieces. Large 4/4 metre has a very emphatic and serious motion and is suited to stately choruses, to fugues in church pieces, and generally to pieces where pomp and gravity is required. 4/4 metre is best suited for a lively exhilarating expression that is still somewhat emphatic. 2/4 is also lively but already combined with more lightness and, for that reason, can be used well to express playfulness. 4/8 metre is already totally fleeting, and its liveliness no longer contains any of the emphasis of 4/4 metre."437 The alla breve of the Stile antico has no connection with Mozart's secular 2/2 metre, as we have seen; in the same way the baroque ,large' C metre has almost nothing in common with the classical 4/4. About the relation between ,large' C metre and 2/4 Scheibe writes: „The characteristic feature for distinguishing the common metre [,large' 4/4] from two-four metre is that it is best suited to the very slow and melancholy, as well as serious moderately striding mo vements; also for declamation and reciting in the recitative, for which 2/4 metre, because of its liveliness and lightness, is least suitable." 438 2/4 metre was considered as a quasi „small alla breve", but as „too light for fugues". K irnberger: „Even though containing the same number of equal beats, the f metre oftwo beats is completely different from 2/4 metre. The former, because of its weighty and slow m otion , is suita ble for religious hymns; the latter, on the other hand, because of its light and swift pace, is appro priate for frolicsome and comic effects. It must be attributed to error or ignorance, if sublime hymns are set in 2/4 time, and frivolous things, where sixteenth and even thirty-second notes appear, in C metre; However, if a swifter tempo is demanded, it happens quite often that C time shall be as swift as 2/4 time, with the difference, though, that the rendition is heavier in C time; otherwise there would be no difference between 2/4 metre and a swift C metre, as both of them have two beats per bar."439 M a rp u rg : „ I f one asks w h y duple metres are som etim es expressed as C and som etim es as 2 /4 : the answer is tha t the tem po w h ich a m etre shall have determ ines the choice o f the note values and there fore a slower duple metre must be written in t and a faster one in 2/4."440 Kirnberger/Sc h u l z : „2/4 metre has the same tempo as alla breve but is performed much more lightly. The difference in performance between the two metres is too noticeable for anyone to believe that it makes no difference whether the piece is written in C or in 2/4. Consider, for example, the following melodic phrase in both metres (Ex. 249): Tempo giusto Tempo giusto j i J c r r [ r i J ^ r c r iJ f j ij j - i (Example in Kirnberger's The A rt o f Strict Musical C om position1, p. 387) If this phrase is performed correctly, everyone [including us today?] will notice that it is much more serious and emphatic in alla breve than in 2/4 metre, where it comes close to being playfu l."441 G. W . Fin k : „W hoeve r could m ix up the alla breve w ith 2/4 m etre - in hearing, th in k in g o r w rit in g ! And even if one w ou ld tw ice set Gravissimo above the tim e signature 2 /4 : it w ou ld certa in ly never 437 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), II, 1 776, p. 133 [app. p. 279]. 438 Scheibe, Über die musikalische Composition {'About Musical Composition'), part 1,1 773, chap. 5, p. 4, § 90, 4. [app. p. 340]. 439 Kirnberger, Anleitung zur Singekomposition {'Guide to Vocal Composition'), p .12 [app. p.282]. 440 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe {'Critical Letters about the Musical Art'), 1 760, vol. I, p. 10 0 ,13th letter, § 6 [app. p. 332]. 441 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), l l ,p .1 1 8 ,3 [app. p. 277]. Mozart's Tempo-System 161 become an alla breve. However, what should bring about the mighty distinction, if not the different accent which separates the two metres so fundamentally from each other?"442 What is the relation of 2/4 (a 1) to the classical 4/4 metre? F. G. D r ew is443: „ I s it not the same if I make one bar in 4/4 or fwo in 2/4? [...] No, dear friend! not at all, as each of these metres has a completely different character and must be executed in a com pletely different manner. [...] In the even metre one beat is always long, the other short444 ; in fact, where several long beats appear in a bar (e.g. 4/4) the first must be played with a particular emphasis; the third is also long, it's true, but less important. [= v - v] So, if I want to set a piece where every long beat shall be executed with an equal prominence and strength, I must choose a metre where in each bar only one long beat occurs; for instance in 2/4, where it continues evenly all the time: A comparison of pieces with the same dass of smallest note values, termed by Mozart with the same tempo word, proves, however, that the ,simple' 2/4 is for him not simply half a 4/4 metre, although theoretically the latter is a compound of two 2/4 metres: the quarter notes of the 2/4 (a 1) metre are a little slower than those of the 4/4 metre. K ir n b e r g e r : „O ut of the even metres 2/4— is gentler and calmer than 4/4 metre, which, depending on the tempo, can express either more seriousness or more cheerfulness than the former."446 Compare the Duettino no. 1 in Figaro („Cinque .., dieci .., venti Allegro 4/4, Ex. 250): Ex. 250: Figaro, K492, no. 1 Duettino Figaro/Susanna „Cinque ...", b.18 with no.2 („Seacaso madama la notte ti chiama": Allegro 2/4,ä 1, Ex. 251): K 492, no. 2, m. 1 -9 combined i i » , / - ̂ f- -p- -p- -ß- -p- f- T- -p- -F-F Ex. 251: Figaro, K 492, no. 2 Duettino Figaro/Susanna (with Figaro's text of m's 5-9) However, the compound 2/4 (2/8+2/Ö) metre takes still longer than the ,simple' 2/4. It has been described as the „little brother" of the 4/4 (2/4+2/4) metre. It's true that the eighth notes of the ,small' 2/8 metre are faster than the quarter notes of 2/4 metre - not, however, twice as fast. Therefore four eighth notes of the compound 2/4 (4/8) metre take more time than four eighth notes of the ,simple' 2/4. 442 G.W. Fink, Ueber Takt, Taktarten, und ihr Charakteristisches {'About the Bar, Metres and their Characteristics'), AMZ, year 11, no.14, 04.01.1809, col. 213 [app. p. 345]. 443 F.G. Drewis, Freundschaftliche Briefe über die Theorie der Tonkunst und Composition, 1 797, 3rd letter, p. 22. — The terms „long" and ,short' for accented and unaccented parts of the bar do not refer to the size of the note value; in the 18th Century minimal agogic lengthenings on „good" [i.e. strong] beats as well as on all other notes which were to be emphasized (the quantitas intrinseca) were for performing musicians - possibly even unconsciously - a matter of course. „Intrinsic lengths" are irrational and that is probably why they are so seldom described in detail in the musicological literature. They can emphasize a note equally as well as dynamic accents - or together w ith these - w ithout the constant progress of the metre appearing to be disturbed. The minimal lengthening is unconsciously adapted to the metrical norm by the ear. That's how it is w ith many of the practical musician's „tricks of the trade", which, not being measurable, easily escape theoretical description. To this belong also those ,negative' accents that intentionally disappoint the expectation of a positive dynamic accent and can sometimes be all the more conspicuous. — „3 /4 " in Kirnberger's text is a misprint, as the context shows. 446 Kirnberger in the article „M elod ie" in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie {'General Theory'), vol. III, 1 773, p. 377, 5 [app. p. 287]. 162 Mozart's Tempo-System The first movement of the Piano Sonata in B flat, K 281 („4/8") (Ex. 197, Ex. 230) and Blonde's aria „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" in Die Entführung (2/4 ä 1), (Ex. 196) have already served as examples. Comparing the 16th notes in the Allegro „4/8" of the fourth movement of the String Quartet K 590 (Ex. 252) with those in the Allegro 2/4 (a 1) of the Janissaries' chorus (Ex. 253) we can clearly see the difference between the two metres: the former is slower. Ex. 253: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 5b Chorus of the Janissaries, „Singt dem großen Bassa Lieder", b. 4 The Andante „4/8" of Papageno's „Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen" (Ex. 213) is also slower than his „Der Vo gelfänger bin ich ja" in ,simple' 2/4 metre (Ex. 235); the Andantino 2/4 (2/8+2/8) o f the Countess's „Dove sono i bei momenti" (Ex. 220) is slower than Guglielmo's „Non siate ritrosi" (2/4 ä 1) (Ex. 237); Susanna's Allegretto „4/8" „Venite inginocchiatevi" (Ex. 228, Ex. 254) is slower than the tender homage duettino in Fi nale III of Figaro „Amanti costanti" in 2/4 (a 1) metre (Ex. 255), which from b. 186 turns into a magnificent march with chorus, timpani and trumpets („Cantiamo, lodiamo"): A- man- ti co- stan- ti se- gua- ci d’o- nor, Ex. 255: Figaro, K492, no. 23 Finale III, b. 73 and 186 Mozart's Tempo-System 163 About the relation of 4/4 metre to 4/8 we hear from G. W. Fink: „The characteristic difference of the C [4/4] metre from compound 2/4 metre [4/8] is, that for the first the heavy, for the other the light accent is essential. The first kind of 2/4 metre [4/8] as compared with 4/4 is just the same as 3/8 compared with 3/4." (see p. 346) Our first rule o fthum b had been: if the classes of note values are equal, one bar in 2/2 corresponds roughly to one bar in 4/4 with the next higher degree o f tempo: Adagio 2/2= Larghetto 4/4; Larghetto 2/2=Andante 4/4; Andante 2/2=Allegretto 4/4; Allegretto 2/2 = Allegro 4/4; Allegro 2/2 = Allegro molto 4/4; Allegro molto 2/2=Allegro assai 4/4; Allegro assai 2/2=Presto 4/4. Our second rule o fthum b corresponds to it: if the classes of note values are equal, one bar in 2/4 (a 1) corresponds roughly to one bar in „4 /8" with the next higher degree o f tempo: Adagio 2/4=Larghetto „4 /8 "; Larghetto 2/4 =Andante „4/8"; Andante 2/4= Allegretto „4/8"; Allegretto 2/4= Allegro „4/8"; Allegro 2/4= Allegro molto „4/8". Both rules of thumb refer solely to the mere s p e e d o f execution. The hierarchy of emphases, dynamics and m a n n e r ofplaying remain unaffected. 164 Mozart's Tempo-System g) ,Simple' - or ,short' - 6/8 metre It has contributed much to the confusion about Mozart's tempi that the „double nature" of both 2/4 and 6/8 metre has fallen into oblivion. Out of Mozart's 146 movements in 6/8 metre only 29 are in what is today understood by this time signature: namely what Marpurg and Koch (among others) had called „mixed" 6/8 metres. Though not marked as such, they are basically 2/4 metres with triplets, which is why they appear here among the even metres. Usually they are confused with the 6/8 metres compounded of two 3/8 metres, which we shall look at in the group of uneven metres - though, because of their binary combination of two 3/8 metres to one 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8), they also have an aspect of even metre.— Although ,short' 6/8 metres have the same metrical structure as 2/4 (a 1) metres - the first half of the bar stressed, the second unstressed - their tempo, even with an identical verbal indication, is only in few ca ses the same; most o fthe ,simple' 6/8 metres are modules in their own right. Mozart uses ,simple' 6/8 metre frequently for fast pieces and for setting music to lyrics which are in the poetic metre anapaest or dactylus, such as „Pace, / pace, mio dolce te-/ soro" (Ex. 260), „Vostre / dunque saran queste / carte" (Figaro Finale II, b. 609), „Giovi-/ nette che fatte all'a-/ more" (Ex. 263). In order to avoid false scansion, he gives them a textbook setting with only one essential harmony per bar - as in Barbarina's Cavatina in offonano-metre „L'ho perduta, me meschina",— the anxious minor key of which does not need a tempo word (Ex. 256): Ex. 256: Figaro, K492, no. 24 Cavatina Barbarina, b .10 Following Logier's example112 - and by analogy with the above discussed ,short' 4/4 metre - I shall call the ,simple' 6/8 metre ,short'; the compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre may be called ,long' or ,medium'. Adagio 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K280 Piano Sonata in F, 2nd movement (Ex. 257) te Adagio je r * . }■ f W f T B f e i M B m 4 — i l ] / 0 1 K 280, II, m. 1+19 ! ^ fr Ex. 257: Piano Sonata in F, K280, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 19 The Adagio of the Piano Sonata in F, K 280 (Ex. 257) begins with whole-bar accentuation as a virtual 2/4 metre with only one harmony per bar and - except in b. 20 - exclusively with 16th notes as smallest note values. Already from b. 9, however, alternating harmonies prepare the compound 6/8 metre (3 + 3) which governs bars 1 7-24 and 53-60.450 Glenn Gould's too slow tempo of MM J)=72-60 (1967 recording) forced him to omit both repeats. K 280/II is a little brother to the Adagio of K 488 (Ex. 333), composed 11 years later, which has two harmonies in nearly every bar and has 16th-note triplets and 32nd notes ; it is there fore clearly slower. Adagio 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes * K 186 Divertimento in B flat for wind, 4th movement (Ex. 258) — More extensively treated in Breidenstein's essay „ Mozarts Fempo-System. Zusammengesetzte Fakte als Schlüssel" in: Mozart Studien 13, 2004. 111 Figaro, No. 24. The traditional - perfectly fitting - term „Andante” is unfortunately not autograph. — J. B. Logier's term „short" for the simple and „long" for the compound 6/8 metre seems to me, because of its figurativeness, very practicable (System der Musik-Wissenschaft und der praktischen Composition, 1827, p. 285). + Kirnberger calls the ,simple' metre also a „bo rn " metre, in: Anleitung zur Singekomposition ('Guide to Vocal Composition'), p .11 ,1 782 [app. p. 282]. 450 See the excursus „Virtual changes of metre" p. 115. Mozart's Tempo-System 165 Adagio ^ K 186, IV [7 “ - —a n * . P f i , r W 7 7p r m Ex. 258: Divertimento in B flat for wind, K 186, 4th movement The siciliano-like Adagio 6/8 in the Divertimento for wind, K186 (Ex. 258) which has no relevant 16th notes, meets the criteria of a „tripletised" 2/4 metre having only one emphasis per bar and only auxiliary or passing harmonies. Andante 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 19 Aria Despina „Una donna a quindici anni" (Ex. 259) Ex. 259: Cos/ fan tutte, K 588, no. 19 Aria Despina „Una donna" The tempo word „Andante" is deceptive. Like Papageno's Andante 2/4 „Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja" in ,simple 2/4 metre (Ex. 198, Ex. 235) it is often taken as Allegretto. O f course it is slower than „Pace, pace, mio dolce tesoro" (Ex. 260) which has only 8th notes. The 6/8 metre of Despina's attack on Fiordiligi's and Dorabella's morals seems to be a module in its own right. Mozart inserts again and again compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metres between those with whole-bar accentuation (b. 4, 8, 12, 20), but the 16th notes are considerably more animated than in the Andante of Osmin's compound 6/8 metre „O Engländer, seid ihr nicht Toren" (Ex. 348). Out of high spirits Despina would really prefer to dance the following Allegretto 6/8 with 16th notes („Dee in un momento dar retta a cento"); it is likewise metrically mixed, and even puts cheeky forte accents on the second half of the bar (b. 36, etc.). The instability of the metre suits her frivolous programme of seduction for fifteen-year-old girls extremely well. ^ with 8th notes - K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 605 „Vostre dunque saran queste carte" * K492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 275 „Pace, pace, mio dolce tesoro" (Ex.260) Ex. 260: Figarof K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 285 (b. 11 of theAndanfe 6/8) There is a case of inner change of metre in „Pace, pace" (see p. 116): after a beginning in whole-bar ac centuation (the changing harmonies create no second emphasis), emotionally loaded syncopations in b. 289 and 291 define temporarily a compound 6/8 (3 + 3) metre with two emphases per bar. Four bars later the 6/8 (a 1) metre reigns again; in b. 309 and 311 there are again half bar syncopations. Figaro, in order to deceive the „bizarre lover" (as he and Susanna dub the Count), goes down on his knees before Susanna (who is disguised as the Countess) with an expressive trill on the second half o fthe bar and in b. 314 16 with syncopations gesturally delayed to the weakest part of the bar. The Count reacts like an attacking bull with furious forte tiratas that lead to the second half of the bar and ugly, dissonant seconds of jealousy in the horns (b. 324-25). Allegretto mä moderato 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes K 344 Zaide, no. 5 Duetto Zaide/Gomatz „Meine Seele hüpft vor Freuden" 166 Mozart's Tempo-System Allegretto 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 1 Introduction, b. 120 „Ich sollte / ich sollte / ich sollte fort!" (Ex. 261) K 588 Cos/ fan tutte , no. 12 Aria Despina, b. 24 „D i pasta simile son tutti quanti" K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 19 Aria Despina, b. 21 „Dee in un momento dar retta a cento" Ex. 261: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 1 Introduction, b. 123 Even though the „cat fight" of the Three Ladies and Despina's cheeky aphorisms have here and there two harmonies per bar, they cannot be compared to pieces like „Seid uns zum zweiten Mal willkommen" of the Three Boys in Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 362) or to Don Giovanni's Canzonetta „Deh vieni alla finestra", whose Allegretto 6/8 are considerably slower, since they are compounded of two 3/8 metres. Unlike the Andante 6/8 without 16th notes, however, neither can they be convincingly related to the corresponding 2/4 metres (e.g. the Allegretto ä 1 of „Amanti costanti", Ex. 255). They form a module of their own just like the Allegro 6/8 with 16th notes in whole-bar accentuation of the Piano Concertos in B flat K 595 (Ex. 262) and E flat K 482 and the Piano and Violin Sonata in D, K 306. Allegro 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 595 Piano Concerto in B flat, 3rd movement (Ex. 262) - K 482 Piano Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement - K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata in D, 3rd movement, b. 249 Allegro , f K 595, III, I m. 1i 9 f 128 »m , ^ 5 ^ 128 r * ■f- # i m u m ' f f m-0-m 0T~ • ^ !S ^ : /T\' Ex. 262: Piano concerto in B flat, K 595, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 128 ^ with 8th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 5 Chorus „Giovinette che fatte all' amore" (Ex. 263, Ex. 331) - K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 273 „Riposate, vezzose ragazze" - K 481 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 3rd movement, Variation VI - K 447 Horn Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement Ex. 263: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 5 Chorus, b .17 and 35 The Allegros in 6/8 metre w ithout 16th notes on our list („Giovinette", „Riposate", etc.) correspond again approximately to the 2/4 pieces with whole-bar accentuation and with the same characteristics, for instance Blonde's aria „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 270). But today it is often forgotten that these mo vements have no additional term accelerating their Allegro. „Giovinette" e.g. usually storms „brilliantly" ahead without consideration for the dotted rhythms and dance-like counter-accents of bars 37-38, etc. Mozart's Tempo-System 167 There are still at least three more gradations of tempo, however, before Allegro assai 6/8 (a 1) („Nun troll dich", Ex. 264)! Allegro agitato 6/8 (a 1) ^ with 8th notes - K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 22 Cavatina Sandrina „Ah dal pianto, dal singhiozzo respirar" Allegro vivace 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 338 Symphony in C, 3rd movement „Vif, vivace: animated mouvement, hearty execution full of fire. It is n o t a matter of speeding up the beat, but giving it w a r m th . " 451 Molto allegro 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 33 Final Chorus „Alma Dea tutto il Mondo governa" Allegro assai 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 9 Duett Blonde/Osmin, b. 83 „Nun troll dich" (Ex. 264) In spite of the passing harmonies in b. 83 and 87, the belligerently syncopated subdominants on the se cond halves of bars 91-96 and the battle of words and harmonies in b. 123-130, this piece is no com pound 6/8 metre. Presto 6/8 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 2 Lied and Duett Osmin/Belmonte, b. 176 „Schert Euch zum Teufel" (Ex. 265) The furious harem guard takes care of Mozart's only P res to 6/8, The changes in harmony are passing, and do not cause a change of metre. Very fine, how Belmonte interrupts him asymmetrically after 11 (instead of 12) bars and then, after another 11, Osmin him. 451 J.J.O. de Meude-Monpas: „Vif, vivace: Mouvement anime, execution hardie et pleine de feu. H ne s'agit pas de häter la mesure, mais de lu i donner de la c h a l e u r . " (Dictionnaire de Musique, 1 787, p. 210.). 168 Mozart's Tempo-System h) 12/8 (6/8+6/8) metre M a t t h e s o n : „This is very well suited to pieces ä la moderne, because, although its segments have the same value as those of 6/8, the doubled number of them bound together with the extended „mouvement" and speed of the attached eighth notes produce a certain gravity and the otherwise skipping metre is used for the tenderest and most moving pieces. In earlier times this metre was used for nothing other than speedy pieces, such as gigues and the like [Idomeneo no. 18, Ex. 266]; as is still done to a certain extent nowadays, however, rather than merry, it serves for sad and touchingaffects."452 [Mozart's Requiem, Lacrimosa] Türk: „ If the metre were of no significance, a composition with four beats could without disadvan tage be transferred into one with two beats (for example 12/8 into 6/8). But this - irrespective of the resulting mistakes in the composition itself - would by no means be of no concern for the per former. For in 12/8, the main emphasis falls only on the first beat, and consequently the seventh eighth note may not be so fully emphasized (marked) as the first; while in 6/8, forming groups of six eighth notes, the seventh is accented as strongly as the first."453 K ir n b e r g e r : „A metre compounded of four times 3/8 [3/8 + 3/8 + 3/8 + 3/8], which would be made in such a way that one could close on the second or fourth beat, cannot occur."454 Mozart used 12/8 metre for only four of his known pieces. The tempo words for the fourth movements of the symphonies K 48 and K 133 come from the editor of the NMA. An autograph tempo word has survived only for the Allegro assai of the stormy finale chorus „Corriamo, fuggiamo" of Idomeneo, Act II (Ex. 266). Its 12/8 metre is compounded of two ,simple' 6/8 metres of the type „Nun troll dich" (Ex. 264). The 16th note slides are not relevant for the tempo; but the piece is also not indicated by Presto like „Schert euch zum Teufel" (Ex.265). Allegro assai K 366, no. 18, m. 5 1/2 Cor-ria- mo, fug- gia- mo quel mo- stro spie- ta- to! cor- ria- mo, cop _ 6 = “ _l Ex. 266: Idomeneo, K 366, no. 18 Chorus, b. 51/2 „Corriamo, fuggiamo" In the Quartett no. 16 in Die Entführung (b. 208) Mozart sets a quarrelsome 12/8-counterpoint for Blonde in a virtual Allegro assai („Nein, das kann ich dir nicht schenken, nein!") against the urgent plea for forgiveness of Pedrillo and Belmonte in a soft Allegretto 2/2 („Liebstes Blondchen, ach, verzeihe!", Ex. 064). At the other end of Mozart's scale of possibilities of expression of a 12/8 metre are the first eight bars of the slow, verbally unlabelled „Lacrimosa" in the Requiem. 452 Mattheson, Das neu eröffnete Orchestre {'The Newly Revealed Orchestra'), part 1, chap. III, §11 and chap. IV, § 3 [app. p. 339]. 453 Türk, Klavierschule {'School ofClavier Playing'), p. 96, § 59 [app. p. 300]. 454 Kirnberger, Anleitung zur Singekomposition {'Guide to Vocal Composition'), p .10 [app. p. 282]. Mozart's Tempo-System 169 2) The U neven M etres Michael Praetorius still had 14 signs for the proportions of the different kinds of Tactus inaequalis;455 Mattheson named only 6 uneven metres as „practical"; the meticulous Kirnberger made a list of 10 „simple uneven metres" and 3 „compound" ones.456 Mozart used only five of them: the ,light' and ,heavy" 3/4 metres (see below), 3/8 and 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre; and a few times in his youth also 3/2 metre. As show n on p. 022, the „na tura l te m p o " o f uneven metres in the 18th Century was live lie r than tha t o f even metres. „I tem pi d ispari, per la natura dei te rzo tem po della loro m isura, hanno maggior vivacitä che i tem p i p a ri."457 Their o rig in from the tr ip le t- like sesquialtera o f the 1 7th Century could have been a reason fo r that. Johann Adolph Scheibe understood the uneven metres (3/2, 3/4, 3/8) as consisting o f f w o parts: the first long, the second short, or the first short and the second long, which didn't leave to the second half of the „long" part of the bar any value of its own and made the bar so-to-speak „shrink" from externally three to intrinsically only two values. This can be observed in many pieces of Mozart's (see Ex. 267, Ex. 272, Ex. 274, Ex. 276, etc.). The second part of the bar was then joined to the next bar as an „anacrusis" (up-beat), whereby it received a relatively greater weight compared with the lightest beat (the 2 nd, respectively 3rd one).458 The quarter notes of the whole-bar accentuated „Fandango"— in Finale III of Figaro (3/4, Ex. 267) are for instance faster than those in Papageno's song „Der Vogelfänger bin ich ja" (2/4, Ex. 268) in spite of being marked with the same tempo word: Ex. 267: Figaro, K492, no. 23 Finale III, b. 132 (Fandango) Andante K 620, no. 2, m. 27 m d m Der Vo- gel- fän- - ger bin ich ja, stets lu- stig hei- ßa hop- sa- sa! Ex. 268: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 2 Aria Papageno, b. 27 Likewise quarter notes in the Allegro 3/4 of the first movement of the Symphony in E flat, K 543 (Ex. 269), are faster than those in Blonde's Allegro 2/4 „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (Ex. 270), although in both cases sixteenths are the smallest relevant note values. m :< , I J ' r ß ¥ 4 4 * p ---- p- ' ■ " s 1 - — i Ex. 269: Symphony in E flat, K 543, 1st movement, b. 26 455 Michael Praetorius, Syntagma musicum, 1614, p. 52 456 Kirnberger/Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes ('The Art o f Strict Musical Composition '), p. 127-130; 132 [app. p. 279] 457 „The uneven metres have, by the nature of the third beat of their bar, a greater vivacity than the even ones." (Carlo Gervasoni, La Scuola della Musica in tre parti divisa, 1800, vol. I, part 2, p. 1 70, § 6.) 458 See: J.A. Scheibe, Ueber die musikalische Composition ('About Musical Composition'), 1773) [app. p. 340]; ^ and G.W. Fink, Ueber Takt, Taktarten und ihr Charakteristisches ('About the Bar, Metres and their Characteristics'), letter No. 13 [app. p. 345]. — Bar 132, indication „Fandango" in the stage direction. Mozart quotes here the Fandango from Gluck's „Don Juan"-ballet. ^ See also: Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), 1802 [app. p. 313]. 170 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 270: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 12 Aria Blonde, b. 9 Since the theorists of the 18th Century have not commented on it, probably a special study would be needed to find out why uneven metres were the more animated. As in the metamorphosis of the alla breve metre from the intellectual proportional System of the musica mensuralis to the pulsating 2/2 metre of the classical period, the music of minstrels and trouveres seems to have played a role in the liberation of the triple metres, which migrated through courtly fashionable dances to ambitiously demanding compositions. Their secular rhythm, full of life, created Chaconnes, Passacailles, Gaillards, Courantes etc. in triple time - and finally the minuet which was then to dominate for 150 years.460 K ir n b e r g e r / Sc h u l z said straightforwardly: "Three-four metre. Its natural tempo is that of the minuet."461 However, since from 100 years before until 100 years after Kirnberger (i.e. far into the age of the Viennese waltz) the „ Queen o f all dances" for its part underwent a tempo development from extremely fast to extremely slow, let us rather compare the other movements among each other before we take on M o zart's minuets. Next to 4/4 time, 3/4 time was with 750 movements462 Mozart's most important metre. If we ignore Minuets and other dances in 3/4 metre for the time being, autograph verbal tempo indications have survived for 219 movements in 3/4 metre. Great discrepancies appear in classifying them. K irn ber g er /S c h u l z 1 776: „The character of 3/4 metre is entirely different when quarter notes are used almost exclusively throughout than when many eighths and even still smaller notes occur."463 M a r p u r g 1 763: „3/4 m e tre . [...] A distinction is made between l ig h t and h e a vy th re e - fo u r m e tre . In l ig h t 3/4 metre where generally there are three kinds of notes - the half note, the quarter note and the eighth note - and the character of which can be recognized from m in u e ts , one counts only in quarter notes. In h e a vy 3/4 metre where sixteenth and often thirty-second notes are very frequent, one counts in eighth notes."464 We therefore cannot avoid examining pieces in 3/4 metre - like those in 2/4 metre - for their smallest dass of note values and the number of harmonic steps. It is often not easy to decide which of the smal lest notes are relevant for the tempo and which are only decoration; which of the harmonies are frame work and which are only transitional. In slow movements one must sometimes consider if Mozart had perhaps imagined still smaller virtual notes, but did not realize them for the sake of calm and simplicity. Marpurg himself says: „Both metres, the light and the heavy three-four, are often found mixed in such a way that one cannot ascertain whether the example belongs to the former or to the latter metre."465 Since the decision has significant consequences on tempo and character, I have rearranged the order of the movements in my lists countless times, and must furthermore reserve the right to err. I regard the compilations only as a Stimulus for the interpreter to establish for himself the criteria of the 18th Century which I am trying to demonstrate here. In view of Mozart's frequent changes of structure and virtual metre (see p. 116) an intensive and comparative study of the scores beyond the first few bars is indispen sable. In my examination of the sacred and secular pieces in 3/4 metre with autograph tempo indications I have found 109 pieces (not counting dances) belonging to the ,light' and 110 to the ,heavy' 3/4 metre. A comparison between the first movement of the Piano Concerto in C minor, K 491 (Ex. 271) and Donna Elvira's aria „Ah fuggi il traditor" (Ex. 272), both of them in 3/4 Allegro with 16th notes, one of them in ,light', the other in ,heavy' 3/4 metre, makes the dichotomy of 3/4 metres clear at first sight. 460 Curt Sachs, Rhythm and Tempo, 1953, p. 281 ff. 461 Kirnberger/ Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o fS trict Musical Composition), II, 1 776, p. 129, 3; [app. p. 278]. 462 Minuets and dances in series included. 463 Kirnberger / Schulz), Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o fS trict Musical Composition'), II, p. 133 [app. p. 279]. 464 Marpurg, Anleitung zur Musik überhaupt {'Guide to Music in general'), 1 763, p. 88, chap. 6, § 4 [app. p. 335]. 465 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst {'Critical Letters about the Art o f Music'), vol. II, 67th letter, p. 24, § 78 [app. p. 334]. Mozart's Tempo-System 171 Allegro M K 491, I Ex. 271: Piano concerto in C minor, K491, 1st movement Ex. 272: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 8 Aria Donna Elvira „Ah fuggi il traditor", b. 8 a) the whole-bar ,light' 3/4 metre Let us begin with the 95 secular movements in ,light' 3/4 metre that have autograph tempo indications (without minuets, tempi di Menuetto and other dances). How do metre+smallest dass of note values+tempo word jointly define their mouvement, i.e. character, manner of playing and speed of execution? Since the only Largo with its 32nd notes and 64th tiratas belongs to the ,heavy' 3/4 metres, Adagio is the slowest indication among ,light' 3/4 metres. Adagio 3/4 ä 1 ^ with 16th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 9 Aria Sesto „Parto, parto, ma tu ben mio" (Ex. 273) * K 546 Adagio and Fugue in C minor, 1st movement (Ex. 274) * K516 String Quintet in G minor, 4th movement * K 497 Sonata in F for piano four-hands, 1st movement * K 465 String Quartet in C (Dissonance Quartet), 1st movement * K 425 Symphony in C (Linz Symphony), 1st movement - K411 Adagio in B flat for 2 clarinets and 3 basset horns * K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 5th movement, Romance - K 266 Adagio and Menuetto in B flat for 2 violins and double-bass, 1st movement, Adagio - K 253 Divertimento in F for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement, Variation V * K 207 Violin Concerto in B flat, 2nd movement * [K 622 Clarinet Concerto, 2nd movement] (tem poword inauthentic) Ex. 273: La Clemenza di Tito, K 621, no. 9 Aria Sesto „Parto, parto", b. 4 and 22 Among Adagios with 32nd notes and those with 16th notes it is sometimes not easy to differentiate bet ween movements in ,light' (a 1) and in ,heavy' (a 3) 3/4 metres. Sesto's aria in Tito („Parto, parto")— has 32nd note triplets, it's true (b. 23); nevertheless the metric of the vocal line seems to me to flow so unambiguously in whole-bar accentuation that the virtuosic arabesques of the basset-clarinet, which depict — No. 9. Delightful is the scattering apart o fth e violin figures at „Parto" („I leave") b. 4-5, and their reunion in rising thirds in b. 8 w ith „ben m io"! 172 Mozart's Tempo-System Sesto's turmoil of feelings (and which continue with equal virtuosity in the Allegro and Allegro assai) do not have to be evaluated as relevant for the tempo. It is the same case with the second movement of the Clarinet Concerto K 622: its tempo term „Adagio" originates with the orchestral parts of 1801 and seems plausible, but (though not so marked in the NMA) is unfortunately not autograph. The Adagios of the the Sonata for piano four-hands K 497, the „Dissonance" Quartet K 465, the Serenade K 361 and the Violin Concerto K 207 have, in spite of their 16th notes, with only one harmony per bar whole-bar accentuation. The counting unit is the quarter note. The categorization of the Adagios of the „Linz" Symphony", K 425— and of K 546 (Ex. 274) is more difficult: Adagio , Adagio and Fugue in C minor, K 546 i f f . . £ « « / Ex. 274: Adagio and Fugue in C minor for strings, K 546, 1st movement The rugged rhythm of their first bars seems to have three emphases in spite of harmony steps in whole bars; yet after virtual changes of metre, whole-bar accentuation subsequently dominates - chameleon-like - again and again. Seemingly paradoxically for an Adagio all of these movements are therefore in ,light' 3/4 metre. A comparison with pieces full of 32nd notes or 16th note triplets which are clearly in ,heavy' 3/4 time, such as the third movement of the String Quartet in D, K 499 (Ex. 309), and the second of the String Quartet K 593 (Ex. 310), can help to distinguish between movements in ,light' (a 1) and those in ,heavy' (a 3) 3/4 metres; in the second movement of the Flute Quartet in D, K 285 (Ex. 275), the shaping of the melody and continuous pizzicato 16th notes in the accompaniment achieve an active subdivision of the beats, making the metre ,heavy': Ada§ '° - -— ^ k K 285, i n i JL. IF i t o i P lFpizz. P ■ f e i ; i £ mizz. Ppiz Ex. 275: Flute Quartet in D, K285, 2nd movement (3/4 ä 3) [Adagio 3/4 (ä 1)] ^ with 8th notes * K 594 Adagio (and Allegro) in F minor for a mechanical organ (I6 th notes only passing) J with quarter notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 10 Aria Sarastro „O Isis und Osiris, schenket" (Ex. 276) (8th notes only passing) - K527 Don Giovanni, 2nd act, Seena XI, b. 59 „Ribaldo, audace, lascia a'morti la pace" - K 166 Divertimento in E flat for wind, 4th movement — It's true that the autograph has not survived, but the tempo word stems from copies of orchestral parts supervised by Leopold and is also in the incipit of the piece in the „lis t of my latest offspring^ in Mozart's letter from 08.08.1786 (no. 974 - not included here). Mozart's Tempo-System 173 Ex. 276: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 10 Aria (with Chorus) Sarastro ( ä i) „The character o f 3/4 appears to be gentle and noble, particularly when it consists only, or at least mostly, o f quarter notes" (Kirnberger). That is exactly the case with Sarastro's aria „O Isis und Osiris". Its tempo giusto, alone, w ithout tempo word, could be the basis of a minuet as well. The adjective Adagio „adds slowness to the natural tempo" and increases at the same time the heaviness of the manner of playing. Our method of making comparisons between different modules shows that, if we take Mozart's indicati ons seriously, Sarastro's singing-tempo must be distinctly more fluent than the above mentioned 3/4 Adagios with 16th notes and whole-bar accentuation. His intention was obviously no „Adagio" in the sense of the 19th Century. 3/2 time was probably too ,churchy' for him, 3/8 in any case too ,frolicsome'. However, he surely did not mean us to bathe in the sound of a complacently full bass voice, after which one would feel obliged to become a follower of the Isis-cult. Larghetto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 2 Aria Vitellia „Deh se piacermi vuoi" - K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 29 Duetto Fiordiligi/Ferrando, b. 76 „Volgi a me pietoso il ciglio!" * K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 173 Quartetto „E nel tuo, nel mio bicchiero" (Ex. 277) * K 492 Figaro, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 109 „Tutto e tranquillo e placido" ( i6 th notes mostly virtual) (Ex. 278) - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 1 Arietta Madame Herz „Da schlägt die Abschiedsstunde" - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 27a Aria Idamante, b. 58 „Agli Elisi andro contento" Larghetto K 588, no. 31, m. 173 In spite of the angry 32nd note-coloratura in b. 42-43, Mozart speeded up the original Adagio of Vitellia's aria to L a r g h e t to , making it still more agitated than Sesto's turmoil of feelings in his Adagio-aria (Ex. 273). In a seeming contradiction the A d a g i o of Sarastro's aria „O Isis und Osiris" (Ex. 276) - if it is not misunderstood - is less slow than the L a r g h e t t o of for instance the wonderful quartet in Cosi no. 31, b. 173 (Ex. 277), since its wide arcs Stretch only across quarter notes. Amongst the garden scenery in Figaro Finale IV the Larghetto's evenly flowing harmonies, soft triplets and tones of the clarinets sound a deceptively peaceful and calm mood (Ex. 278); by suppressing bars, how ever, three-bar periods take shape that show Figaro's jealous uneasiness. His nerves tense up in wholebar legato arcs (from b. 115): 174 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ with Ex. 278: Figaro, K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 109 8 notes - K 593 String Quintet in D, 1st movement („Adagio" in Mozart's catalogue) Andante sostenuto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 583 „Vado, ma dove?", aria for soprano and orch., b. 38 „Tu che mi parli al core" (Ex. 279) - K 431 „Misero! O sogno", Recit. and aria for tenor and orch.; aria „Aura, che intorno spiri" 42 (Andante sostenuto) K 583, m. 42 + 67 ________________ ( Tu che mi par- lial dubi- tar t fa. 1 = Ex. 279: Aria for soprano and orchestra „Vado, ma dove?", K 583, „Tu che mi parli al core", b. 42 and 67 The Andante sostenuto of the insert aria for a certain Madama Lucilla is a little more fluent than Figaro's Larghetto. In „Tu che mi parli al core" the legato slurs of the violins show the whole-bar structure. Andante 3/4 (a 1) L 1 with 16th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 278 „Tamino mein! O welch ein Glück!" (Ex. 281) (b. 331 „W ir wandeln durch des Tones Macht" Ex. 282) - K619 Die ihr des Weltalls, Cantata, no. 1, b. 27 „Liebt mich in meinen Werken!" (16ths virtual) - K527 Don Giovanni, no. 13 Finale I, b. 92 „Tra quest' arbori celata" * K 492 Figaro, no. 23 Finale III, b. 132 (Fandango) „Eh, giä solita usanza" (Ex. 267, Ex. 280) - K 486 Der Schauspieldirektor, no. 3 Terzett, b.113 „Kein Künstler muß den ändern tadeln" * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 20 Duett Konstanze/Belmonte, b. 24 „Meinetwegen sollst du sterben?" (Ex. 283) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 16 Terzetto „Pria di partir, oh Dio!" - K114 Symphony in A, 2nd movement - K113 Divertimento in E flat, 2nd movement - K42 Grabmusik, Cantata, no. 3 Duetto Engel/Seele: „Jesu, was hab' ich getan?" The module A n d a n t e 3/4 (a 1) with 16th notes should remind us of Leopold Mozart's dictum: „Andante has much in common with Allegretto",— and of Jean-Jacques Rousseau who named it as corresponding to „Gracieusement". The already quoted ,Fandango' in Finale III of Figaro with its whole-bar accentuation could be a reference-tempo: — Originally: „Allegretto has much in common w ith Andante." Leopold Mozart, Violinschule ('School o f Violin Playing'), p. 48 f). [app. p. 272]) Mozart's Tempo-System 175 Ex. 280: Figaro, K492, no. 23 Finale III, b. 132 (Fandango)— As a dance, this Fandango does not run the same risk of being overstretched by a ponderous physical ,walking' as Pamina's „Tamino mein!" (Ex. 281) which is burdened by romantic tradition. Enjoying her beautiful voice it often becomes a Larghetto, though the listener ought to experience her first four bars as one phrase. pizzicato Ex. 281: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 278 and 290 Wrongly referring the tempo word Andante to the beat kills the dramatic excitement of the reunion scene in which Pamina, so gushing with joy that she can no longer contain herseif (her „overflowing" top note) promises - in effusive whole-bar legato - support for the anxious hero before the life-threatening trial (b. 294). The stiff opera-seria character of traditional performances, so unsuited to the idealistic teenagers, produces in the following quartet an unbearable droning of the two long chains of eighth notes (b. 332 334 and 341-343) that describe „walking j o y f u l l y through the night of death by the power o fthe flute's tone". (Ex. 282): Ex. 282: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 332 Konstanze's and Belmonte's highly excited farewell duet before their supposed death („Meinetwegen [für mich] sollst du sterben!") has often suffered as well from misunderstanding the Andante as referring to the quarter note. Since, in addition, the final Allegro („Ich w ill alles gerne leiden") has not been recognized as a ,short' 4/4 metre (i.e. w ithout 16th notes and therefore faster, see p. 106) its 205 bars used to become so tedious that in the old Peters edition „possible" cuts of altogether 55 bars were marked and a further 26 were recommended by „vi-de". Andante K 384, no. 20, m. 24 = 1 f ^ T T i ws / P s f ' 1 ä s m Mei- net- we- gen sollst du ster- ben! Ach Kon- stan- ze kann ich's wa- gen, noch die Au- gen auf- zu- schla- gen? cf/ f p f p Ex. 283: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 20 Duett Konstanze/Belmonte, b. 24=1 — „A dance w ith a very affectionate character" (Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), 1802, col. 554 [app. p. 313]. 176 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ with 8th notes - K188 Divertimento in C for 2 fl, 5 tpt, 4 timp, 1st movement * K168 String Quartet in F ,2 nd movement (Ex. 284) - K 141a Symphony in D ,2 nd movement - K126 II sogno di Scipione, Overture, b. 136 (identical w ith symphony in D, K 141a, 2nd mov.) - K118 Betulia liberata, no. 13 Aria Achior „Te solo adoro, mente infinita" [Andante 3/4 (ä 1)] 2 9 I M , J |& . Ü * - 4: A f ------------ Ex. 284: String Quartet in F, K 168, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 29 Andante grazioso 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 3rd movement, Concertante (Ex. 285) i Andante grazioso P I m i ® f W m KV 320, III, m. 1+75 ^ n t' Ex. 285: Serenade (Posthorn), K 320, 3rd movement Concertante, b. 1 and 75 More animated than A n d a n t e 3/4 (ä 1) with 16th notes is A n d a n t e g ra z io s o . It may be remembered that Mozart later changed the term Andante grazioso e con moto in K 306 to Allegretto.— „Grazioso" demands a light manner of playing and a lighter tempo of the Andante. The changing and passing harmonies of the Concertante do not jeopardize the whole-bar character of its metre; the sixteenth notes in b. 75ff are only displaced passing eighth notes. Andante con moto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 4 Aria Leporello, b. 85 „Nella bionda egli ha l'usanza" (Ex. 286) P f P vi-de p Ex. 286: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 4 Aria Leporello, b. 85 and 102-103 (b. 104-105 idem.) Andante con moto („Animated walking"). Leporello's cynical list of Don Giovanni's erotically preferred types of women loses malice if the conductor, after rendering the first part of the Aria (Allegro 4/4) too fast as a misunderstood 2/2 metre, takes the second as a clumsy sarabande in three heavy Andanfe-steps. — See also p. 211/212 the comparison of the Allegretto Terzett no. 16 Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 362) w ith the clearly faster quartet no. 22 in Cosi fan tutte marked Allegretto g r a z i o s o ! (Ex. 364). Mozart's Tempo-System 177 The tormenting, overlong repetitions of the motive of b. 101 four times in b. 102-105 then comes to a standstill w ithout any expression (Ex. 286). "Con moto, with movement. This term where it is used as heading indicates that the piece is to be executed with life and strongly, and the tempo not too dragging". (Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon app. p. 313) One may compare this Andante con moto 3/4 (a 1) with its whole-bar harmonies and legato-bowing slurs, with the similarly marked 2nd movement of the Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, K 380, in ,heavy' 3/4 metre, where in some places the harmony changes every eighth note (b. 21, 35ff) - and even this is still con moto (Ex. 287)! (Andante con moto) 35 L .......... Î T"T'| 7 i i 7 i ̂ U I Viol. Klav. io crescendo f K 380, II, m. 35 f l f Ex. 287: Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, K 380, 2nd movement, b. 35 Andantino sostenuto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 6 Aria Idomeneo „Vedrommi intorno l'ombra dolente" (Ex. 288) 5 (Andantino sostenuto) k 366, no. 6, m. 5 . ■ • ’f l - ■■ s & J - -P P P m mp p8 Ve- drom- mi in J JJ Tom- bra do- J JJ len- te, -h t tr Ex. 288: Idomeneo, K 366, no. 6 Aria Idomeneo, b. 5 The dialectics of the combined term Andantino (faster than Andante) + sostenuto („sostenuto, grave, that is with sustained, not short and separated tones"471) has already been mentioned in connection with the 2/4 (4/8) metre of „Dalla sua pace" (p. 146, Ex. 219). Here the sostenuto concerns above all the quarter notes in the basses that are to be bowed legato and the syncopations of the first violins. Andantino cantabile 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 482 Piano Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement, b.218 (Ex. 289) Andantino cantabile K 482, III, m. 218 Andantino (more flowing than Andante) plus cantabile = „singable, always a little slowly" (Hiller) and legato. The short runs in 32nd notes in b. 261 and 262 have no consequence for the basic tempo. 471 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), 1 789, p .1 1 6 ,§ 7 8 [app. p. 301 ]. 178 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ with 16th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 20 Aria Tito, b. 55 „Se la fe de' regni miei"— (Ex. 290) - K 368 „Ma che vi fece, o stelle", Recit. and Aria for soprano and orch.; aria „Sperai vicino il lido" - K 208 II re pastore, no. 10 Rondeaux Aminta „L'amero, saro costante" - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b. 319 „Se quello non sono, che gli ho persuaso" - K 38 Apollo und Hyacinth, no. 3 Aria Apollo „Jam pastor Apollo" Andantino 3/4 (ä 1) Ex. 290: La Clemenza di Tito, K 621, no. 20 Aria Tito, b. 55 and 69 One may compare the middle part of the very resolute aria of Tito with the 5th movement of the Posthorn Serenade, K 320 (Andantino 3/4 a_3 with 16th notes, Ex. 325), in order either to understand or perhaps reject its placing here as 3/4 a 1. Grazioso 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 19 Aria llia „Zeffiretti lusinghieri, deh volate al mio tesoro" (Ex. 291) Grazioso Idomeneo, K 366, no. 19 Z7 M S I t ~ i Ex. 291: Idomeneo, K 366, no. 19 Aria llia „Zeffiretti lusinghieri" The sciolto 16th notes paint the seductive zephyrs which later on fly legato to the beloved. Contrary to Sandrina's aria in ,heavy' 3/4 metre, no. 16 in La Finta giardiniera K 196 (p. 193), „Zeffiretti" has only one harmony per bar. Tempo grazioso171 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 8 Aria Fauno „Se il labbro piü non dice" Allegretto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 16 Aria Publio „Tardi s'avvede d'un tradimento" ^ with 8th notes ❖ K 492 Figaro, no. 3 Cavatina „Se vuol ballare, signor Contino" (Ex. 292) ❖ K 384 Die Entführung, no. 15 Aria Belmonte, b. 84 „Daß w ir uns niemals wiederfinden" (Ex. 293) — The first violins have „Andantino" in the autograph, vc/db have „Andante", both w ith a lighter ink, i.e. added later. For the basses which have only quarter notes w ith rests the indications make no great difference - but they certainly do for the concertmaster w ith the violins' sciolto 16th notes from b. 69; I therefore regard the former as more reliable. — The indication in Mozart's conducting score of „Ascanio" is in Leopold's hand. Obviously Mozart considered it not worth the trouble of changing even though tempo grazioso corresponded rather to the ,galant' style of Leopold. Compare Lucio Silla, K 135, no. 10 (p. 148). Mozart's Tempo-System 179 ? octaves lower Ex. 292: Figaro, K 492, no. 3 Cavatina Figaro, „Se vuol ballare signor Contino", b. 1 and 31 „Se vuol ballare, signor Contino": in his Cavatina it takes Figaro thirty tensely restrained bars in piano with gritted teeth and horns of jealousy above an angry pizzicato imitation of a guitar until after nervous trills and butting accents the pent-up fury finally breaks out of him with big forte chords: yes, he w ill soon show this lord! Rattling upward scales over syncopations that nearly overthrow the metre, a series of fortepiano accents: a furiously distorted minuet, the sixteenth notes of which no longer have any care for a tempo giusto. What a contrast is the noble legato with the sounds of the clarinets accompanying Belmonte's words of concern in the second part of his aria „Wenn der Freude Tränen fließen" (Ex. 293); - what a compass of expression within „Allegretto"! Ex. 293: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 15 Aria Belmonte, b. 96 Allegretto 3/4 (a 1) with 8th notes („Daß w ir uns niemals wiederfinden", Ex. 293) has a similar playing speed to A l l e g r o 3/4 (a 1) with 16th notes (e.g. Piano Sonata in F, K 332/I, Ex. 294). However, as in so many other movements, the smallest note values which determine the tempo do not appear in the first bars; incipits, short as they must mostly be in publications on Mozart, therefore frequently lead astray. Allegro 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes K 589 String Quartet in B flat, 1st movement171 K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 18 Finale I, b. 292 „Eccovi il medico, signore belle" K570 Piano Sonata in B flat, 1st movement K 543 Symphony in E flat, 1st movement, b. 26 (Ex. 295, Ex. 269) K 542 Piano Trio in E, 1st movement K491 Piano Concerto in C minor, 1st movement (Ex. 271) K413 Piano Concerto in F ,1 st movement K 379 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 1st movement, b. 50 [see letter no. 587] K 332 Piano Sonata in F, 1st movement (Ex. 294) K 302 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 1st movement K 287 Divertimento in B flat for 2 vl, va, db, 2 hrn (2nd Lodronische Nachtmusik), 1st movement K283 Piano Sonata in G ,1 st movement (with changes of metre to 3/4 a 3) K 265 Twelve Variations for piano in C on „Ah, vous dirai-je Maman", Var. XII K211 Violin Concerto in D, 3rd movement, Rondeau K199 Symphony in G, 1st movement K134 Symphony in A, 1st movement K124 Symphony in G, 1st movement K112 Symphony in F, 1st movement K110 Symphony in G, 1st movement K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b. 297 „Che serve, che giova gridar" — The first movement of the String Quartet in B flat, K 589, a compendium of syncopations, sforzati (resp. mf/p) and of eighth note triplets overlaid by sixteenth notes, is in the NMA score as in the autograph and Mozart's catalogue: Allegro; the Critical Report of the NMA, w ithout comment, has Allegretto. 180 Mozart's Tempo-System K 332, I, m. 1+23 t f b * J I — -j ” , f l r rl i _— ■.iJPr frn v iH r rrrrrttri W 'L Jp d + + / ^ 1JJ 7. sj :---- ̂ -- 4 ------ Ex. 294: Piano Sonata in F, K 332, 1st movement, b. 1 and 23 Ex. 295: Symphony in E flat, K 543, 1st movement, b. 26 and 140 ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K 361 Serenade in B flat for wind and db, 6th movement, Var. VI (40 bars sempre pianol) ^ with 8th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 94 „Sollte dies dein Jüngling sehen" (Ex. 296) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 13 Sestetto, b. 54 „Ragazzaccia tracotante" * K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 310 „Misericordia! Numi dei cielo!" (Ex.297) - K 464 String Quartet inA, 1st movement - K 240 Divertimento in B flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement - K111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 6 ,7 ,1 0 etc. Coro di Pastori „Venga de' sommi Eroi" Ex. 296: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 94 The absurdity of relating tempo words to the „beat" is nowhere clearer than in the Allegros in 3/4 metre: they are of course not conducted in quarter notes, but predominantly in steady one-to-the-bar beats (sometimes with swift subdividions). Experience has shown that this frequently results in too fast a tem po if one does not consider that beyond this, Allegro vivace, Allegro spiritoso, Molto allegro and Allegro assai must also still be feasible and meaningful. Allegro 310 -p.- K 588, no. 31, m. 310 / P JP Jp Ex. 297: Cosi fan tutte, K 588, no. 31 Finale II, b. 310, Don Alfonso Especially Don Alfonso's „M i-se-ricord ia ! Numi dei cielo!" in the second finale of Cosi fan tutte (Ex. 297) is often shortened by too fast a tempo because of the apparently ,empty' first bars of the orchestra. His actually long-drawn out, comically exaggerated exclamation becomes then a quite normal Statement; the syncopations and all the wedge accents (b. 312, 339-42, 349-54) become superfluous, the trembling sixteenth notes of violins and violas, background for his „orribile! io t r e m o , io gelo!" are scarcely any longer discernible. A diminution. Mozart's Tempo-System 181 Allegro vivace 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes K 449 Piano Concerto in E flat, 1st movement (Ex. 298) It is characteristic for Mozart's vivace that four of the five Allegro movements in uneven metre with this addition (K 259/V, K 337/III, K 339/I, K 339/III) are because of their three lively beats ,heavy' 3/4 metres: all of them in the always more moderate church music, which shows how little Mozart aspires to speed with this term. The corresponding movements in even metres (with the same smallest note values) show that Allegro vivace and Allegro spiritoso lie for him between Allegro and a moderate Allegro molto (if this is understood properly, i.e slower than Allegro assail). The simple first bars of K 449 deceive: in b. 21 and 22 there are 16th notes with mordents (i.e. actually 16th note sextuples) and later 32nd note slides. Allegro spiritoso 3/4 (a 1) ^ with 16th notes * K 492 Figaro, no. 14 Terzetto „Susanna or via sortite" (Ex. 299) - K 200 Symphony in C, 1st movement Allegro spiritoso fr / w 0:3------------------mm P *--rH/ | ------------ -0-[m f Su-jC. san- naor via sor- ti- te, / . 1 + 6 0 30 f p i HV 4 p ----------- —------------------p p p p p p F N H f p ------------ -----------------' r f pf 0 Su- san- na, or via sor- ti- te! P f P fP Ex. 299: Figaro, K 492, no. 14 Terzetto, b. 1 and 60 fp Molto allegro / Allegro di molto 3/4 (a 1) with 16th notes * K 481 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 1st movement (Ex. 300) Ex. 300: Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, K481, 1st movement, b. 1 and 25 Contrary to Leopold Mozart's definition many interpreters regard Molto allegro as „Mozart's fastest Alle gro" (Harnoncourt). Without consideration for the still faster indication Allegro assai („Erst geköpft", Ex. 304, „Eh via buffone", Ex. 305) and for the playability and audibility of the smallest note values, the reins are regularly dropped with this tempo word. ^ with 8th note triplets 3 * K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 16 Terzetto „E voi ridete? Certo ridiamo" (Ex. 301) * K492 Figarof no. 29 Finale IV, b. 121 „Ehi Figaro: tacete" (Ex. 302) 182 Mozart's Tempo-System sempre staccato Ex. 301: Cos} fan tutte, K 588, no. 16 Terzetto „E voi ridete? Certo ridiamo", b. 5 and 35 The triplet eighth notes in „E voi ridete?'' w ill not depict an „immoderate laughter" (stage direction) if they can be played only as fremo/o-repetitions on the string because the tempo is too fast. The violin's spiccato-dots have been added, but go without saying, if a moderately fast tempo allows them to be played off the string. (Correspondingly Mozart has expressly added the verbal indication ,sempre stac cato' for violas, cellos and double basses.) The 32nd grace-notes before eighth notes become 16th gracenotes before quarter notes if the Molto Allegro is related only to a conductor's one-in-a-bar beat. 176 ah, i Ex. 302: Figaro, K492, no. 29 Finale IV, b. 121 and 1 76 Neither the trill-like sixteenth notes in „Ehi Figaro: tacete" that are attacked as syncopations nor the later repeated ones are relevant for the tempo; but the eighth note triplets of the second violins (b. 196-203) are; and the 32nd note slides in b. 1 76-1 78 which underline Figaro's feigned sighs become insignificant 16th notes in the usual over-hasty tempo. ^ with 8th notes * K 457 Piano Sonata in C minor, 3rd movement (agitato) (Ex. 303) M olto Allegro K 457, III, m. 1+ 17 17 f 1 1 ¥ f Ex. 303: Piano Sonata in C minor, K 457, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 1 7 (long slurs added for elucidation) The 3rd movement of the Piano Sonata in C minor, K 457 (Ex. 303) is still a little faster, since it has no 16th notes or eighth note triplets. Yet it must be noted that Mozart, contrary to the NMA (!)—, in his auto graph of 1 784 and in the copy which he dedicated to Teresa von Trattner, did not indicate it with Allegro assai like the movements w ithout 16th notes on the following list, but with Molto Allegro which is accor ding to Leopold Mozart somewhat more moderate. The added „ agitato" does not primarily refer to speed. Türk writes: „agitato: agitated, impetuous, anxious, restlessly"476, which concerns mainly the man ner of playing and is realized here in the restlessly agitated phrasing. — The NMA printed „Allegro assai" from the first edition of 1 785, but it is not known that Mozart supervised it. W ith the addition „agitato" to this already very fast indication there would hardly be a difference from Presto. 476 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), Chap. 1., Section 5, p .1 1 5 ,§ 78 [app. p. 301 ]. Mozart's Tempo-System 183 A lle g ro assai 3 /4 (ä 1) ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K319 Symphony in B flat, 1st movement ^ with 8th notes K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 14 Duetto „Eh via buffone, eh via buffone" (Ex. 305) K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 200 „L'ultima prova dell' amor mio" K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 24 Finale II, b. 603 „Ah dove e il perfido, dov' e l'indegno?" K 384 Die Entführung, no. 3 Aria, b .147 + no. 21a, b. 74 „Erst geköpft und dann gehangen" (Ex. 304) K171 String Quartet in E flat, 1st movement, b.15 / / f f f f Ex. 304: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 3 Aria Osmin, b. 147 (and no. 21a Vaudeville, b. 74) The best characterization of Allegro assai with eighth notes is given by Mozart in the already cited passage about Osmin's „Erst geköpft, dann gehangen" in his letter about Die Entführung: „because his anger grows and grows, so must - since you think the aria is already at an end - the allegro assai - in a different metre, and in a different key - make the best effect; for someone who finds himself so violently angry exceeds all decency, measure and limitation, he forgets himself and so the music must also forget itself." 477 Exactly this state of mind have Donna Elvira at her desperate entrance in Don Giovanni Finale II („L'ultima prova", b. 200) and the other duped characters 403 bars later („Ah dove e il perfido?"). In Don Giovanni's duet with Leporello („Eh via buffone", no. 14, Ex. 305) the triple stops of all the violins and the 32nd- (not 16th-!) note slides preclude a Presto tempo. Mozart never used Presto in 3/4 metre, probably „since the passions must never be expressed in a disgusting way". For all these compact move ments in Allegro assai the cheerful light 3/8 would have been the wrong metre. Allegro assai K 527, no. 14, m. 1 +30 VI. /+ / / ^ / non divl Giovanni Eh via buf- fo- ne, eh via buf- fo- ne, m m non im secm f j r Ex. 305: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 14 Duetto Giovanni/Leporello, b. 1 and 30 J with quarter notes * K 186 Divertimento in B flat for wind, 1st movement (Ex. 306) -P fm f f / * f : ------ m m — p P ► p e + p J Eh via buf- foi- ne sen- ti- mi,a- mi- co, 0 0 477 Mozart's letter to his father of 26.09.1 781, no. 629 [app. p. 266]. 184 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 306: Divertimento in B flat for wind, K 186, 1st movement, b. 1 and 13 Mozart's fastest piece in 3/4 metre is the resolute first movement of the Divertimento for wind K 186, the only one besides the Adagio 3/4 „Ribaldo, audace" of the Commendatore and Sarastro's Adagio 3/4 „O Isis und Osiris" (Ex. 276) that contains exclusively quarter notes. Yet it isn't Presto, either. It is surpassed by the Presto 3/8 w ithout sixteenth notes of the fourth movement in the Divertimento K 270 (Ex. 382). It ends, however, very cheekily on the fourth bar of a four-bar period. Mozart's Tempo-System 185 b) the ,Heavy' 3/4 (2/8+2/8+2/8) metre M arpurg 1760: „The h e a vy or s e r io u s uneven metre can be recognized from the space of its bar seeming to represent a rhythm of three even metres put together. In light three-four metre [3/4 ä 1] there are generally only three kinds of notes, half-, quarter- and eighth-notes, and one counts in quarter notes. In heavy three-four time [3/4 ä 3] sixteenth, and even thirty-second notes are added, and one counts in eighth-notes. Both metres, the light and the heavy three-four, are often found mixed in such a way that one cannot ascertain whether the example belongs to the former or to the latter metre."478 Jo h a n n Bernhard Logier 1827: „It must be noticed, however, that there is still another kind of un even metre, which comes from the original combination of th re e n o te s o f e q u a l v a lu e , w h ichareoftenstressedw ith t h ree e q u a l a c c e n ts ."479 As music example Logier gives the second movement of the String Quintet K 515 in C, Andante 3/4, which Mozart had originally indicated by Larghetto (Ex. 307). Ex. 307: String Quintet in C, K 515, 2nd movement The example is a good choice, and can stand for 13 other secular pieces in the ,serious' A n d a n t e 3/4 with 32nd notes, and essentially also for the two with 64th notes. As with many other pieces of Mozart the beginning, however, feigns a simple metre, here the ,light' 3/4 with whole-bar accentuation. Only in the further course of the movement do the ,three equal accents' become evident in the three steps of the harmony. In view of the many 32nd notes in bar 48-54 and 108-114 one wonders why Mozart changed the original seemingly obvious Larghetto into Andante. Increased by the seeming whole-bar structure of the first bars this certainly permits the danger that the five players will start too fast and later on get into trouble (e.g. in b. 48-54) (Ex. 308): Ex. 308: String Quintet in C, K 515, 2nd movement, b. 51 -3, Viola However, out of respect for the many smallest notes, the tempo word is often wrongly related to the eighth notes, and the piece then played rather too slowly. By the indication Andante Mozart probably wanted to prevent not only a rendering that was too slow but also the ,most heavy bowstroke' of a ,Larg hetto' that would be close to Adagio. 75 of Mozart's 170 secular pieces in 3/4 metre with an autograph tempo word (not counting minuets and dances) are in the „serious" heavy 3/4 metre, the breadth and firm tread of which supplies the supporting framework for a whole host of sometimes highly virtuosic 32nd and even 64th notes. Most of the pieces on my list w ill easily support Marpurg's conception that they are compounded of three 2/8 metres. As in the regulär 4/4 metre the tempo words of the ,heavy' 3/4 metre can be related to the quarter note. Largo 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 32nd notes - K 367 Ballet music for Idomeneo, no. 2 Pas seul de Mr. le Grand Adagio 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 32nd notes ❖ K 499 String Quartet in D, 3rd movement (Ex. 309) - K 423 Duo in G for violin and viola, 2nd movement 478 Marpurg, Kritische Briefe ('Critical Letters'), vol. II, p. 24, 67th letter, § 78 [app. p. 334] and § 79. 479 Johann Bernhard Logier, System der Musik-Wissenschaft und der praktischen Composition, 1827, p. 284. 186 Mozart's Tempo-System [K 563 Divertimento (String trio) in E flat, 2 movement] f P ‘ f p Ex. 309: String Quartet in D, K499, 3rd movement, b. 40-43, 31 In the wonderful slow movement of the String Quartet K 499 with its string pairs so often connected in soft-sounding thirds or sixths Mozart even manages in b. 31 to add a grace-note to 64th notes! Nevertheless the 32nd notes decide the tempo. About the manner of playing Adagio Reichardt writes (as already cited): „The different characters of pieces also reqire different bowstrokes. Thus the bowstroke in A d a g io is very different from that in AI le g ro , and contrasts mainly in that the former remains more on the strings than in Allegro. Nothing but a rest must bring the bow entirely off the string in Ada gio. Even on the notes marked with a stroke for staccato (I), even in an ,Abzug' [i.e. lifting the bow], it must not entirely leave the string, but remain on it with at least an eighth of the hair." „Forte in a d a g io is very different from forte in a l le g r o . Because of the frequent detaching and the sharp ,Abzüge' the latter acquires a completely different look: for in adagio nothing must be sharply cut short. Even the stroke of the bow must be less fast in adagio; consequently in adagio only the pressure of the bow remains for strength."481 (abridged) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 * K 593 String Quintet in D, 2nd movement (Ex. 310) - K370 Quartet in Ffor oboe and string-trio, 2nd movement Adagio l K 593, II, m. 1+16 Ex. 310: String Quintet in D, K 593, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 16 The second movement of the String Quintet in D, K 593, from the sudden onset of the minor dominant in b. 16, is dramatically dominated by 16th note triplets (which the long quarter notes of the first bars had not led one at all to expect). This shows that the ,heavy' three-four metre even at its broadest never entirely loses superordinate whole-bar accentuation: an essential difference from the even metres, whose inner coherence in slow tempos is much more in danger. (Adagio 3/4 (a 3)) ^ with 16th notes - K 285 Quartet in D for flute, vl, via and vc, 2nd movement (Ex. 275) Un poco Adagio 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b. 272 „Fu colpo d'amore, pentita giä sono" — The tempo word stemming from the first edition of the parts 1 792 is plausible, but - though not noted in the NMA - not authentic. 481 Johann Friedrich Reichardt, Ueber die Pflichten des Ripien-Violinisten ('On the Duties o fth e Tutti Violinist'), p. 25 [app. p. 296] Mozart's Tempo-System 187 ^ with 32nd notes * K 502 Piano Trio in B flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 311) Larghetto 3/4 (ä 3) Ex. 311: Piano Trio in B flat, K 502, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 93 In accordance with Mozart's meticulousness in notating, this Eargheffo-movement should be less slow than the Adagio in K 499 (Ex. 309). Larghetto 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 367 Ballet music for Idomeneo, no. 1, Annonce, b. 154 Larghetto pour Mme Hartig Andante cantabile 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes * K 551 Symphony in C {Jupiter Symphony), 2nd movement (Ex. 312) - K 548 Piano Trio in C, 2nd movement - K 465 String Quartet in C, 2nd movement (originally Adagio, then crossed out) - K 387 String Quartet in G, 3rd movement - K 333 Piano Sonata in B flat, 2nd movement * K 310 Piano Sonata in A minor, 2nd movement („con espressione") (Ex. 313) - K218 Violin Concerto in D, 2nd movement How can an uninformed listener recognize the metre of the second movement of the Jupiter Symphony? If the beats are equally stressed, as so often in performances, one understands either a 2/4 metre, or one takes the first falling fourth as an upbeat for a series of 3/4-bars. Both assumptions seem to be confirmed by the forfe-chords that appear to be first beats, an error that is not clarified until b. 7. These misunderstandings can only be avoided by careful metrical stresses on the ,good' beats as I have marked them in Türk's sense (ex. 101 on p. 086 and on p. 303). The profound disturbance caused by the metrical syncopation of the forte - a subtle preparation for the virtual changes of metre to 2/4 in b. 23-25, 31-36 etc. - makes the stable metre, presented by a full forte on the subdominant from b. 7, to be feit like a relief. (As in the Piano Sonata in C, K 309, II, b. 3) 188 Mozart's Tempo-System Mozart wanted the 2 movement of the Piano Sonata in A minor to be played not as Adagio or Larghetto with 32nd notes (Ex. 309 and Ex. 311) but as Andante cantabile - in spite of the mordents on 64th notes (i.e. 128th notes !) (Ex. 313) (Andante cantabile 3/4 (a 3)) ^ with 16th notes * K 330 Piano Sonata in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 314) „One is accustomed to set Cantabile above pieces in a moderate tempo which have something aria-like about them in order to indicate that they should be executed with a particularly singing quality. Such a rendering is done with moderate strength; the notes are slurred more than deta ched, and one refrains from all embellishments and manners of execution which are not appropriate for the voice."482 Andante (mä) (un poco) adagio 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes - K 402 Andante and Fugue of a Sonata in A for piano and violin ^ with 16th note triplets * K 238 Piano Concerto in B flat, 2 movement (Ex. 315) - K175 Piano Concerto in D, 2nd [Andante un poco adagio] movement K 238, II, m. 45 m Piano m M mw m www3 ^ ~3 r~ Ex. 315: Piano Concerto in B flat, K238, 2nd movement, b. 45 ^ with 16th notes K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 21 Aria Fauno, b. 151 „Se mai divieni amante" Andante sostenuto 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes K 369 „Misera, dove son!", Recit. and Aria for soprano and orch.; Aria „Ah! non son io che parlo" ❖ K 296 Piano and Violin Sonata in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 316) - K 294 „Alcandro, Io confesso", Rec. and Aria for soprano and orchestra; Aria „Non so d'onde viene" 482 D.G. Schulz in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie ('General Theory')f 1 774, IV/383 „In a Singing Manner" [app. p. 289]. Mozart's Tempo-System 189 [Andante sostenuto] 4 PianoAi r( H r * * Violin U -3 PPiano +#> m m f\ 3 r r T _ ^ r *3 *3 *3 d f z / f̂ ffT PI 3 Pm m & K296, II, m. 4+22 Ex. 316: Piano and Violin Sonata in C, K 296, 2nd movement, b. 4 and 22 Andante moderato 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K204 Serenade in D, 3rd movement Andante 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 64th notes - K 608 Allegro and Andante (Fantasia in F minor) for a mechanical organ; Andante ❖ K 503 Piano Concerto in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 317) Andante K 503, II, m. 1 + 9 7 vi-de Ex. 31 7: Piano Concerto in C, K 503, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 97 In spite of the 64th notes, here too the „Andante" does not relate to the eighth notes, although this idea may suggest itself; it only modifies the tempo giusto „3/4 (a 3) with 64th notes" towards a more lightweight manner of playing than is demanded by Adagio. One may notice the diminuendo-sign after the „sf" showing that this means no short sforzato but a broad sforzando. ndwith 32nd notes - K575 String Quartet inD , 2nd movement * K 533 Piano Sonata in F, 2nd movement (Ex. 3 1 8 ) - K 521 Sonata for piano four-hands in C, 2nd movement * K 515 String Quartet in C, 2nd movement (originally Larghetto) (Ex. 3 0 7 , Ex. 3 0 8 ) - K 469 Davide penitente, Cantata, no. 6 Aria tenor „A te, fra tanti affanni" * K 454 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 2nd movement (originally Adagio) - K 448 Sonata for two pianos in D ,2 nd movement - K415 Piano Concerto in C, 2nd movement - K 414 Piano Concerto in A, 2nd movement - K 365 Concerto for 2 pianos and orchestra in E flat, 2nd movement - K 364 Sinfonia Concertante for violin, viola and orchestra in E flat, 2nd movement - K284 Piano Sonata in D, 2nd movement Rondeau en Polonaise - K250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 3rd movement - K 137 Divertimento II (Quartet) in B flat, 1st movement Like K 503/II the larger note values at the beginning of nearly all these movements feign a 3/4 metre with whole-bar accentuation before they bring 64th or 32nd notes into play: 190 Mozart's Tempo-System ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K155 String Quartet no. 2 in D, 2nd movement ^ with 16th notes - K 528 „Bella mia fiamma, addio", Recit. and Aria for soprano+orchestra; Aria „Resta, oh cara" - K 487 Twelve duos for two French horns, no. 3 ❖ K376 Piano and Violin Sonata in F ,2 nd movement (Ex. 319) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 22 Aria Arbace „Se colä ne'fati e scritto" - K 345 Phamos, no. 3 Entr'acte ❖ K 297 Symphony in D (Paris Symphony), 2nd movement (first edition version) (Ex. 320) - K 252 Divertimento in E flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 3rd movement Polonaise (see Ex. 427) ❖ K211 Violin Concerto in D, 2nd movement - K 185 Serenade in D, 3rd movement - K138 Divertimento III (Quartet) in F, 2nd movement - K 136 Divertimento I (Quartet) in D ,2 nd movement - K 100 Cassation in D (Serenade), 3rd movement Andante _. -n . r — & J ,JU , - r a hj ° 76' " , J Em V ! ‘Ö W E ö rf 1 K -~o Ex. 319: Pianc) and Violin Sonat;ä in F, K 376, 2nd mi ^ m ü t 1 avement „Andante: here the notes are rendered neither as slowly and meltingly into each other as in Adagio, nor as sharply accentuated and detached as in Allegro. Everything here is moderate; even the strength oftone demands moderation, unless the composer, prompted by a special modification of feeling, expressly prescribes a higher degree of intensity."483 Andaiite K . r - H K 297, II, firs t m m m•mf edition sempre 0. s 9 w P 9 P sotto voce r J . f n r 0 0 0 jy n r \ Ex. 320: Symphony in D (Paris Symphony), K297, 2nd movement (first edition version) Andante 3/4 (ä 3) with 16th notes, because of its three emphases per bar, is Mozart's only tempo indica tion besides Andante 4/4 with 16th notes („Heil sei euch Geweihten!" (Ex. 121)) where the beats can be related to physical walking in moderate tempo. Mozart composed the Andante 3/4 of the „Paris" Symphony (Ex. 320) as a shorter replacement (ca. 31/2 min.) for the original Andante 6/8, which had been played at the first performance (ca. 5 min.) and critici sed as too long .= 483 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), col. 142, ANDANTE [app. p. 312]. — For remarkable reasons, Alan Tyson conversely believed the 6/8 Andante to be the later composition, and the 3/4 Andante the original one. („The Two Slow Movements of Mozart's „Paris" Symphony, K. 297", in: Mozart. Studies o f the Autograph Scores, 1987). Mozart wrote in his letter of 09.07.1778 (no. 462 [app. p. 264]): „the symphony [K 297] met with fu ll approval - the Andante, however, was not lucky enough to satisfy him [Le Gros] - he regards it as having too much modulation in it - and being to o l o n g " . In view o fth e inherent tempos of metres in the 18th Century, their ,natural motion', one cannot simply count bars to Mozart's Tempo-System 191 ^ with 8th note triplets * K279 Piano Sonata in C, 2nd movement (Ex. 321) Andante / £ £ w m S W v K 2 79, II, m - f ip - . 1 4 Ä -18 \ U 7LT / 3 p 3 f 3 tf— p 3 f 3 p s ^ - 4 ir I / — V p r P/ Ex. 321: Piano Sonata in C, K 279, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 18 A beautiful example of the ,heavy' three-four time - in contrast to the ,light' 3/4 metre with whole-bar accentuation of, for example, Pamina (Ex. 281). Andante grazioso 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes - K247 Divertimento in F (7. Lodronische Nachtmusik), 3rd movement Andante con moto 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 380 Piano and Violin Sonata in E flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 287) Andantino cantabile 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes ❖ K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata inD , 2nd movement (Ex. 322) m p* lezzci voce 0 00ß0ß0 0' 1 * « ,0 0 H w crescendom \--------- / ^ *7 P * *7 P p H 'mm kf-H •» a m f f lJ- f L ir e 1 • ■f-------E ^ > -U-----7—l---- / ' 0 ü y i r H U = y = =44=49 Ex. 322: Piano and Violin Sonata in D, K 306, 2nd movement, b. 58 Andantino 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes * K 475 Fantasia in C minor for piano, b. 86 (32nd notes in the fo llo w in g Piu allegro) (Ex. 324) - K 299 Concerto for flute, harp and orchestra, 2nd movement ❖ K271 Piano Concerto in E flat (Jenamy concerto), 2nd movement (Ex. 323) find the duration, as Tyson does, w ithout considering their tempo. A tempo of M M ^ = c a . 120, corresponding to the other movements in Andante 6/8 (3 + 3) w ith 16th notes, gives a duration of nearly 5 minutes for the 588 eighth notes of the 6/8 version; but the 252 quarter notes (including repeat) of the 3/4 version at the reasonable speed of M M J=ca. 80 take only 3 '10". W ith a different choice of tempo the durations would change of course - not so much, however, that the 3/4 version becomes the longer one. And had Mozart really composed the 6/8 movement later as a „shorter version" it would be stränge that he then made it slower by changing its original Andantino to Andante. 192 Mozart's Tem po-System Ex. 323: Piano Concerto in E flat, K271 (Jenamy Concerto), 2nd movement, b. 1 and 22 The error of thinking that Mozart's Andantino is slower than his Andante arises if one fails to consider the classes of note values: the Andantino 3/4 (a 3) of the Jenamy-concerto with its 32nd notes is more anima ted than the Andante (a 3) movements with the same class of note values (K 515, II, Ex. 308 and K 533, II, Ex. 318) - although it is of course slower than an Andante 3/4 (a_l) with 7 6 th notes (e.g. Pamina's „Tamino mein!"Ex. 281) Ex. 324: Fantasia in C m inorfor Piano, K475, b. 86 and 125 The Fantasia in C minor, K 475, has no 32nd notes in its Andantino, it's true; the following Piu allegro, however, is full of them, and so they must be also taken into consideration from the beginning. ^ with 16th notes * K 320 Serenade in D (Posthorn Serenade), 5th movement (Ex. 325) - K 272 „Ah, Io previdü", Rec., Aria and Cavatina for soprano and orch., b. 217 „Deh, non varcar" The Andantino of the Posthorn Serenade with its 16th notes is faster than the Andante 3/4 of the Paris Symphony (Ex. 320) and of the Violin Concerto in D, K 211, and of course also than the 2nd movement of the Jenamy Concerto which is determined by 32nd notes (Ex. 323). PiÜ Allegro [from Andantino] 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 32nd notes - K 475 Fantasia in C minor for piano, b.125 (Ex. 324) Andantino grazioso 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 217 „Voi avete un cor fedele", aria for soprano and orchestra - K190 Concertone in C for 2 violins and orchestra, 2nd movement Mozart's Tempo-System 193 Grazioso 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 16 Aria Sandrina „Una voce sento al core" As in „Vedrai, carino" (Ex. 359) in 3/8-metre and „Ricevete, oh padroncina" (Ex. 360) in 6/8 time, Grazioso, on its own, is no „fempo"-indication but an indication of the manner of playing. This aria with its many sciolto sixteenth notes seems to me to find its best place between Andantino (ä 3) and Allegretto (ä 3). Contrast with the Grazioso-aria of llia, no. 19 in Idomeneo (see Ex. 291, p. 178), with its whole-bar accentuation. Allegretto maestoso [!] 3/4 (ä 3) (strictly speaking a contradictio in adjectol) ^ with 16th notes - K 344 Zaide, no. 7 Aria Allazim „Nur mutig, mein Herze, versuche dein Glück!" Allegretto 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 367 Ballet music for Idomeneo, no. 2, Pas seul de Mr. le Grand, b.19 ❖ K 345 Thamos, no. 6 Chorus „Von des Mittags heißem Sande", b. 69 (Ex. 326) Ex. 326: Thamos, K 345, no. 6 Chorus o fthe priests, b. 71, 80 and 179 (much abridged) This piece, too, seems initially to have whole-bar accentuation, until in b. 82 and finally from b. 171 unmistakably the three accents of the ,heavy' 3/4 metre become evident. It does not need to be underlined that it has nothing in common with the Allegretto 3/4 (a_l) of Figaro's Cavatina „Se vuol ballare signor Contino" (Ex. 292), or with „Daß w ir uns niemals wiederfinden" in Die Entführung. (Ex. 293) PiÜ Allegro [from Allegretto] 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 367 Ballet music for Idomeneo, no. 2 Pas seul de Mr. le Grand, b. 48 Allegro maestoso 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K128 Symphony in C, 1st movement Allegro 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 8 Aria Donna Elvira „Ah fuggi il traditor" (Ex. 327) - K 424 Duo for violin and viola in B flat, 1st movement, b. 11 ❖ K 345 Thamos, no. 4 (Melodram). - K 345 Thamos, no. 7 Chorus, b. 46 „Höchste Gottheit, milde Sonne" - K 208 II re pastore, no. 4 Aria Alessandro „Si spande al sole in faccia" - K111 Ascanio in Alba, nos. 2, 4 and 18 Chorus „D i te piü amabile, ne Dea maggiore" 194 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 327: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 8 Aria Donna Elvira, „Ah fuggi il traditor", b. 1 and 39 With the exception of Elvira's aria in baroque style - with its textbook-correct hemiolas (amongst others b. 39/40) „a parody o f old-fashioned seria"485 - and of the five other pieces on my list, the difference bet ween ,heavy' and ,light' 3/4 metres become less and less in faster tempi. O f course one does not count in eighth notes any more and the accentuations become nearly alike. PiÜ Allegro [fro m A lleg ro ] 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 8th note triplets - K 367 Ballet music for Idomeneo, no. 2, b. 98, Pour le Ballet Allegro con brio 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes * K 366 Idomeneo, no. 3 Chorus „Godiam la pace, trionfi Amore" (Ex. 328) „Con brio: fiery, heatedly, glowing, noisily"486 sing the jubilant Trojans and Cretans: „let us enjoy peace, let love triumph!" - namely with „a higher degree ofstrength o f t o n e " 487 vi-de K 366, no. 3, m. 6 + 18 18 tr tr fr Allegro con brio 6 tr h m m m m mm £ £ m Go- diam la pa- ce, tri- on- fiA- nio- re, A- giu- bi- le- rä, giu- bi- le- rä, giu- bi- le- rä. Ex. 328: Idomeneo, K 366, no. 3 Chorus „Godiam la pace", b. 6 and 18 Although the 32nd notes under the „fr" in b. 7 and 8 need not perhaps be taken really seriously, at least the later „fr" on 16th notes, however, compels us not to strike up an Allegro con brio 3/4 (a_l) at the beginning. Molto allegro 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes * K 202 Symphony inD , 1st movement (Ex. 329) - K196 La finta giardiniera, no. 28 Finale III Ensemble („Coro") „Viva pur la Giardiniera" M olto A llegro i f A H C.- f Lp. -0' -0-0- tr t t’rt------- ------»— H0-’ Tf-0t H : j , I w 9' * V r -0- ; L = a J K 202, I, m. 1+51 1. VI VI f f ¥ Via. f Vc., Kb. f I Ob. f f 1 2. VI. ¥ m Vc., Kb. t u Ob.M i m Via. Ex. 329: Symphony in D, K202, 1st movement, b. 1 and 51 485 Charles Rosen, The classical S tyle,11971, p. 322). 486 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), p. 112, §78 [app. p. 301 ] 487 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), article ,Forte') [app. p. 313] Mozart's Tempo-System 195 Allegro assai 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes * K 280 Piano Sonata in F ,1 st movement (Ex. 330) - K 254 Divertimento ä 3 (Piano Trio) in B flat, 1st movement Allegro assai /r K 280,1 Allegro assai is according to Leopold Mozart faster than Allegro molto. Consequently these movements are Mozart's fastest in ,heavy' 3/4 time. The tempo of the first movement of K 280 is nevertheless restricted by mordents on 16th notes in b .2 and 84. c) 3/8 metre M attheson 1713: „3 /8 . Par affectation th is often takes the place o f 3/4, and has become so favoured tha t it is used in arias, yet w ith the add ition o f adagio or the like, even though it p roperly belongs to the passepieds, canaries and o ther hopp ing dances."488 M arpurg 1 7 6 3 :„3 /8 metre. Since its tem po is natura lly very fast, it m ust be reduced as m uch as necessary by an added tem po w o rd 489 if it is to be s lo w ."490 Jo h . Ad. Scheibe 1773: „3/8 metre is most practical for all kinds of gentle, tender, pleasant, humorous and lovely expression; it is very suitable also for lively and fleeting pieces. Although it is sometimes used for slow, moving, and touching expressions: it seems nevertheless that the gentle and fluent, and next to these the fleeting and swiftly rushing, as well as the playful and trifling, would be the most appropriate for it. The n a tu ra l te m p o this metre demands can be moderated a little, but not completely suppressed. Therefore the movements in this metre which are to be slow are generally played with a little more life and fluency than if they were set in a larger metre. Thus the composer must have this character precisely in mind."491 Kirnberger/Sc h u lz 1 776: „3 /8 m etre has the live ly tem po o f the passepied; it is perform ed in a ligh t but not en tire ly playful m anner and is w id e ly used in cham ber and theatrical m us ic ."492 Jo h . A braham Peter Sc h u lz 1794: „For example, the 8th notes in 3/8 metre are not as long as the quarter notes in 3/4; but also not as short as the 8th notes of the same. Therefore, a piece in 3/8 metre is faster than it would be in 3/4 time."493 G o t t f r ie d W eber 1824: „It has been agreed that 3/2 metre receives a somewhat different kind of execution from 3/8 metre; and in fact so that a piece is to some extent more lightly and gently executed if it is written in smaller note values. In this respect the difference in the indication of metre offers the composer a means to indicate the character fairly well in which he wants to have his composition performed; and therefore it is not unimportant to choose the most suitable indica tion for the metre."494 488 Mattheson, Das neu- eröffnete Orchestre {'The Newly Revealed Orchestra'), 1 713, part 1, chap. III ,Vom Tacte insonderheit' {'About metre in particular'), p. 87, §1 7 [app. p. 339]. 489 he writes erroneously „Tactwort". 490 Marpurg, Anleitung zur Musik überhaupt {'Guide to Music in general'), 1 763, part 2, p. 88, chap. 6, §5 [app. p. 335]. 491 Scheibe, Ueber die Musikalische Composition {'About Musical Composition'), 1 773, p. 208, chap. 5, § 93 [app. p. 340]. 492 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes {'The Art o fS trict Musical Composition'), Vol. II, 1 776, p. 130, 4 [app. p. 278]. 493 Schulz, article "Vortrag" {'Performance Style') in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie {'General Theory'), IV, 1 774, p. 707 [app. p. 291]. 494 Gottfried Weber, 'Versuch einer geordneten Theorie {'Systematic Theory o f Composition'), vol. I, p. 98, § 65 [app. p. 343]. 196 Mozart's Tempo-System According to Gottfried W. Fink (1809) 3/2 metre has the „very heavy", 3/4 the „heavy" and 3/8 metre the „light accent". „It is this different accent which gives each of these metres its peculiarity by which they differ from each other, so that the heavy 3/4 and the light 3/8 metre, when both moving at the same pace, w ill always be perfectly distinguishable to the ear."[!]495 d) Compound - or ,long' - 6/8 (3/8+3/8) Metre „Six-eight metre. This term describes fwo species o f metres which differ fundamentally from each other, namely: 1) the s im p le mixed metre which is created out of the two-four metre with a dot added to each quarter note and 2) the metre c o m p o u n d e d of two three-eight metres, which is distinguished from the former in having two ,strong' and two— ,weak' beats."497 Readers studying only parts of my book are recommended to look back to the excursus „Compound metres - The metric of groups of bars" on p. 081 where, among others, K ir n b er g e r and Sc h u l z say: „There are melodies in which it is obvious that whole bars are alternately heavy and light, so that a whole bar is heard as only one beat. If the melody is of such a nature that the entire bar is feit as only one beat, two bars must be grouped together to form just one, whose first part is accented [,long'] and the other unaccented [,short']. If this contraction were not to occur, the result would be a melody consisting only of accented beats [e.g. a series of3/8 metres ofequal weight]. This resulted in compound metres, namely, compound 6/8 from two combined bars of 3/8, etc. - This combining of bars actually occurs only so that the player can arrive at the proper rendering and play the second half o f such a bar more lightly than the first."498 Differently from the compound 6/8 metre of the Baroque which („in order to spare bar-lines" - according to the dubious view of Koch) tied two e q u a l l y heavy 3/8 bars together (= v v = v v ), the compound 6/8 metre of the late 18th Century creates an even-metre superstructure over two u n e q u a l l y heavy 3/8 metres (= v v - v v ) , a formation which allows music to breathe in broader arcs because of the greater distance between the main emphases. That is probably why Mozart took it as a basis for 80% of his movements in 6/8 metre. „Compound metres, with their increasing number of accents within a single bar, offer richer possibilities than simple ones, and the wider frame of the bar gives more space for finer details in the drawing."499 Classic examples for the dichotomy within the 6/8 metres are the Chorus no. 5 in Don Giovanni (Ex. 331) in ,s i m p Ie ', ,short' 6/8 metre (see p. 166, Ex. 263), that is nothing but a 2/4 metre with triplets): Allegro K 527, no. 5, rn. 17+35 35 CHt)RUS J 'P 9 J m DF As r ■ I* ) m Df f u ^ i Zerlina: Gio- vi- net- te che fa- teall' a- mo- re, che fa- teall' a- mo- re, J che pia- cer, che pia- cer che sa- rä, la la la- ra la, la la la- ra Ex. 331: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 5 Chorus, b .17 and 35 and is contrary to the second part of Papageno's aria „Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen" in c o m p o u n d - or ,long' - 6/8 (3 + 3) metre (Ex. 332): 495 G.W. Fink, Über Takt, Taktarten, und ihr Charakteristisches ('About the Bar, Metres and their Characteristics'), in: AMZ No. 14 col 211-214, 14.01.1809 [app. p. 345]. — The 2nd+3rd and the 5th + 6th eighth notes were regarded as constituting together one light beat, an arsis. 497 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), col. 1307 Sechsachteltakt ('Six-eight metre') [app. p. 31 7]. 498 Kirnberger / Schulz, Die Kunst... ('The Art o f Strict Musical Composition'), II, About Compound Metre [app. p. 278]. 499 Mendel / Reissmann: Musikalisches Konversations-Lexikon, 1870-83, article „Tactarten", p. 76. Mozart's Tempo-System 197 Ex. 332: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 20 Aria Papageno, b. 21 c-24c and 25-28 combined Compound 6/8 (3 + 3)-metres, however, can temporarily split up into a series of virtual 3/8-metres - like a piece in 2/2-metre can for some passages change to 4/4-metre and one in 4/4 conversely to a virtual 2/2metre (see p.113 and p. 132). e) 3/8- and 6/8 (3/8+3/8) metres, considered together As 3/8 and 6/8 (3 + 3) metres differ only in their superordinate metrics, but are equal with regard to tem po and manner of playing, we can treat them jointly. I shall mark compound 6/8 metres from now on with 3+3/8. 136 of Mozart's movements or parts of them are in 3/8 metre. They consist of a series of - in principle metrically equally heavy bars which have a tendency to group themselves asymmetrically. For 64 of them autograph tempo words have survived. 146 movements are in 6/8 metre, of which 117 are in compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre. There are auto graph tempo words for 77 of these pieces. As 2/2-metres can temporarily change to virtual 4/4-metres, 4/4 metres to virtual 2/2, and 4/8-metres to virtual 2/4-metres (and vice versa) pieces in compound 6/8 (3 + 3)-metre sometimes change for a series of bars to ,simple' 6/8 (a 1) (see p.118, and Ex. 257, Ex. 348 and Ex. 360). Let us again work through the modules in order. Although we have no piece by Mozart with the indica tion Adagio 3/8 we can start with Adagio 6/8 (3 + 3): „Since a compound metre is nothing eise but a group of two or more simple metres it follows first that the beats of a compound bar move neither faster nor slower than in a simple one (under otherwise equal circumstances) for example, the eighth notes in 6/8 like those in 3/8 metre." 500 „The tempo and execution of compound metres correspond to the simple ones from which they are composed."501 What Schulz wrote about 3/8 metre is therefore correspondingly valid also for the compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre: „3/8 time is rendered lightly; if a movement in this metre is marked Adagio and filled with thirtysecond notes, however, then it is played more heavily than it otherwise would be, but still not as heavily as if the same piece were set in 3/4 tim e."502 Adagio 6/8 (3 + 3) ^ with 32nd notes - K617 Adagio and Rondo in C minor/C major for glass harmonica, fl, ob, via and vc, Adagio + K 488 Piano Concerto in A, 2nd movement (Ex. 333) - K 353 Twelve Variations for piano in E flat on „La belle Frangoise", var. XI 500 Gottfried Weber, Theorie der Tonsetzkunst ('Systematic Theory o f Composition'), voi 1,1824, p. 111/112, § 80 [app. p. 344]. 501 D.G. Schulz, in Sulzer Allgemeine Theorie, 1774 ('General Theory') article 'Tact' ('Metre'), vol. IV, 1 774, p. 501 [app. p. 291 ]. 502 D.G. Schulz, in Sulzer Allgemeine Theorie, 1774 ('General Theory') article 'Vortrag' ('Performance style [Rendition'], vol. IV, p. 709) [app. p. 291]. 198 Mozart's Tempo-System Adagio W m m £ K 488, II =_ o p pf k — u k k ¥ £ Ex. 333: Piano Concerto in A, K488, 2nd movement (metrical markings ä laTürk, (see Ex. 101) The second movement of K 488 (Ex. 333) would be made almost commonplace if it were notated as a se ries of 3/8 bars. It is truly delightful how Mozart - contrary to Kirnberger's demand for a lighter accentuation of the second halves of bars in compound 6/8 metre - actually marks them now and then (quasi as large syncopations) with characteristics of their own - e.g. in b. 5 by double, and in b. 7 by written-out superhigh grace-notes. Regarding the differentiations of the metric in a group of bars which I have marked in the music example, I refer the reader to Türk's model cited on p. 303 (Ex. 101). Larghetto 3/8 with 32nd notes K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 23 Rondo Vitellia „Non piü di fiori vaghe catene" (Ex. 334) K 344 Zaide, no. 13 Aria Zaide, b. 63 „Ach, mein Gomatz, mit uns Armen" [LarghettoJ K 621, no. 23, m. 9+25 Andante cantabile 3/8 ^ with 32nd notes * K 588 Cos! fan tuttef no. 17 Aria Ferrando ^Un'aura amorosa" (Ex. 335) - K 424 Duo in B flat for violin and viola, 2nd movement Andante cantabile K 588, no. 1 7, m. 1 +23 Ex. 335: Cos/ fan tutte, K 588, no. 17 aria Ferrando, „Un'aura amorosa^ b. 1 and 23 Abused by tenors when presenting themselves in auditions for agents and on stage, ^Un'aura amorosa" still suffers today from the misunderstanding that Andante meant ^slow", as we have already seen when dealing with Andante 3/4. It follows, however, a terzetto in which the two thoughtless lovers in premature triumph can hardly stop themselves laughing. Instead of dinner, ^Un'aura amorosa" (^a breath of the beloved"), would now do for Ferrando in his high spirits. The postlude with its double dottings is the wanton expression of the merrily pugnacious - though unfortunately misguided - pride of his love, not a sarabande in purple robes. Exactly as Mozart did not compose the freshness of Tamino's falling in love in the ,Bildnis'-aria in a lofty C but in light 2/4 (4/8) metre (Ex. 203), he gives our shallow Ferrando instead of a weighty 3/4 the more animated, charming 3/8 metre. Mozart's Tempo-System 199 ^ with 16th note triplets 3 * K281 Piano Sonata in B flat, 2nd movement (Ex. 336) Andante amoroso 3/8 Andante amoroso decrescendo P * p 3 3 3 P ^ ___ ^ K 281, II, m. 1, 28, 39 ‘ in __________ //frrCr. Ü p Et p P decrescendo P f f Ex. 336: Piano Sonata in B flat, K281, 2nd movement, b. 1, 28, 39 Mozart's only piece designated „amoroso". His original - faster - indication had been „Andantino"\ „Amoroso, affectionate, lovely, describes a slow and gentle movement and a moving and tender expression of the melody in which the notes are more slurred together than detached and the accents are brought out noticeably but gently."503 Andante 3/8 ^ with 32nd notes * K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 4 Duetto Fiordiligi/Dorabella „Ah guarda, sorella" (Ex. 338) - K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 501 „II ritrattino pel coricino" - K 564 Piano Trio in G, 2nd movement (Theme and 6 variations) - K 482 Piano Concerto in E flat, 2nd movement - K 478 Piano Quartet in G minor, 2nd movement * K 469 Davide penitente, Cantata, no. 8 Aria Soprano 1 „Tra l'oscure ombre funeste"— (Ex. 339) - K 430 Lo Sposo deluso, Overture, b. 123 (instrum entation fragmentary) - K 388 Serenade in C minor for wind (arrangement of String Q uin tet K 406), 2nd movement - K 384 Die Entführung, Overture, b.119 (32nd notes virtual, corresponding to no. 1, b. 64) * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 1 Aria Belmonte „Hier soll ich dich denn sehen, Konstanze!" (Ex. 337) - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 89 „Doch ach! bei aller Lust" (virtual 32nd notes) - K 209 „Si mostra la sorte", aria for tenor and orchestra There is no physical walking in the ,small' 3/8 metre which is always stressed in whole bars; here the music itself „walks" its light-footed pace. Andante 3/8 with 32nd notes is more lightly moving (or should be) than Andante 3/4 with the same degree of subdivision, i.e. with 16th notes - as for instance the „Fandango" in Finale II Figaro (Ex. 280) or Pamina's „Tamino mein! O welch ein Glück!" (Ex. 281). (Andante) _ K 384, no. 1, m. 1 0 + 4 7 f f f p Hier soll ich dich denn se- hen, Kon- stan- ze! dich f i a Glück! a und brin ge mich, vi-de Ex. 337: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 1 Aria Belmonte, b. 10 and 47 It must have been the false connection of a physical „Andante" to the beat which caused Karl Böhm to open the Abduction from the Seraglio, K 384 - for its youthful hero an adventurous undertaking - so contemplatively. Did Mozart not give Belmonte - beaming with optimism and thirst for action in C major, 503 Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon ('Musical Dictionary'), col. 141 [app. p. 312]. — In Mozart's catalogue Larghetto 3/8. 200 Mozart's Tempo-System enthusiastically anticipating his reunion with Konstanze - a courageous, light 3/8 metre (Ex. 337) as the curtain rises? And on the other hand, in the farewell duet with Konstanze („Meinetwegen sollst du ster ben!"), for their sorrow in the face of expected death - though with the same tempo word - did he not choose the slower and ,heavier' 3/4 metre? (Ex. 283) In the Duetto no. 4 in Cosi fan tutte one can still witness Fiordiligi and Dorabella as two ripe opera singers celebrating the beauty of their voices in solemnly undulating 3/4 metre. The listener enjoys the sonority since Mozart's melodies are like gold wire which can be stretched and stretched without breaking. Edward Dent's „sentimental slow movement " (1913) can still often be heard here.505 Ex. 338: Cosi fan tutte, K 588, no. 4 Duetto Fiordiligi/Dorabella, b. 15 and 37 But the dramatic intention is to show Don Alfonso's two test characters as lightheaded, rapturous teen agers, — which is crucial to the plausibility of the plot. The 32nd notes from b. 35 are not a dull staccato etude but the depiction of the „blazing glances" and „arrows" the girls see flying towards them from the portaits of their lovers - underlaid with palpitating syncopations in the second violins. (Ex. 338). The sharp ly dotted rhythms in b. 53 and 61 -64 paint the warriors and their alleged martial threats in the features of the men's babyfaces, not a baroque rattling cuirass. None of this can come out in the processional stride of a pensioner with the pulse of a tired bureaucrat, but only if the 32nd notes have the same nimble tem po as 16th notes in Allegretto 4/4 metre. Only like this can an actually non-existent sudden change of mood of the girls be avoided with the final Allegro 2/4: their already blithe mood merely grows boisterous when they conjure lifelong tortures on themselves should they ever become unfaithful. Contrary to the Contemporary Standard practice of the metric of groups of bars described by Türk and Schulz (see p. 086, Ex. 101) in which every first bar of a group was heavier than the one following—, in „Ah guarda, sorella" (Ex. 338) and „Un'aura amorosa" (Ex. 335) (apart from the introductory bar in each case) the second and fourth (i.e. 3rd and 5th) bars (in the music example b. 16 and 18) seem to be heavier than the first and third (15th and 1 7th). This does not correspond, however, to Hugo Riemann's System of upbeatbars, which understands every second bar as the aim of the first one: its effect is that of a metrical syncopation, dialectically enlivening the regulär symmetry. The aria „Tra l'oscure ombre funeste", which Mozart inserted into his cantata Davide penitente, K 469 (no. 8) for a secular concert of the Viennese „Tonkünstlersozietät", is an example of a work whose ,smallest note values' could deceive. „Oscure ombre funeste" (baneful shadows) and 64th-note tiratas (Ex. 339) that paint „tempests", underlaid with syncopations, dominate the alternating entries of vc/db and violins in thirteen bars o fthe aria - but still the drumming 32nd note repetitions o fthe strings (b. 41-49), occuring in only nine bars, are those which decide the tempo. 505 Edward Dent, Mozart's Operas, (2nd edition 1947 p.195). — Referring to the Duet no. 20 „Prendero quel brunettino" [Ex. 209] Peter Gülke calls them aptly „cackling little geese" („Das schwierige Theaterspielwerk", in: Die Sprache der Musik, 2001 ,p .1 0 1 ). — M oritz Hauptmann's „Akzent des Anfangs" („accent of the beginning"). - See footnotes 263, p. 081 and 819, p. 343. Mozart's Tempo-System 201 Ex. 339: Davide penitente, K 469, no. 8 Aria soprano 1, b. 26 The Andante 3/8 metre with 32nd notes of „Ah guarda sorella" (Ex. 338) and „Hier soll ich dich denn sehen" (Ex. 337) (which are so often dragged) is the same as that hidden within the generally similarly dragged Andante 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre of Pamina's aria (Ex. 340) - even though the dramatic contents are so completely different from one another. This aria is a paradigm for compound metres and their often misunderstood tempos; I have addressed this in detail in an essay in „Mozart Studien".508 Andante 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 32nd notes K 620 Zauberflöte, no. 17 Aria Pamina „Ach ich fühl's, es ist verschwunden!" (Ex. 340) K612 „Per questa bella mano", Aria for bass, obbligato double bass and orchestra K 550 Symphony in G minor, 2nd movement (Ex. 342) K511 Rondo in A minor for piano (Ex. 341) K 496 Piano Trio in G, 2nd movement (Ex. 343) Andante K 620, no. 17, m. 1, 14, 38 crescendo f Ex. 340: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no.1 7 Aria Pamina, b. 1 -4, 14-16, 38-41 The incomparable postlude of this aria proves in a particularly impressive way the fact that we are dealing with a compound 6/8 metre. The increasing series of syncopated sigh motives from b. 38, a really heartbreaking hyper hemiola, would have been possible neither in 3/8 nor in ,simple' 6/8 metre.— Andante K 511, m. 1+146 crescendo f fr r r r Ex. 341: Rondo in A minor for piano, K 511, b. 1 and 146 As they are instrumental, the 32nd notes o fthe magnificent, chromatically charged Rondo for piano, 508 Helmut Breidenstein, Mozarts Tempo-System. Zusammengesetzte Takte als Schlüssel, in: Mozart Studien, vol. 13, 2004, p. 35ff. — Concerning the tempo of the aria see - as a grotesque - „Gottfried Weber's pendulum indication for Pamina's aria" of 1815 and its discussion in the Mozart literature [app. p. 352]. 202 Mozart's Tempo-System K 511, (b. 49-53, 76-80) may be a little more virtuoso than those of Pamina; they show, however - as do their two harmonies per bar - this 6/8 metre too as clearly compound. Andante K 550, II, m. 1+33 p s s p , J> h l T r 9) m m f k § d l —m~m---- w--- f --- f --- f --- ► r a i mI ̂ ̂ K ̂ «/ILU LL^i+ — 4̂+—t—̂ CE__ T L—/ Ex. 342: Symphony in G minor, K 550, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 33 The slow tempo caused by the many 32nd notes, the d flat in b. 2 of the bass line, the trill in b. 3, the sforzatos in b. 7 and 15, the slides in b. 13/14 - all accentuating the second half of the bar - the hemiolas in b. 20, 22 and many more things besides make it impossible to hear the second movement of the Gminor symphony, K 550, as a ,simple' 6/8- metre (a 1) - i.e. a tripled 2/4 metre (the so-called „mixed metre"), although the beginning, seen superficially, appears to be o fthat kind. Andante K 496, II Klavier f ‘ m f p m m J>4: I B p f p Ex. 343: Piano Trio in G, K496, 2nd movement The 2nd movement of the Piano Trio in G, K 496, too, does not reveal itself as compound until b. 8 (and then more than clearly in b. 30-33). (Andante 6/8 (3 + 3)) ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 * K 498 Piano T rio inE flat (Kegelstatt Trio), 1st movement (Ex. 344) - K 425 Symphony in C (Linz Symphony), 2nd movement (Andante) n - , , , ^ K498, I, m. 13 Ex. 344: Piano T rio inE flat, K 498, (Kegelstatt Trio), 1st movement, b.13 The tempo of the first movement of the Kegelstatt-tho is determined by 16th notes and 16th note triplets (b. 127/128). The movement has moreover sixty-seven written out turns in 64th notes which as mere embellishments are not relevant for the tempo but of course playable like everything in Mozart. Their correct execution by sometimes two players simultaneously in coordination with exactly one 16th note of the accompaniment (e.g. b. 15) seems to have been so important for him that he took the trouble of no tating two hundred and sixty-eight 64th notes [!] instead of using the usual sign for the turn. Peter Benary considered that they were „not playable in the usual and plausible tempo eighth note MM=132 "510 - and he was undoubtedly right. But is the „usual tempo" perhaps wrong? The opinion that one couldn't play the movement more slowly „for musical reasons" may be caused by a horror vacui of the ,empty' bars 2, 4, 6 and 8. The dialogue, though, between the sonorous, self-confident assertion in b. 1 and 5 and - diplomatically delayed - the shyly doubting question in b. 3 and 7, is exactly what makes this 510 Peter Benary, Der Doppelschlag, (Jhe turn') in: Musica 43 (1989), p. 384. Mozart's Tempo-System 203 exposition so thrilling, before the music begins to stream along uninterruptedly from the entry of the clarinet in b. 9 to the end, so releasing the tension which had been built up in the introduction. The Andante 6/8 (3 + 3) of the Linz Symphony and of the Kegelstatt Trio [ex. 344] containing only 16th note triplets as smallest essential note values fits between Pamina's aria with its 32nd notes (Ex. 340) on the one hand and the second movement of the ,Prague' Symphony (Ex. 346) and the Osmin/Blonde Duett (Ex. 348) dominated by 16th notes on the other. The 64th notes of the Kegelstatt Trio are perfectly playable in this tempo, but they set a speed limit which cannot be exceeded - and therefore for the Andante of the Linz Symphony as well. [Andante 3/8] ^ with 16th notes - K 623 Cantata „Laut verkünde unsre Freude", no. 3 Duetto „Lange sollen diese Mauern" - K 480 Terzetto „Mandina amabile" * K 318 Symphony in G, 2nd part, b.110 (Ex. 345) , K318, m. 110+144 + 4 y g r 7Str. p t tf - f t Ex. 345: Symphony in G, K 318, 2nd part, b. 110 and 144 [Andante 6/8 (3 + 3)] ^ with 16th notes - K 621 La Clemenza di Tito, no. 3 Duettino Sesto/Annio „Deh prendi un dolce amplesso + K 504 Symphony in D (Prague), 2nd movement (Ex. 346) - K 421 String Quartet in D minor (2nd Haydn Quartet), 2nd movement - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 2 Osmin's Lied „Wer ein Liebchen hat gefunden"— + K 384 Die Entführung, no. 9, Duett Osmin/Blonde b. 56 „O Engländer" (Ex. 348) - K 297 Symphony in D (Paris), 2nd movement (version of the first performance, see footnote 484; originally Andantino) - K 252 Divertimento in E flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsn, 1st movement + [K 492 Figaro, no. 28 Aria Susanna „Deh vieni non tardar, oh gioia bella" Ex. 097]— Andante K 504, II, m. 1+23 i >3 & it t i ' t i t r [ Ex. 346: Symphony in D (Prague Symphony), K 504, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 23 The 32nd notes in the second movement of the ,Prague' Symphony are not relevant for the tempo (see p. 118). Nevertheless they influence the mouvement with their sharply dotted rhythms in b. 23. — ln the NMA „Andante" is set in Italics since it doesn't exist in the autograph. On a sketch sheet for this Liedf however, Mozart wrote „Andante" at b. 45 (the present Primo tempo); it seems to me that the term can therefore be regarded as authorized also for the beginning, the more so as it definitely Stands the test in comparison w ith „O h Engländer, seid ihr nicht Toren" (Ex. 348). — Susanna's aria „Deh vieni non tardar" could be taken as a paradigm for this group; but unfortunately the perfectly fitting term „Andante" is not authentic. See Breidenstein, in: Mozart Studien vol. 13, 2004, p. 63-65. - See also here the excursus „Compound Metres" p. 81 and Ex. 097. 204 Mozart's Tempo-System A n u aru e - ] ) ., s f m •; f % 9 * t + r \ -m- -0--f J V f h g •( f l r h— d i u / h . h , : J jJ J F ^ ~ r K— h----------m Zi * / ♦ - - g f 9 P * SfSf • , < cresc. T = f f ^ r = p L L j P Im k k-14 -i> ft, B» lv 0 J 7 ^ 3 r » , * -? .? cresc. # p . / p 3 J . -------- " p m U Ex. 347: String Quartet in D minor, K421, 2nd movement The second movement of the String Quartet in D minor, K 421, consists - very unusually - for the most part of groups of three bars. The middle section (now in groups of four bars) all of a sudden bursts out with wild staccato-chords in C minor (b. 31/32) which bring the movement to the distant key of A fla t major; only b. 47/48 - turning sharply to C-major - allow then the calm recapitulation to begin. Osmin: O Eng- län- der, seid ihr nicht To- ren, ihr laßt eu- ren Wei- bern den Wil- len. Ex. 348: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 9 Duett Osmin/Blonde (b. 56-60 and 61-64 combined) „O Engländer" is scanned by some singers of Osmin (or their conductors) in eighth notes. But the tempo word „Andante" does not refer to these; the tempo giusto of the piece, which is defined by its light uneven metre with only 16th notes as quite animated, is merely slowed down to a ,wanton' walking of the eighth-notes - as in the second part of the Symphony in G, K 318 (Ex. 345), the second movement of the Paris Symphony, K 297 and Osmin's Lied, Die Entführung no. 2. In spite of Blonde's enthusiastic waving of her little flag of freedom and her pugnacious dissonances on „Herz", „Freiheit", „niemals" and „skla visch" every half bar, there is mainly only one harmony during each of the first 10 bars. From the 11th bar (b. 66), however, until the fermata in bar 82, the compound 6/8 metre proves itself clearly with several perfect cadences on second halves of the bar, with bars in virtual 3/8 metre and two mfp-accents per bar of the violins in b. 73 and 77, before in b. 83 our quarrelsome Blonde in a sudden change of time into a resolute Allegro assai (6/8 ä 1) with whole-bar accentuation gives Osmin his marching Orders with forte Signals of the horns (Ex. 264). [Andante 6/8 (3 + 3)] ^ with 8th notes * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 21 Finale II, b. 534 „Nun wohlan, es bleibt dabei" (Ex. 349) - K619 „Die ihr des unermeßlichen Weltalls", Cantata for voice and piano, b. 107, „Wähnt nicht, daß wahres Unglück sei" 534 Andante K 620, no. 21, m. 534 l Nun wohll ) : | 3 + 3 ^ ^ \ an! es bleibt da- f ’bei! nun wohl- J .... J> J) 7 ^ " , | an! es bleibt da- J>kj> j>*/ u 7 b^! J y k|L --------- V ^ ------ 1p 7 7— ^ — 8M !+ J p*? V--- 1 Ex. 349: Die Zauberflöte, K620, no. 21 Finale II, b. 534, Papageno Mozart's Tempo-System 205 ^ with 32nd notes * K 588 Cos! fan tutte, no. 23 Duetto Dorabella/Guglielmo „II core vi dono, bell'idolo mio" (Ex. 350) - K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 25 Aria Ascanio „Torna mio bene, ascolta"513 Andante grazioso 3/8 Ex. 350: Cos/ fan tutte, K 588, no. 23 Duetto Dorabella/Guglielmo, b. 60 „Nel petto un Vesuvio" One sees and hears Mount Vesuvius seething in Dorabella's breast! It is a grave aesthetic error that underestimates Mozart's art of creating parables if a human pulse, in a naturalistic 1:1 relation, is tritely taken as a basis for the staccato 16th notes of her palpitations (b. 19, 23-29, 40-47 „per che batte, batte, batte qui?").— ^ with 16th notes K 120 Symphony in D, 2nd movement K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 1 Ballo delle Grazie (=Symphony K120, 2nd movement) K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 16 Aria Ascanio, b. 48 „Solo un momento in calma lasciami" K 111 Ascanio in Alba, no. 19 Aria Silvia, b. 136 „Vieni col mio bei nume" K 51 La finta semplice, no. 26 Finale III, b. 49 „Alme belle innamorate" Andante con moto 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K428 String Quartet in E flat (4th Haydn Quartet), 2nd movement (Ex. 351, Ex. 100) Andante con moto K 428, II, m. 1+89 crescendo P s f P crescendo j* Ex. 351: String Quartet in E flat, K 428, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 89 The Sforzandos and fortes in the second halves of b. 1 and 5 stand here as exceptions to Kirnberger's rule that second halves of the bar in compound 6/8 metre should be lighter. In bar 21-25, however, Mozart crossed out 41/2 bars and inserted 1/2 a bar in order to bring the whole-bar sforzandos there on to the first beat (see p. 085, Ex. 100). The consistently two harmonies per bar and the series of dynamic changes at a distance of an eighth note (b. 70, 90) would not be possible in ,simple' 6/8 metre. As in all uneven and all compound metres the tempo word refers neither to the half bar nor to the eighth note. (A parallel for An dante con moto among even metres is the second movement of the symphony in E flat K 543 [2/4=4/8] Ex. 216). The tempo of K 428/II in its binary combination of two 3/8 metres into one 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) can well be compared with Susanna's Molto Andante 3/8 (Ex. 352). Differently from there the manner of play- 513 Tempo word in Leopold's hand in Mozart's conducting score; therefore possibly authorized. — The same is true for „Ah guarda, sorella" (3/8, Cosi fan tutte no. 4, Ex. 338), Wedrai, carino" (3/8, Ex. 359, Don Giovanni no. 18 b. 55 „Sentilo battere") and „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig klopft mein liebevolles Herz" (4/8, Die Entführung no. 5, Ex. 199), where Mozart has expressed the loving heartthrob not at all by the staccato eighth notes but by the little 16th note groups of the „2 violins in octaves" (Mozart's letter no. 629 of 26.09.1 781, app. p. 266). 206 Mozart's Tempo-System ing here is almost entirely legato; because of the wide arc of compound metres Mozart could, in spite of the calm tempo, set slurs here over up to three bars (b. 2-4, 31/32 etc.). Molto andante 3/8 ^ with 16th notes * K 492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 126, Susanna: „Signore, .... cos' e quel stupore?" (Ex. 352, Ex.156 6) Ex. 352: Figaro, K492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 126 and 133 Susanna's famous Molto Andante 3/8 in the Figaro Act 2 Finale at her surprising entry from the adjoining room is (apart from two places in recitatives—) the only such indication in Mozart's complete works. Since Andante traditionally meant „slow" (and molto of course: „very") it has often been overstretched to a ,heavy' Andante 3/4 metre with three accents per bar („The m otif in the orchestra recalls nothing so much as a heartbeat giving out"516). The second movement of the symphony K 338 shows that this is wrong: there Mozart added „piü tosto Allegretto" to the „Andante di m olto" 2/4 in the concertmaster's part (Ex. 217).— Susanna's entrance is therefore „lively walking ", provocative, „con ironia" (as the stage direction demands) „o f a liveliness that is somewhat frolicsome."518 But yet there is now no need to play this Molto andante „flo tt" (briskly) Since Hermann Abert, „II ne sait plus que dire" in Finale I of Gretry's L'amant jaloux (b. 168ff) has often erroneously named as a parallel piece. Gretry's passage, how ever, is in the slower Andante-3/4 metre and has nothing at all of Susanna's cheekiness. Abert's quotation may innocently have contributed to the usual dragging of the Mozart, particularly as he inadvertently reproduced Gretry's bars in A m i n o r . Andantino 3/8 ^ with 16th notes - K 196 La finta giardiniera, no. 27 Duetto Sandrina/Contino, b.114 „Lei mi chiama? Signor no" Andantino 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 32nd notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 15 Terzetto „Ah taci, ingiusto core" (Ex. 353, Ex. 354) The terzetto „Ah taci, ingiusto core", so varied in shape and form, is connected with the following Canzonetta by a quotation in advance: in no. 15 (b. 36/37) Don Giovanni disguised as Leporello sings under the balcony of his ex-wife Elvira in Andantino and with cutting cynicism the languishing melody („Discendi, o gioia bella"), with which he w ill try in no. 16 to seduce her chambermaid with the text „Deh vieni alla finestra" - but there with genuine intent, one tone higher, and increased to Allegretto (Ex. 353). (Andantino) K 527, no. 15, m. 36 “ n ^ S + r r T t * 0- i fH 0 0 s “ ||----- $ --- Don Giovanni: Di- scen- di,o gio- ia bei- la Ex. 353: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 15 Terzetto, b. 36, Don Giovanni: Deh vie- nial- la fi- ne- stra and no. 16 Canzonetta, b. 5 — ln the recitative before no. 20a Idomeneo, b. 8 o fth e Andante b. 42 = 1, where „m o lto " is clearly meant as an increase in speed; similarly in the recitative no. 27, b. 95. 516 Hermann Abert, W. A. Mozart, trans. Stewart Spencer, 2007, p. 955 — It concerns an Andante di m olto in ,simple' 2/4 metre, the first two bars of which because of gruppetti on both halves of the bar seem to be a virtual 4/8 metre. Obviously Mozart wrote the additional piü tosto Allegretto into the concertmaster's part in Donaueschingen in order to prevent a too slow tempo. 518 Kirnberger, Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik ('The Art o fStrict Musical Composition'), p. 133 (app. p. 279) — „F lo tt" („briskly") is Harnoncourt's characterisation of this M olto Andante in the programme o f the Salzburger Festspiele for Figaro 2006, p. 29. Mozart's Tempo-System 207 The Terzetto no. 15 - like those in Zaide (no. 8) and Tito (no. 14) - shows the great distance between Andantino and Larghetto (contrary to Harnoncourt's thesis (see p. 030); its 84 bars show also that the dim i nutive Andantin o has nothing to do with downscaling the music, for instance in the direction of cuteness or brevity: all three examples are truly dramatic and full of contrasting emotions which go as far as wild repetitions of 32nd notes and sharp fortepiano accents (which for three bars cause here Splitting up the compound 6/8 (3 + 3) metre into equally heavy 3/8 bars). (Ex. 354 and Ex. 360). ^ with 16th notes triplets Ex. 354: Don Giovanni, K 527, no. 15 Terzetto, b. 46/47 K 360 Six Variations in G minor for piano and violin on „Au bord d'une fontaine" * K 344 Zaide, no. 8 Terzetto „O selige Wonne, die glänzende Sonne" ^ with 16th notes * K 621 La Clemenza di Titof no. 14 Terzetto „Se al volto mai ti senti" * K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 7 Duett „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" (Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 15 Chorus „Placido e il mar, andiamo" - K 208 II re pastore, Seena 1 (Aminta) „Intendo amico rio quel basso mormorio" Mozart's difficulties with the metric of the 6/8 metre from b. 44 of the duet „Bei Männern welche Liebe fühlen" in „ Die Zauberflöte" had caused him laboriously to cross out forty-eight bar-lines backwards from the end and to replace them by new ones in the middle of each bar (see p. 084, p. 208, Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356), instead of much more easily making twice as many 3/8 bars: a clear proof of the duet's compound metre which offered with its lighter second halves of the bars metrical differentiations not possible in a series ofequally stressed 3/8 bars. 208 Mozart's Tempo-System Ex. 355: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 7 Duett „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen", autograph The wrong emphases in the text he got now at the beginning of the duet (Ex. 355) („Bei Männern / welche Liebe / fühlen fehlt auch ein / gutes Herze / nicht") and later would have been avoidable only by several changes of metre with inserted bars in 3/8 time which were not usual in his day (Ex. 356) 520: Andantino ^ Pamina K 620, no. 7 (fictitious notation) Papageno 7,if pii: 0 J1 Q J1! j j - t> ^ t p i t J f Qpi 7 fi p Bei Män- nern, wel- che Lie- be Lüh- len, fehlt auch ein gu- tes Her- ze nicht. Die Lieb - [2nd vers] Lie- be freun, wir le- ben durch die Lieb al- lein, wir le- ben durch die Lieb’ al- lein. p sotto voce U * r , i -m p-' r f r ir ip-'—|fiirrrr-HiW ^ r Fl!Gott- heit an -3- - - - dis3 Gott- heit ;an- -3- ------- lie P i rGott- heit an. pilup77ii fP fP P Ex. 356: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 7 Duett „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" (with fictitious changes of metre) 520 As one can see, the clarinet and horn chords traditionally played in b. 2/3 are missing in the autograph. Their insertion by analogy w ith b. 16/17 is convincing but has until now unfortunately no support from autograph sources. See H. Breidenstein in: Mozart Studien vo l.13 , 2004, p. 38 ff. Mozart's Tempo-System 209 (Andantino 6/8 (3 + 3)) ^ with 8th notes * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 16 Quartett, b. 193 „Wenn unsrer Ehre wegen" (Ex. 357) bald sich Wei- ber krän- ken, daß wir sie un- treu Ex. 357: Die Entführung, K 384, no. 16 Quartett, b. 197 By wrongly referring the tempo word to the half bars as the counting unit, this piece may have contributed to the misunderstanding that Andantino indicated a slower tempo than Andante. Actually it modi fies only the swift tempo giusto of a 6/8 (3 + 3) metre without 16th notes towards a floating motion, surpassing a little the duet „Bei Männern welche Liebe fühlen" with sixteenth notes. Andantino grazioso 3/8 ^ with 32nd notes * K 130 Symphony in F, 2nd movement (Ex. 358) K 130, II, m. 1+ 17 Ex. 358: Symphony in F ,K 130, 2nd movement, b. 1 and 17 Andantino grazioso 3/8, that is - in spite of the dynamic restraint at the beginning and the dramatic forte from b. 11 on the other hand - still a little lighter in tempo than the eighth notes in the 6/8 „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen"! (see Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356) ^ with 16th notes - K 181 Symphony in D, 2nd movement Grazioso 3/8 ^ with 32nd notes - K 208 II re pastore, no. 5 Aria Agenore „Per me rispondete" ^ with 16th notes * K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 18 Aria Zerlina „Vedrai, carino, se sei buonino" (Ex. 359) In „Vedrai carino" the even-numbered bars compete with the uneven-numbered ones for dominance within the metric scheme of groups of bars (see p. 085). A compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre, however, put together from ,heavy' and ,light' 3/8 bars, would not have allowed this tender piece such ambivalence. 210 Mozart's Tempo-System When Zerlina puts the hand of her Masetto on her heart („Sentilo battere", „Feel it beating", b. 53 ff) one hears in the orchestra the staccato sixteenth notes of „Perche batte, batte, batte qui?" (Why is it beating, beating, beating here?") - the similarly infectious heart beat of Dorabella and Guglielmo in their duetto „II coro vi dono" in Cos! fan tutte (Andante grazioso 3/8, b. 23-29 and 39-47). Underestimating Mozart's art, some interpreters have taken there a quiet normal human pulse as a basis.— Are the lovers then not highly excited? Although the single word „Grazioso" is not an indication for „fempo", but for the manner o f playing, tempo giusto - „3/8 w ithout 32nd notes" - makes it clear that the aria must be taken with whole-bar accentuation, approximately like the half bars of the Andantino 6/8 (3 + 3) „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" (Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356). Grazioso 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K492 Figaro, no. 22 Chorus „Ricevete, oh padroncina" (Ex. 360) Ex. 360: Figaro, K 492, no. 22 Chorus, b. 9 and 33 Here, too, we see that the single word „ Grazioso", is not an indication of tempo. The charming little cho rus of the village girls bringing flowers has nothing in common with „Vedrai carino" (Ex. 359) except for the manner of playing. It is in a cheerful dance-like mood. The musette character paints the country atmosphere, the many grace-notes the flowers, the continuous piano legato the subliminal erotic tension: the amorous Cherubino - dressed as a girl - may hope for a kiss from his Countess. Mozart didn't want the awkward scansion of 3/8 bars: hence his notation as compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre. The second halves of the bars must be stressed more lightly than the first, which increases the gracefulness. In bars 5-8, 15 16, 26-27 and 31-35, however, he split the compound 6/8 (3 + 3) metre by equally heavily accented slides into little groups ofvirtual 3/8 metre bars. Allegretto moderato 3/8 ^ with 16th notes - K 492 Figaro, no. 13a Arietta Susanna „Un moto di gioia mi sento nel petto" Allegretto mä non troppo 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 - K 421 String Quartet in D minor, 4th movement For Mozart's changing of the tempo word of K 421, IV, from „Allegretto" through „Andante" and finally settling on „Allegretto mä non troppo", see the facsimile on p. 031 (Ex. 001 ). Allegretto 3/8 ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cos/ fan tutte, no. 31 Finale II, b. 509 „Ed al magnetico signor dottore" (Ex. 361) - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 20a Duetto llia/ldamante, b. 21 „Ah il gioir sorpassa in noi" - K 366 Idomeneo, no. 30a Aria Idomeneo, b. 56 „Tal la stagion di Flora" - K 295 „Se al labbro mio non credi", Aria for tenor and orchestra, b.118 „II cor dolente e afflitto" — Let's also remember „O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig klopft mein liebevolles Herz", Belmonte's aria no. 5 in Die Entführung (Ex. 199); though this is in 2/4 (4/8) metre. Mozart's Tempo-System 211 Ed al mag- ne- ti- co si- gnor dot- to- re ren- do l’o- no- re che me- ri- tö. Ex. 361: Cos/ fan tutte, K 588, no. 31 Finale II, b. 509 Despina's entrance, stumbling in as the false doctor in Finale I of Cos/ fan tutte in A l l e g r o 3/4 („Eccovi il medico" no. 18, b. 292) is quoted in an ironically refined manner as A l l e g r e t t o 3/8 when she is revealed in Finale II („Ed al magnetico signor dottore", Ex. 361). The more moderate tempo word for the small 3/8 metre, „by nature" faster, is enough to result in the same tempo as the Allegro 3/4 but with a more pointed articulation. It corresponds exactly to the Allegretto 6/8 (3 + 3) of the Terzett no. 16 of the Three Boys (Ex. 362) and with the other Allegrettos 6/8 (3 + 3) of the following list. Allegretto 6/8 (3+3) with 16lh notes Allegretto K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 16 Terzett „Seid uns zum zweiten Mal willkommen" (Ex. 362) (K 590 String Quartet in F, 2nd movement [NMA: Andante or Allegretto])— K 564 Piano Trio in G, 3rd movement K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 16 Canzonetta Giovanni „Deh vieni alla finestra"— (Ex. 353) K 492 Figaro, no. 21 Duetto Contessa/Susanna „Canzonetta sul'aria" K 459 Piano Concerto in F, 2nd movement (Ex. 363) K 620, no. 16, m. 1 +5 ^ - tr ~ üCm W i l P w —w- vi-de Ex. 362: Die Zauberflöte, K 620, no. 16, Terzett Three Boys, b. 1 -3 and 5-6 One would prefer to let the tempo of this lightly flying piece be decided solely by the Boys. For the whirring of their virtual wings in b. 3, however, shakes on 32nd notes must - at least approximately - be pos sible, not trills on something like 16th notes only. Why otherwise did Mozart write 16th note rests in be tween?— 70 (Allegretto) rZj K 459, II, m. 70 Ex. 363: Piano Concerto in F, K459, 2 movement, b. 70 {dotted lines: bar-lines firs t version) As in the Duett „Bei Männern, welche Liebe fühlen" (Ex. 099, Ex. 355, Ex. 356) and in the Adagio of the Rondo no. 19 in Tito, K 621 (see footnote 299), Mozart later changed the bar-lines in one passage in the second movement of the Piano Concerto K 459. Among others he struck out 12 bar-lines by wavy lines across the entire accolade (shown here by dotted bar-lines) and inserted new ones in the respective middle so that the motive of the last 6 eighth notes of our music example could be taken over two bars later by the — ln the autograph the movement has „Andante" which would correspond to the second movement of the Prague symphony, K 504 (Ex. 346). The posthumous first edition of 1791 has „Allegretto", which fits so well (compare: „Seid uns zum zweiten Mal w illkom m en", Ex. 362), that the hypothesis of the Critical Report that it could be a revision by Mozart himself in the engraver's master copy or in the galley proof seems plausible. 523 On the quotation in advance in the Andantino 6/8 (3 + 3) „Ah taci, ingiusto core" (Ex. 353) see p. 207. — Note by the way Mozart's „w rong" accentuations of Schikaneder's iambic verses (the correct ones marked by dotted underlining): /..Seid uns zum zweiten / Mal w ill- kommen, / ih r Männer in Sa- / rastros Reich! / El schickt, was man euch / abge-nommen, / die Flöte und die / Glöckchen euch!"/ Wo/Zf ihr die Spejsen / njcht verschmähen, / §q esset, trinket / froh davon! / Wenn w ir zum dritten / Mal uns sehen, / iM Freude eures / Mutes Lohn! / Ta-mino, M ut! / nah jst das Ziel! / Du Papageno, / schweige .still!" They enhance the enigmatic aura of the children and paradoxically push their airship's gondola off the ground, as they give an additional weight by their irregularity to the first beat of every second bar (and, towards the end, of each bar). 212 Mozart's Tempo-System wind players in b. 76 on down-beats (Ex. 363— ). So - as in Kirnberger's already cited definition of the compound 6/8 metre in „Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik" which Mozart had known since 1782 — - he didn't consider the metrical weight of the two halves of the bar as being the same as in a series of 3/8 bars. Allegretto grazioso 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 22 Quartetto „La mano a me date, movetevi un po" (Ex. 364) Allegretto grazioso K 588, no. 22. f • I . .1 <. 0-\m. i .fL+4m. »m.p. • ■ • « ----^ff V I|o , o , -— v- f fTI Tf «3 + i m i V ; i = = ) da- te, mo- ve- te- viun po’ Ol -------u ca ma- noa me ^— = ^-- r -------- 1r.-------- _g_-----------^ Ex. 364: Cosi fan tutte, K 588, no. 22 Quartetto (dotted bar-lines from first version) In the Quartet from Cosi fan tutte, too, Mozart displaced the bar-lines during the composition (Ex. 364): as can be seen in the autograph the oldfashioned little courtly dance began originally with the first eighth note as upbeat (dotted bar-lines). Don Alfonso's most important words „.ma-no", and „mo-vetevi" came in the third and fourth bars on the first beat. In order to underline Alfonso's impatience Mozart set on the 5th eighth note of the original b. 8 a syncopated mf-accent on „par-le-ro per" which didn't go with the light second half of the 6/8 (3 + 3) metre. Thereupon he partly erased (!) and partly crossed out the first eight bar-lines, and inserted new ones three eighth notes later (Ex. 364 normal bar-lines). He could have spared himself the laborious erasure of the Indian ink lines if in his eyes the two halves of the bar were equally heavy, and consequently 3/8 bars - easy to produce - just as good. Concerning the indication „grazioso": the Quartet no. 22 with its Allegretto grazioso is considerably faster than the Terzett of the Three Boys (Die Zauberflöte no. 16, Ex. 362) in non-modified Allegretto. Allegretto vivace 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K 588 Cosi fan tutte, no. 28 Aria Dorabella „E amore un ladroncello" (Ex. 365) With its caesuras with fermatas on the second half of a bar (b. 7, 16, etc.) this aria is also a typical com pound 6/8 metre. Played as a series of equally heavy 3/8 metres wrong accents at the end of the settenario-verses („ladron-cel-lo", „pa-ce") would make it appear almost clumsy. Again, the beginning feigns a faster tempo. But, in spite of the often misconstrued addition ,vivace', Mozart obviously wanted it a little slower than Allegro 6/8 (3 + 3) - in a lighter manner o f playing, however. The Statements of old Quantz about bowing in Vivace and Allegretto could still apply here perfectly weil.— Unfortunately the aria, in which Dorabella merrily tries to justify her own faithlessness in the face of her still steadfast sister, is not really short and has frequently been omitted because the evening has already advanced to the last-butone scene. — Two pages of facsimile in the appendix of Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda's book Mozart-Interpretation, 1957. Unfortunately these two pages were not included in the English edition Interpreting Mozart on the Keyboard, 1957. — In 1782 he copied Kirnberger's canon on the copperplate engraving of the 2nd edition of the first part of 'Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik' {'The Art o fS trict Musical Composition") 1774. — Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung {'On Playing the Flute'), 1752, p. 199, § 26: "Vivace calls for a lively, really light, detached and very short bowstroke. An Allegretto must be rendered somewhat more seriously, w ith a bowstroke that is indeed somewhat heavier though lively and rather powerful." ([app. p. 325]. Mozart's Tempo-System 213 Moderato 3/8 ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 - K 344 Zaide, no. 14 Aria Allazim, b. 49 „Nur der kennt Mitleid, Huld und Gnad" Allegro ma non troppo 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K218 Violin Concerto in D, 3rd movement Rondeau, b. 14 (Ex. 366) Allegro ma non troppo • 15h i m m K 218, III, m. 14+58 58 $ Ex. 366: Violin Concerto in D, K218, 3rd movement Rondeau, b .14 and 58 With its two harmonies and grace-notes on second halves of the bar, a typical compound 6/8 metre! Allegro 3/8 ^ with 16th notes K 455 Ten Variations for piano in G on „Unser dummer Pöbel meint", Variation X K 424 Duo in B flat for violin and viola, 3rd movement, Variation VI, b. 120 K 382 Rondo in D for piano and orchestra, b. 137 K 378 Piano and Violin Sonata in B flat, 3rd movement Rondeau (Ex. 367) K 305 Piano and Violin Sonata in A, 2nd movement, Variation VI K 301 Piano and Violin Sonata in G, 2nd movement K216 Violin Concerto in G, 3rd movement Rondeau K204 Serenade in D, 8th movement, b .16 K 184 Symphony in E flat, 3rd movement K 182 Symphony in B flat, 3rd movement K 129 Symphony in G, 3rd movement K121 Symphony in D , 3rd movement (finale for the Overture K 196) K100 Cassation in D (Serenade), 9th movement RONDEAU The dance-like stressing of all first beats in Allegro 3/8 pieces is here still further underlined by the turns. Concerning the tempo it should be remembered that three indications in 3/8 metre are faster: Allegro molto , Allegro assai and Prestol (and moreover Allegro 3/8 w ithout 16th notes!) With Allegro vivace, Allegro vivace assai, Allegro con spirito, Allegro molto , Allegro assai, Presto and Presto assai there are even seven tempos in 6/8 (3 + 3) metre faster than Allegro, the mouvement of whose whole, respectively half, bars must consequently be quite moderate! Allegro 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte, no. 20 Aria, b. 21 „Dann schmeckte mir Trinken und Essen" (Ex. 332) ❖ K 620 Die Zauberflöte f no. 21 Finale II, b. 413 „Papagena! Papagena!" (Ex. 368, b. 447) - K576 Piano Sonata in D ,1 st movement - K 548 Piano Trio in C, 3rd movement * K516 String Quintet in G minor, 4th movement, b. 39 (Ex. 370) * K 492 Figaro, no. 8 and 9 Chorus „Giovani liete fiori spargete" (Ex. 098, Ex. 372) - K 450 Piano Concerto in B flat, 3rd movement 214 Mozart's Tempo-System [Allegro 6/8 (3 + 3)] - K417 Horn Concerto in E flat, 3rd movement Rondo - K 415 Piano Concerto in C, 3rd movement Rondeau * K370 Quartet in Ffor ob and string trio, 3rd movement Rondeau (Ex. 371) - K 359 Twelve Variations in G for piano and violin on „La Bergere Celimene", var. XII * K311 Piano Sonata in D, 3rd movement (Ex. 369) - K 306 Piano and Violin Sonata in D, 3rd movement, b. 30 and 125 - K 269 Rondo in B flat for violin and orchestra ^ with 16th notes - K128 Symphony in C, 3rd movement * (K 596 Lied „Sehnsucht nach dem Frühlinge", „Komm, lieber Mai"— ) (16th notes virtual) * (K 527 Don Giovanni, no. 7, Duetto Giovanni/Zerlina, b. 50 „Andiam, andiam"] RONDEAU Allegro + u . . _ _ C f - ■ * Ex. 368: Die Zauberflöte, K620, no. 21 Finale II „Papagena! Papagena!", b. 447 m m m K 311, III, m. 1+21 mm ¥ P r A . & m * — i I Allegro 39 S AU | °J Ex. 369: Piano Sonata in D, K 311, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 21 + * L f t : _ K 516, IV, m. 39+46 , F f f f f f m f p vi- de f f Ex. 370: String Quintet in G minor, K 516, 4th movement, b. 39 and 46 The usual adjectives for the finale of the String Quintet in G minor, K 516 - „weightlessly floating", „boundless optimism", „brilliant" - reveal the idea of a supposed ,simple' 6/8 metre tempo like that of the final movements of the Piano Concertos K 482 and 595 (Ex. 262). For the listener the result is then bar lines shifted back by half a bar, consequently displaced caesuras, and an impossible metric within the bars from b. 47— . The - undoubtedly uncomfortable - acknowledgement of its metre as compound (three eighth notes upbeat, two stresses per bar) would place the piece side by side with Papageno's „Dann schmeckte mir Trinken und Essen" (Ex. 332) and with the Rondeau o fthe Piano Sonata in D, K 311 (Ex. 369) (if in the latter the written out turns in b. 21, 23, 107, 109, 263, 265 are really played after the 3rd eight note - they are not, however, notated in the same way in b. 159-167). The chromatic runs in b. 112-116 of the finale of the String Quintet can well be compared to the tipsy chromatic 16th note runs in Papageno's Arietta in Finale II of Die Zauberflöte (Ex. 368). Played cantabile - that is, quite differently from the usual con brio - (and in b. 50 with the authentic articulation), the movement would have sufficient space to prove its urgent upbeat nature: if the first beat of the first full bar is correctly stressed more — Tempo word: fröhlich (cheerful). — Peter Gülke speaks critically of „a one-sided reception of the easily misunderstood movement seeking for ,last dance' effect and ,lightening of the baggage'." {Triumph der neuen Tonkunst, 1998, p. 154). + Sarah Bennett Reichart's characterisation as „Contredanse frangaise" {The Influence o f eighteenth-century social dance on the Viennese classical style, 1984, p. 20) misses the point just as + Leonard Ratner's „a Ländler with a typical off-beat waltz accompaniment” {Classic Music: Expression, Form and Style, 1980, p. 253). Mozart's Tempo-System 215 heavily than the upbeat, this results in three half bars of a terraced crescendo, like jets of a fountain leaping up to the downpouring peak with the sfp (on the originally lighter second half of the bar). Then consolidating the order of the metre by a change of direction in all parts and new articulation - follows a gradual cascading down in five stages into the half cadence in the basin of the dominant - before the renewed leaping up in the repetition. (Could the middles of bars 47, 49-52 - and especially the then lonely c" in b. 53! - ever be first halves of bars?) „Komm, lieber Mai und mache" K 596 with its tempo word , fröhlich ' semantically similar to Allegro, is compounded of two 3/8 bars as well, but - like „Andiam, andiam" in the Giovanni/Zerlina duet, b. 50 (without authentic tempo word) - certainly one of the cases where virtual sixteenth notes are taken for granted. The third movement of the Oboe Quartet, K 370, with one passage on the borderline of playability, sets a lim it for all 3/8- and 6/8 (3 + 3) A l l e g r o s with 16th notes: in b. 95-107 the oboe plays polymetrically a 4/4 metre against the 6/8 metre of the strings.— From b. 103 it has 16 sixteenth notes per bar, in the turns of b. 98 even - nearly unplayable - thirty-second notes (Ex. 371): 95 (Allegro) /-rHT1 bfrfr+ K 370, 1f r -------- f ------- 1M, m. 95 &I K J T W * r - 4 m ------------------- P L . S S . S * — L 1— U - ^ . 1 1 1 •1 US. S.T j I--K p 7— 2— 3 + 3 8 P = j ■, Lj * * * r fr- 0 Ex. 371: Oboe Quartet, K 370, 3rd movement Rondeau, b. 95 K 492, no. 8 + 9, m. 9 A llegro / = Ex. 372: Figaro, K492, no. 8 and 9 Chorus „Giovani liete", b. 9 (metrical markingafterTürk, Ex. 101) Dressed in white, strewing flowers, the peasants thank the Count pointedly for his relinquishment of the Jus primae noctis. Well-mannered, they obey the poetic metre with lighter second halves of the bar in compound 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) time (Ex. 372). (Because of its articulated 16th notes and the turns demanding five 32nd notes to an eighth note, the tempo is not as brisk as in Ex. 373. However, within Mozart's flexi ble system it doesn't need to be mathematically the same as in the lively examples Ex. 369 and Ex. 370.) [Allegro 3/8] ^ with 8th notes * K492 Figaro, no. 16 Finale II, b. 328 „Signori di fuori son giä i suonatori" (Ex. 373) “ f f r l 0 m• 0 r PßfT' f Ps—ß~ > L > L r f — 1V-K / 0 0 r fcs Fig;aro : Si- gno- ri di fuo- ri son giäi sut)- naj ; j ; to- ri Ex. 373: Figaro, K492, no. 16 Finale II, b. 328531 Bursting in with his announcement of the musicians already waiting outside Figaro presses for the long delayed marriage. Reminiscent of the obeisance chorus „Giovani liete" in the first act532 (Ex. 372), but now — The NMA prints here c instead of Mozart's autograph C. The Critical Report comments: „b. 95: time signature C set over erased 6/8; b. 98 (new page): time signature C at the beginning o fth e system repeated in oboe and 6/8 in the other parts; NMA sets in oboe „the probably more correct - Do Mozart's laborious erasing of the 6/8 signature and his repetition of the C in the next bar not speak clearly enough against an error? Although the intervention of the know-it-all editor has no influence on the practical performance it still arouses doubts about the reliability o fth e remainder of his edition. Like the compound 6/8 (3/8+3/8) metre the parallel C metre is of course compound as well (2/4+2/4), particularly clear in b. 98; the 16 sixteenth notes in bars 103-107 could never be Allegro c - not to speak of the 32nd notes. 531 Accents after Türk, see Ex. 101. 532 Figaro, no. 8, Allegro 6/8 (3/8+3/8). 216 Mozart's Tempo-System in an increased Allegro (i.e. no longer with 16th notes) he tramples its well-formed 6/8 (3/8 + 3/Ö) metre into nothing but the rustic 3/8 bars of the wedding dance he wants at last to force (/=.. /= .. /= .. /= .. /). [Allegro 6/8 (3 + 3)] ^ with 8th notes * K 593 String Quintet in D, 4th movement (Ex. 374) * K 574 Gigue in G for piano (Ex. 375) - K 384 Die Entführung, no. 2 Lied and Duett, b. 40 „O ft lauscht da ein junges Herrchen" * K 384 Die Entführung, no. 9 Duett Blonde/Osmin „Ich gehe, doch rate ich dir" - K196 La finta giardiniera, no. 20 Aria Serpetta, b. 90 „Bisogna essere accorta" (Allegro) K 593, IV, m. 37 ^ | | i m ^ I | | | ^4 + A m Ex. 374: String Quintet in D, K 593, 4th movement, b. 37 As in Figaro's 3/8 metre „Signori di fuori", the lack of sixteenth notes in the fourth movement of the String Quintet in D and in the Duett „Ich gehe, doch rate ich dir" allows naturally brisk playing. Even though K 593, IV feigns at first a ,simple' 6/8 metre it is neither an „aria di smania"533 nor „buoyantly hurrying along"534 as can be sometimes heard. At the latest the strettos in b. 132-167 show the com pound metre clearly. The discussion about the „technical difficulties" of playing the chromatic motive in b. 1, 13, 37 etc., which in editions prior to the NMA led to numerous grave changes by other hands, is superfluous in an Allegro 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre. The Gigue in G with its richly varied articulation, is also neither a tripled Allegro 2/4, nor Presto. Allegro ^ ^ _ K 574 =*= Ex. 375: Gigue in G for piano, K 574 Allegro grazioso 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes - K 051 La finta semplice, no. 18 Aria Rosina „Ho sentito a dir da tutte" Allegro vivace 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K 456 Piano Concerto in B flat, 3rd movement (Ex. 376) Fl, 2 Ob Piano t r *1 - ü I 1» JiaGir LU LU m 4 m K 456, III, m. 1+171 3 + 3 Is t bassoon Ex. 376: Piano Concerto in B flat, K456, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 1 71 The beginning of the 3rd movement of K 456 feigns once more a ,simple' 6/8 metre. The embellishments on the second halves of bars 5/6, and from b. 58, and the four harmonies in b. 8, however, show this 6/8 metre, too, to be compound; its tempo is below the Allegro di molto of K 614, I. The difference from the 533 Manfred Hermann Schmid (Preface for: Mozart. Sämtliche Streichquintette, 2001). 534 W olf-D ieter Seiffert in Kammermusikführer, p. 444 (editor Ingeborg Allihn, 1998). Mozart's Tempo-System 217 third movements of the Piano Concertos in E flat, K 482 and B flat, K 595 (Ex. 262) is clear: although they have a slower tempo word (only Allegro) they are faster because of their ,simple' 6/8 metre (tripled 2/4). The polymetric Superposition of the 6/8 (3 + 3) by a 2/4 metre in b. 171-200 reveals the latter as a virtual 4/8 metre, also compound.535 Allegro vivace assai 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K 458 String Quartet in B flat (3rd Haydn-Quartet /Hunt Quartet), 1st movement (Ex. 377) See my remarks on the Allegro vivace assai of K 387,1 (Ex. 135, p. 102) - K 467,111 (Ex. 242, p. 156), and on the Allegro vivace of Cherubino's „Non so piü cosa son, cosa faccio" (Ex. 086, p. 075). Allegro con spirito 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes - K 201 Symphony in A, 4th movement Allegro molto / Molto allegro 3/8 ^ with 16th notes - K 287 Divertimento in B flat, 6th movement, b.15 and 403 - K 112 Symphony in F, 4th movement Allegro (di) molto / Molto Allegro 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K614 String Quintet in E flat, 1st movement (Ex. 378) - K526 Piano and Violin Sonata inA, 1st movement - K 305 Piano and Violin Sonata in A, 1st movement * «c: 1 *ro di m olt “ ' 1 ? 2*t K 6 14, I, m. 1+24 1 t r ^ tr^ / J ) 10 L bL 3 + 3 » . . . tr^ , tr^ , tr^ P V 1 *):■>, 3 + 3 . m t c f i ^ - W » ' ' ' f\P- m 0 ) ^ ------------------------- L n • r ■ ■ L r n , _ p +s b+ s— t -------------w 7 ä • • S • S • f ■ • ■ J L r ' ' • J ] ' Ex. 378: String Quintet in E flat, K 614, 1st movement, b. 1 and 24 This Allegro di molto in K 614 is slower than the Allegro assai 6/8 (3 + 3) of the String Quartet in B flat, K 589, (Ex. 379, p. 218), not only because of Leopold's definition. The sixteenth notes (from b. 22), technically difficult for the player, and the 32nd note turns, sprinkled between eighth notes (b. 39, 43, 47, 51, 60, 230), set a limit, which is not imposed on the brilliantly virtuoso sixteenth note scales rushing down in K 589, IV. In spite of the trills on the fourth eighth notes in b. 1 and 2 one is not supposed to scan a series of 3/8 metres but play „ the second half o f such a bar I i g h t e r than the first." 535 On this, see: Manfred Hermann Schmid, Mozart Studien vol. 1 7, 2008, p.112 ff. 218 Mozart's Tempo-System Allegro assai 3/8 ^ with 16th notes * K250 Serenade in D (Haffner Serenade), 9th movement, b. 17— - K 137 Divertimento II (Quartet) in B flat, 3rd movement - K 131 Divertimento in D, 6th movement, b. 138 After the weighty introduction in Adagio 4/4 ends in pianissimo, fhe , last number' of the Haffner Serenade begins as if from nowhere with eight extremely lightly dabbed first beats in pianissimo. These 3/8 bars show only by their very equality that they are not rather four 6/8 (a 1) bars or two bars of 12/8. Not until b. 170 and again in b. 421 do the sixteenth note tu tti scales show that the tempo is n o t Presto. Allegro assai 6/8 (3+3) ^ with 16th notes * K 589 String Quartet in B flat, 4th movement (Ex. 379) - K 344 Zaide, no. 10 Aria Osmin „Wer hungrig bei der Tafel sitzt" * K 332 Piano Sonata in F, 3rd movement (Ex. 380) - K185 Serenade in D, 8th movement, b.12 - K63 Cassation (Final-Music) in G, 7th movement, Finale With two harmonies per bar K 589/IV is a classic example for compound 6/8 metres as well, even though its imitations at the distance of a half bar stand as syncopations against the rule of lighter second halves of bars. Four harmonies on four eighth notes in b. 8 and the perfect cadence on its second halfwould not be possible in a ,simple' 6/8 (ä1) metre. The syncopated sforzati in b. 40/41 are w itty in the manner of Haydn or Beethoven. Allegro assai K 332, I n a m u ./ * Ex. 380: Piano Sonata in F, K 332, 3rd movement K 332, III underlines its structure compounded throughout from half bars by additional sforzati. Presto 3/8 ^ with 16th notes - K 283 Piano Sonata in G, 3rd movement * K280 Piano Sonata in F, 3rd movement (Ex. 381) - K 199 Symphony in G, 3rd movement - K 156 String Quartet no. 3 in G ,1 st movement - K120 Symphony in D, 3rd movement - K16 Symphony E flat, 3rd movement — According to the NMA's Critical Report the indication is possibly by Leopold Mozart. Mozart's Tempo-System 219 Presto i / m / s@ 3 , K280, III, m. 1+82 w m Ex. 381: Piano Sonata in F, K280, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 82 ^ with 8th notes * K270 Divertimento in B flat for 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 bsns, 4th movement (Ex. 382) The w it of this movement is the shortness of its bars (Mozart's shortest!) each of which has an equal stress on its first beat. That distinguishes them from the Presto assai of the Symphony K 162, the two 3/8 bars of which put together to one 6/8 bar are still a bit faster, it's true, but always alternately stressed heavily and lightly so that the listener adjusts himself to the superordinate metrical unit of the dotted half note (whole bars) and so feels the tempo as less fast. Presto assai 6/8 (3/8+3/8) ^ with 16th notes * K 162 Symphony in C, 3rd movement (Ex. 383) Presto assai / D.C M M / m Ü K 162, III, m. 1+35 tr^ * + \ffi- * * * * * 0 *i / Ex. 383: Symphony in C, K 162, 3rd movement, b. 1 and 35 Here the tempo is limited by the possibility of executing a fr/// on something like a 32nd note. It should be considered, however, that early works of the 1 7-year-old like this are still under the influence of Leo pold and the slower tempo conception ofthat older stylistic period. The overall view we now have of the two kinds of 3/4 metres, of 3/8 and 6/8 (3 + 3) metres shows that Mozart wrote some of his most significant pieces in pairs of 3/8 metres which, combined to one 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8) metre, have the superordinate aspect of an even metre. Like this he could unite the uneven with the even metre for a manifold hierarchy of emphases. If one wanted to make a simple rule of thumb for the tempo relation of 3/8 to 3/4 metres (related to the smallest note values) it might read: Larghetto 3/8 (with 32nd notes) = Andante 3/4 ä 1 (with 16th notes) Andante 3/8 (with 32nd notes) = Andantino 3/4 ä 1 (with 16th notes) Andantino 3/8 (with 16th notes) = Allegretto 3/4 ä 1 (with 8th notes) Allegretto 3/8 (with 16th notes) = Allegro 3/4 ä 1 (with 8th notes) The eighth notes in compound 6/8 (3 + 3) metre have the same tempo as those in 3/8 metre. 220 Mozart's Tempo-System C) Mozart's Church Music in the ,New Style' D. G. T ü r k : „An Allegro for the church or in sacred cantatas, or in a trio or quartet in elaborate style, must be taken at a m u c h m o r e m o d e r a t e t e m p o than an Allegro for the theatre or in so-called chamber styles such as sinfonias, divertimenti and such like. An Allegro filled with lofty, great and solemn ideas requires a slower and more emphatic pace than a similarly titled composi tion in which a frolicsome joy is the dominant character."537 J. A. P. S c h u lz : „An Allegro for the church cannot sustain as fast a tempo as one for the chamber or the theatre. Allegro is performed more swiftly in a symphony than in a song or an elaborated trio with the same metre and classes of note values. Generally every metre is more heavily executed in the church than in the chamber or theatre; also, the very light metres do not occur in good church pieces."538 Mozart never used the „very light" m e tre s 3/16, 6/16, 9/16; but, in contrast to Italian church music, al so the „light" ones - 4/8, 6/8 and 3/8 - are rare in Salzburg (in Mozart's works 10% in all). Essentially the three basic metres were sufficient for his church music: C (45%), 3/4 (30%) and C (14 %). In consideration for the „serious and dignified" expression that he strived for, as well as the reverberation of the churches, in half of all his movements he used them in their „heavy" form: C as ,large' (C/4/2) or as ,small' „a//a breve for fugues" (C/2/2) in Stile antico (see p. 033); C as baroque ,large', ,heavy' four-four time (see p. 034 and p. 037); and 3/4 as „serious" 3/4 metre with three harmonic steps per bar, as described by Marpurg and Logier (see p. 185). As Mozart composed most of his works for the church in the time of the transition from the Stile antico to the ,new style' many of them are also in ,classical' metres. Although their tempos are more lively than those of the Stile antico they still had to consider the acoustics and dignity of the building and obey the moderation demanded by Quantz, Türk, Schulz and others (Ex. 385). C harles A v is o n : „The same Terms which denote Lively and Gay, in the Operatic or Concert Style, may be understood in the Practice of Church-Music, as less lively and gay."539 a) Church Music in Classical 4/4 Metre Adagio 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes * K259 Mass in C (Organsolo Mass), Agnus Dei (Ex. 384) - K258 Mass in C (Missa brevis), Credo, b. 58 „Et incarnatus est" ^ with 8th notes - K 141 Te Deum Laudamus, b. 64 „Te ergo quaesumus" - K 065 Missa Brevis in D minor, Kyrie 537 Türk, Klavierschule ('School ofClavier Playing'), Chap. 1, Section 5, §72 ,S .111 [app. p. 300]. 538 in Sulzer, Allgemeine Theorie ('General Theory'), vol IV, 1 774, article 'Vortrag' ('Performance Style'), p. 707 f [app. p. 293]. 539 Charles Avison, An Essay on Musical Expression, as it relates to the Performer, 1 752, p. 89 [app. p. 321/322]. Mozart's Tempo-System 221 ^ with 32nd notes - K 337 Mass in C, Agnus Dei Andante moderato 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes - K427 Mass in C minor, Kyrie Allegro aperto 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 427 Mass in C minor, Laudamus te (Ex. 126) (on the term „aperfo^see p. 096 Allegro 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes - K262 Missa longa in C, Agnus Dei, b. 30 „Dona nobis pacem" - K167 Mass in C (Missa in honorem SS:mae Trinitatis), Benedictus ❖ K 165 „Exsultate, jubilate!", Motet for soprano, orchestra and organ, 1st movement (Ex. 385) 21 (Allegro) Andante sostenuto 4/4 (2/4+2/4) la- te, K 165, I, m. 21+98 Ex. 385: „Exsultate, jubilate!", Motet, K 165 ,1st movement, b. 21 and 98 A classic example for Mozart's church music in the Italian style! ^ with 8th notes - K 035 Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots, Sinfonia Allegro (vivace)540 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes K257 Missa in C (Credo Mass), Agnus Dei, b. 56 „Dona nobis pacem" Church Sonatas: Allegro 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes K 329 Church Sonata in C for 2 vl, 2 ob, 2 hrn, 2 trp, timp, organ, vc and db K 328 Church Sonata in C for 2 vl, organ, vc and bass (Ex. 386), K278 Church Sonata in C for 2 vl, 2 trp, timp, organ, vc and db K274 Church Sonata in G for 2 vl, organ, vc and db K 263 Church Sonata in C for 2 vl, 2 trp, organ, vc and db K 245 Church Sonata in D for 2 vl, organ, vc and db K 212 Church Sonata in B flat for 2 vl, organ, vc and db Allegro vi-de 19 K 328, m. 1+19 er____ i ü mf f Ex. 386: Church Sonata in C, K 328, b. 1 and 19 540 „vivace" added later - by Mozart? 222 Mozart's Tempo-System Like the motet „Exultate, jubilate" (Ex. 385) the ,Epistle Sonatas', too, had to take into account the acoustics of the Salzburg Cathedral with moderate tempos, in spite of their secular Allegro style in classical 4/4 metre.541 The fr on the first 16th note of the first violin in b. 21 of K 328 - parallel with not ornamented 16th notes in the second violin - shows how deceptive the first bars are about the tempo (Ex. 386). Allegro con spirito 4/4 (2/4+2/4) ^ with 16th notes - K 224 Church Sonata in F for 2 vl, organ, vc and db b) Church Music in Classical 2/4 (4/8) Metre ln church music Mozart wrote the light 2/4 metre only exceptionally, but when he did, then straight away really light as a virtual 4/8 metre, and mostly for soloists: Andante 2/4 (2/8+2/8) ^ with 16th notes triplets 3 - K 35 Die Schuldigkeit des Ersten Gebots, no. 3 Aria Gerechtigkeit „Erwache, fauler Knecht" ^ with 16th notes - K140 Missa Brevis in G, Benedictus (solo quartet) Andantino 2/4 (2/8+2/8) ^ with 32nd notes * K 243 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Agnus Dei (aria soprano) (Ex. 387) A most beautiful aria in a most beautiful work! Mozart's most light-footed setting of this part o fthe mass; neither „melancholy" nor „near to Adagio" (see Harnoncourt's definition of Andantino on p. 030/034). Allegretto 2/4 (2/8+2/8) ^ with 16th notes * K317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Benedictus (solo-quartet) (Ex. 388) Allegretto K 317, Benedictus, m. 11 I M Be- ne- (ii- - ctus qui ve- nit, be- ne- di- ctus qui ve- nit in [T i 11 -J r H\ no- mi- ne T tp 8 J J J J v ' • • • -W T-J- • -0- • -i jpvS) Ex. 388: Missa in C, K 317, Benedictus (solo-quartet), b.11 Allegro vivace 2/4 (2/8+2/8) ^ with 16th notes - K140 Missa Brevis in G, Benedictus, b. 25 (Chorus) „Hosanna in excelsis" 541 Hanns Dennerlein, „ Zur Problematik von Mozarts Kirchensonaten", in: MJb, Salzburg 1953, p. 95-111. Mozart's Tempo-System 223 c) Church Music in Classical ,heavy' 3/4 Metre (2 /8+2/8+2/8) „To be suitable for the church, the rendition as well as the tempo must be taken somewhat more mode rately than in operatic style."542 Correspondingly the majority of all of Mozart's sacred pieces in uneven metre are in ,heavy' 3/4 metre. 33 o fthe 98 sacred pieces in this metre have an autograph tempo word. Adagio maestoso 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 16th notes * K259 Mass in C (Organsolo Mass), Sanctus (Ex. 389) Typically enough Mozart uses the supplementary indication maestoso in 3/4 metre mainly in his church music. According to Quantz and Reichardt it refers above all to the manner of playing: „A Maestoso asks to be played seriously, and with a somewhat heavy and sharp bowstroke. A slow and melancholy piece, indicated by the words Adagio assai requires the greatest moderation of the tone, and the longest, calmest, and heaviest bowstroke."543 „Similarly in slow movements the term maestoso [...] indicates that the longer bowstrokes should receive a longer, more expressive accent, and in these cases the notes before rests, rather than being taken off short, should only come away gradually."544 The first seven bars of the Sanctus in the Mass in C K 259 have the slowest 3/4 metre tempo in Mozart's church music. In spite o fthe extant autograph, in 2014 the NMA's critical report still had an uncorrected A l l e g r o maestoso. Andante (maestoso)— 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 16th note triplets K 257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Agnus Dei ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Sanctus (Ex. 390) - K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Kyrie Andante maestoso / j j , j # # j = j = K 317, Sanctus T T Sanc- J = F = FSanc- tus i i Sanc- tus, i J m / tr w m / tr tr Ex. 390: Missa in C (Coronation Mass), K 317, Sanctus 542 Quantz, 'Versuch einer Anweisung {'On Playing the Flute'), p. 266, § 53 [app. p. 327]. 543 Quantz, Versuch einer Anweisung {'On Playing the Flute'), p. 200) [app. p. 325]. 544 Reichardt, Ueber die Pflichten des Ripien-Violi nisten {'On the Duties o fth e Tutti Violinist'), p .27 [app. p. 296]. — According to the Critical Report of the NMA „maestoso" is in all three cases added later - by Mozart? 224 Mozart's Tempo-System Andante sostenuto 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K317 Mass in C ( Coronation Mass), Agnus Dei Andante 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th note triplets 3 - K 127 Regina coeli, 2nd movement „Quia quem meruisti portare" ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 337 Mass in C, Kyrie (Ex. 391) ❖ K262 Missa longa in C, Gloria, b. 40 „Qui tollis peccata mundi" (Ex. 392) i Andante ‘K 337, Kyrie, m. 1, 12, 41 % % 12 9 0fp Ex. 391: Mass in C, K 337, Kyrie, b .1 ,12 ,4 1 The Kyrie of the Mass K 337 feigns in its unpretentious beginning a ,simple' 3/4 metre with whole-bar accentuation. The bass-line in b. 12 and 24, the 32nd note triplets and 64th note slides in b. 33, 42 and 45 reveal the ,heavy' 3/4 metre. Ex. 392: Missa longa in C, K262, Gloria, b. 40, „Qui tollis peccata mundi" Not as slow and monumental as the Largo 4/4 of ,Qui tollis' in the Mass in C minor, K 427, but still, like there, with the heavy, equal strides depicting the weighty burden of carrying the cross, and the sharply dotted rhythms that describe the scourging. Andantino 3/4 (a 3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K262 Missa longa in C, Benedictus (Ex. 393) - K 243 Litaniae de venerabili altaris Sacramento, Dulcissimum convivium Ex. 393: Missa longa in C, K262, Benedictus, b. 1-8 Mozart's Tempo-System 225 A further example that Andantino is not „close to Adagio": the basic pulse for the energy-filled ,Hosanna' shouts of the chorus in the Benedictus of K 262 (Andantino) can never be slower than the heavy Andante of the „Qui tollis" in the same work (Ex. 392). With their displaced interjections they beautifully show the three emphases per bar in compound 3/4 metre (2/8+2/8+2/8), confirmed by the first violins having a fr on every beat of the bar (especially b. 16-18, 52-57). The succession here of two identically indicated movements that yet have different tempos is unique in Mozart's reuvre: the preceding Sanctus of the Missa longa is also Andantino 3/4 with 16th notes (Ex. 398). This would be astonishing if the Benedictus were not in ,heavy', the Sanctus, however, in ,light' 3/4 metre. (Conversely, the „Hosanna"-shouts of the slower Benedictus (Ex. 393) are faster than the slow shouts in the faster Sanctus-fugato, b. 17). By the way, apart from these two, all of Mozart's „Hosannas" with auto graph tempo words are Allegro or faster. Allegro moderato 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K427 Mass in C minor, Domine (= K 469 Davide penitente, no. 5 Duet „Sorgi o Signore") Allegro comodo 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K275 Mass in B flat, Sanctus Allegro maestoso 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes * K 427 Mass in C minor, Credo (Ex. 394) Ex. 394: Mass in C minor, K427, Credo Allegro 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 321 Vesperae solemnes de Dominica, „Laudate Dominum" * K262 Missa longa in C, Credo, b. 1 and 141 (Ex. 395) - K 259 Mass in C (Organsolo Mass), Gloria - K258 Mass in C (Missa brevis), Kyrie - K 258 Mass in C (Missa brevis), Credo - K194 Missa brevis in D, Credo, b. 68 „Et resurrexit tertia die" - K193 Dixit et Magnificat for soli, chorus, orch. and organ, Dixit, b. 88 „et in saecula saeculorum" - K192 Missa brevis in F, Gloria, „Et in terra pax" - K 066 Missa brevis in C (Dominicus Mass), Sanctus, b. 7 Ex. 395: Missa Longa in C, K262, Credo, b. 1 and 141 The Allegro parts of the Credo in the Missa longa change continually between ,heavy' and ,light' 3/4 metre. The beginning of the movement is clearly Allegro ä 3, bars 18-28 and 62-71, however, have whole-bar accentuation in the character of an Allegretto. After the insertion of the 4/4 metre „Et incarnatus" and „Et resurrexit" the 3/4 metre resumes (b. 141), now deceptively with whole-bar metric (which can wrongly lead to a rushing of the tempo); soon however, (and unmistakably at the repetition of the 226 Mozart's Tempo-System beginning of the Credo in b. 254) we see that the tempo has remained constant through all the metrical changes. S im o n S e c h t e r : Just as a piece of music shall have a principal scale [tonality], from which one switches into the next related scales [tonalities], it shall also have a principal m etre, from which one switches into sim ilar metres; and as one dislikes changing the general accidentals [key signa ture] in the middle of a piece, but adds them to the notes in individual bars, so one also dislikes changing the tim e signature in the m iddle o f a piece [here for example, into „Allegretto 3/4 [a 1 ]": one is content with indicating this just by subdivisions, i.e. by the notes themselves."546 [Allegro 3/4 (a 3)] ^ with 8th note triplets 3 - K167 Mass in C, Credo, b. 121 „Et in Spiritum Sanctum" Allegro vivace 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Dixit - K 339 Vesperae solennes de Confessore, Beatus vir * K 337 Mass in C, Credo (Ex. 396) ^ with 8th note triplets Ex. 396: Mass in C, K 337, Credo - K259 Mass in C (Organsolo Mass), Benedictus Allegro con spirito 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Gloria (tirate in 32nd notes in violin l /) - K195 Litaniae Lauretanae B.M.V., Regina Angelorum (16th notes in the chorus!) Molto allegro 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K257 Mass in C (Credo Mass), Credo Allegro assai 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 337 Mass in C, Agnus Dei, b. 35 „Dona nobis pacem" (Ex. 397) - K 317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Sanctus, b.15 „Hosanna in excelsis" - K317 Mass in C (Coronation Mass), Benedictus, b. 60 „Hosanna in excelsis" Allegro assai K 337, Agnus Dei, m. 35 Dona nobis pacem tr ^ tr_ r r m cirnrn ticriiü-iijr i Ex. 397: Mass in C, K 337, Agnus Dei, b. 35 „Dona nobis pacem" A very deceptive beginning if one doesn't take note of the 32nd notes and the tr on top of them! Perhaps one doesn't have to take them really literally; but why did Mozart write out this figure 36 times instead of the usual formula of two 16ths + one 8th note? Mathematics or not, in any case the 32nd notes should mo- 546 Simon Sechter, Die Grundsätze der musikalischen Komposition ('The Principles o f Musical Composition '), 1854, 2nd section, 1st. part: ,Von den Gesetzen des Taktes in der Musik' ('About the rules of metre in music'), p .9 ,§ 4 [app. p. 347]. Mozart's Tempo-System 227 derate the tempo at least down to the tempo of the first movement of the Piano Sonata in F, K 280 (Allegro assai, Ex. 330), although there the tr are only on 16 th notes (b. 2 and 84). Calculating backwards, in this manner the previous tempos on our list of Mozart's church music in classical metres of course also lose speed. C h u r c h s o n a t a s Allegro 3/4 (ä 3) ^ with 16th notes - K 241 Church Sonata in G for 2 vl, organ, vc and db - K 225 Church Sonata in A for 2 vl, organ, vc and db d) Church Music in Classical ,light' 3/4 Metre Of 40 movements of Mozart's church music in ,light' 3/4 metre only 14 have an autograph tempo word: Adagio 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes K220 Missa in C (Sparrows Mass), Agnus Dei ^ with 8th notes - K 260 Venite populi, Offertorium, „O sors cunctis beatior sola fidelium", b. 52 Larghetto 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 8th notes - K 33 Kyrie in F for 4 voices, 2 violins, viola, double-bass Andante 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes - K337 Mass in C, Credo, b. 56 „Et incarnatus est" - K 049 Missa brevis in G, Sanctus Andantino 3/4 (ä 1) ^ with 16th notes ❖ K 262 Missa longa in C, Sanctus (Ex. 398) The tempo of this movement contradicts both the thesis, Andantino is a neighbour of Larghetto, and the idea that a Sanctus should be slow. It is determined by the lively „Hosanna" fugato from b. 17 (Ex. 398). As I have said concerning the Benedictus of K 262, all of Mozart's other „Hosannas" with autograph tempo words are, as an independent second part of a slow Sanctus or Benedictus, Allegro or faster. This one is not an independent movement, but is integrated into the Sanctus from b. 17 w ithout change of tempo; this causes it to be more lively than the other mostly slow Sanctus movements - including the unusual one of the Credo Mass K 257 with its series of f f off-beat violin attacks, which is indeed already Allegretto, but in a ,large', i.e. relatively slow, 4/4 metre (Ex. 021). (Andantino) K 262, Sanctus, m.1 7 Ho- I ! i J) j j . ; J > m ;an- na m ex- L M d Ho- san- na, hosis. Ho- san-cel- na, m k im Ho- san- na, ho- san- na in ex- cel- Ho- san- na in ex- cel- Ho- san- Ex. 398: Missa longa, K262, Sanctus, b. 17 „Hosanna"-fugato As already mentioned, the connection of the Sanctus with the following Benedictus with its seemingly equal tempo indication Andantino 3/4 with 16th notes, is unique in Mozart's reuvre. Because of its three stresses per bar this actually defines a slower tempo than the lively Andantino 3/4 (ä 1) of the Sanctus. Allegro 3/4 (a 1) ^ with 16th notes - K 066 Missa brevis in C (Dominicus Mass), Kyrie, b.13 228 Mozart's Tempo-System [Allegro 3/4 (ä 1)] ^ with 8 th notes * K 321 Vesperae solemnes de Dominica, Confitebor (Ex. 399) - K275 Mass in B flat, Gloria - K 259 Mass in C (Organsolo Mass), Agnus Dei, b. 24 „Dona nobis pacem" - K 220 Mass in C (Sparrows Mass), Gloria - K 141 Te Deum Laudamus for chorus, orch. and organ, b. 70 „Aeterna fac cum sanctis tuis" ^ eSro K 321, C onfitebor Con- fi-gUi J J te- bor- H - + ti-■ bi m mDo- mi- nej — i >■ in to- to c

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Abstract

A reference book for the musician’s practical work of interpretation, this volume, after a general presentation of 18th century principles for determining a tempo, offers a compendium of all Mozart’s autograph tempo markings in 420 lists of pieces of similar character. Thus, a comparison of slower and quicker movements is made possible by 434 music examples, and there follows a wide-ranging collection of relevant texts taken from historical sources.

The book does not claim to know “the single correct tempo” for the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. It hopes to be of assistance in the unavoidable search by every interpreter for the “true mouvement” of each work—for the work itself, for the performer, the instrument or instruments, the room, the public, the nature of the event. It follows that there can be no absolutely “authentic” tempo for Mozart’s works. And yet his tempo markings, since he chose them so meticulously, should be taken equally seriously with the other parameters of his famously precise notation.

Alfred Brendel writes: “an astonishing opus … one of those rare and important books in which music and musicology form a vital association; a lifelong study that makes one very much aware of a field to which attention is rarely paid. It accomplishes this by bringing to bear an understanding that never loses sight of the musical foundation on which it is built, and by a discerning intelligence that does not shy away from raising debatable topics, although without ever claiming infallibility … One cannot be grateful enough to Helmut Breidenstein for his methodological accuracy which allows us Mozart interpreters to orientate ourselves with ease and pleasure … His book sharpens our perception, at the same time giving an overview and making us sensitive to each individual case. Admiration and gratitude.”