Helmut Breidenstein

Mozart's Tempo-System, page 257 - 354

A Handbook for Practice and Theory

1. Edition 2019, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4291-5, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7203-5,

Tectum, Baden-Baden


Bibliographic information
APPENDIX 258 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice S o u r c e T e x t s a b o u t P e r f o r m a n c e P r a c t ic e ( e x c e rp ts ) 1) W olfgang Amadeus and Leopold M ozart: Letters about performance practice 259 2).W .A. M ozart: List of all my works ( 'Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke'): 270 (A short Iist of his tem po indications 1 784-1791 that d iffer from the autograph scores) 3) Leopold M ozart: Essay on a Fundamental School ofViolin Playing (,Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule') 271 4) Johann Philipp Kirnberger: The Art o f Strict Musical Composition ('Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik') 274 - Guide to Vocal Composition(' Anleitung zur Singekomposition') 282 - General Theory of the Fine Arts ('Musical articles in Georg Sulzer's "Allgemeine Theorie") 5) Johann Abraham Peter Schulz: musical articles in Georg Sulzer's ,General Theory of the Fine Arts' 283 6) Georg Sulzer / Kirnberger/Schulz: General Theoryofthe Fine Arts ('Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste') 283 7) Joh. Friedrich Reichardt: O n the D u ties o f th e T u tti V io lin ist ( 'U eber d ie P flich ten des R ip ien -V io lin is ten ') 295 - Letters ofan Attentive Traveller Concerning Music ('Briefe eines aufmerksamen Reisenden, die Musik betreffend') 297 The Art of Music Magazine ('Musikalisches Kunstmagazin') 298 8) Daniel G ottlob Türk: School ofClavier Playing ('Klavierschule') 299 9) Heinrich Christoph Koch: Musical Dictionary ('Musikalisches Lexikon'); 310 Essay as an Instruction Manual for Composition ('Versuch einer Anleitung zur Composition') 318 10) Joseph Riepel: Basic Principles of the Art o f Musical Composition ('Anfangsgründe zur musicalischen Setzkunst') 1st chap. On Rhythmopoeia, or On the Metrical System; 320 4th chap. Deceptive Cadences Explained („Erläuterung der betrüglichen Tonordnung") 321 11) Charles Avison: An Essay on Musical Expression 321 12) Johann Joachim Quantz: On Playing the Flute (,Versuch einer Anweisung die Flute Traversiere zu spielen' 322 13) Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach: Essay on the True Art o f Playing the Clavier (,Versuch über die wahre Art das Clavier zu spielen') 328 14) Johann Adam H ille r: Week/y News and Annotations concerning Music (, Wöchentliche Nachrichten und Anmerkungen die Musik betreffend') 330 - Instruction forM usically-Correct Singing (,Anweisung zum m usikalisch-richtigen Gesänge') 331 - Instruction for playing the 'Violin, for Schools and for Self-Instruction, including a short dictionary of foreign words and terms used in music (,Anweisung zum Violinspielen, für Schulen und zum Selbstunterrichte') 331 15) Friedrich W ilhe lm M arpurg: Critical Letters about the Art o f Music (,Kritische Briefe über die Tonkunst') 332 - Guide to Music in general and to the Art of Singing (,Anleitung zur Musik überhaupt und zur Singkunst') Johann Mattheson: The Perfect Capellmeister (,Der Vollkommene Capellmeister') 336 The Newly Revealed Orchestra (,Das neu eröffnete Orchestre') 339 1 7) Johann Adolph Scheibe: About Musical Composition (,Ueber die Musikalische Composition') 340 18) Jacob G ottfried W eber: Essay in a Systematic Theory of Composition for Self-Instruction (,Versuch einer geordneten Theorie der Tonsetzkunst zum Selbstunterricht') 342 19) G ottfried W ilhe lm Fink: About the Bar, Metres and their Characteristics (,Über Takt, Taktarten, und ihr Charakteristisches') 345 - On the Need to Hand down Metronome Marks for Mozart's Major Works as the Master himself had them performed (,Ueber das Bedürfniss, Mozarts Hauptwerke unserer Zeit so metronomisirt zu liefern, wie der Meister selbst sie aufführen Hess') 346 20) Simon Sechter: The Principles of Musical Composition (,Die Grundsätze der musikalischen Komposition') 347 21) Ludwig van Beethoven: a selection of his letters 348 22) A dolf Bernhard M arx: A rtic le „Chronometre" (from Encyclopedia o fa ll Musical Scientifics (1835)) 349 23) Schlesinger's M etronom e indications fo r M ozart's Operas against the ir cultural-h istorical background: Reports on performances of ,Die Zauberflöte' in Paris 1802 by Reichardt, Spohr, Berlioz and the Am Z (Allgemeine mus. Zeitung) 349 24) Jacob G ottfried W eber: ,A doubt', Pendulum Indication in Rheinland inches fo r Pamina's Aria „Ach, ich fühl's") 352 25) Wenzel Tomaschek's „au then tic" tempos fo r Don Giovanni 352 F in a l C o m m e n t 353 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 259 WOLFGANG AMADEUS and LEOPOLD MOZART Excerpts from their letters concerning performance practice Translations until no 223 taken from: Eisen, Cliff et al., In Mozart's Words, 'Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1 Version 1.0, published by HRI Online, 2011. ISBN 9780955787676. From no. 342 translations by Lionel Friend [underlinings as in the Originals] [Indications of volume, page and line refer to the complete edition „Mozart. Briefe und Aufzeichnungen" of the „Internationale Stiftung Mozarteum Salzburg, collected and commented by Wilhelm A. Bauer and Otto Erich Deutsch, vol. I-Vll, 1972-1975; Bärenreiter-Verlag Kassel.] No. 168, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to Nannerl from Bologna, 24.03.1770 (I, 323/324: 15-26 „NI shortly be sending you a minuet that Monsieur Pick danced at the theatre and which everybody danced afterwards at the feste di ballo in Milan, just so that you can see how slowly people dance here. The minuet itself is very beautiful. It's from Vienna, of course, so it must have been written by Teller or Starzer. It has a lot of notes. Why? Because it's a stage minuet that goes slowly. The minuets from Milan and Italian minuets generally have lots of notes, are taken slowly and have lots of bars: the first part, for example, has 16 bars, the second 20 or 24. In Parma we got to know a singer and also heard her perform very beautifully at her own house - the famous Bastardella, who has 1) a beautiful voice, 2) a fine larynx and 3) incredible high notes. She sang the following notes and passages in my presence:" Jp f f l e e f f r r r r f f T f f s r r T f fi r T r f f ! wf r r — t M _ j Bars 16-22 of Mozart's notation of the „incredible high notes" of ,La Bastardella' (up to c " " !) No. 170, Leopold to his wife from Bologna, 24.03.1770 (I, 326: 33-42) „In Parma Signora Guari677 - also known as La Bastardina or Bastardella - invited us to dinner and sang 3 arias for us. I wouldn't have thought it possible for her to reach C sopra acuto, but my ears convinced me of it. The passages that Wolfg. has written out were in her aria, and although she sang these more quietly than the lower notes, they were as beautiful as an Octavin stop on an organ. In a word, the trills and everything eise she sang just as Wolfg. has written them down, it's exactly the same, note for note. She also has a good deep alto down to G." [!] No. 210, W.A.M. to Nannerl from Bologna, 22.09,1770 (I, 392: 37-41) „I prefer [Michael] Haydn's 6 minuets to his first 12, we've often had to perform them for the Countess and wish we could introduce Italian audiences to the German taste in minuets as their own minuets last nearly as long as an entire symphony." No. 223, Leopold to his wife, Milano, 15.12.1770 (I, 408: 1-8) [On Mitridate, K 87] „The first rehearsal with instruments678 took place on the 12th, but only with 16 people, in order to see if everything had been correctly copied. The first rehearsal with the full orchestra will be on the 17th and involves 14 first and 14 second violins, in other words, 28 violins, 2 keyboards, 6 double basses, 2 Violoncellos, 2 bassoons, 6 violas, 2 ob and 2 transverse flutes, which play as 4 ob when there are no flutes, 4 corni di caccia and 2 clarini [trumpets] etc., in other words, 60 players in all." No. 342 W.A.M. to his father from Munich, 02.10.1777 (II, 29: 37-51) „I am very populär here, and how populär would I then become if I were to help in raising the National German Theatre in music? -- and through me that would certainly happen; for I was already full of desire to write as soon as I heard the German Singspiel. The first singer is called Keiser, [...] she has a beautiful voice, not strong but also not weak, very pure with good intonation. [...] when she holds a note for a few bars I have been amazed how beautifully she manages the crescendo and diminuendo. She still sings her trills slowly, and that makes me glad; for they will become all the more pure and clean when one day she wants to make them faster. Anyway, they're easier fast." 677 Lucrezia Agujari, called „La Bastardella". 678 for Mitridate, Re di Ponto, K 087. PostScript 03.10.77 (II, 32, 128-132) „The daughter plays well, though she cannot yet hold a tempo. I believed the reason was herseif or her hearing, but I can't blame anyone other than her teacher. He's too lenient, immediately satisfied. I practised with her today. I'd like to bet that if she learned with me for 2 months, she'd play really well and accurately." No. 345, W.A.M. to his father from Munich, 06.10.1777 (II, 39: 5-8) „There was dancing, I only danced 4 minuets, though, and at 11 o'clock I was already back in my room; for out of 50 women there was only a single one who could dance in time." PostScript (II, 41: 56-58) „Right at the end I played my last Cassation in B flat [K 287]. It made everyone open their eyes, I played as if I were the greatest Violinist in the whole of Europe." [Leopold's reply followed on 18.10.1777, see no. 353.] No. 347, W.A.M. to his father from Munich, 11.10.1777 (II, 46: 86, 87; 98-99; 104-105) „ I have an inexpressible desire to w rite an opera once m ore. [...] I'm happier because I have som eth ing to com pose, and tha t's m y on ly jo y and passion. [...] I o n ly need to hear ta lk o f an opera, to be in a theatre, to hear voices -- oh, then I'm already com ple te ly beside m yse lf." No. 352, W.A.M. to his father from Augsburg, 17.10.1777 (II, 69: 47-53) „Here and in Munich I have often played all my 6 Sonatas679 from memory. [...] The last one in D sounds incomparably good on Stein's pianoforte. The mechanism that you press with your knee680 is also made better by him than by others. I only need barely to touch it, and it works; and as soon as you just slightly move your knee away, the sound doesn't resonate at all." No. 353, Leopold to his son, 18.10.1777 (II, 72: 29-40) „ th a t everyone opened the ir eyes w hen you played you r last Cassation does no t surprise me, you yourse lf d o n 't know how w e ll you play the v io lin ; i f you w o u ld o n ly do you rse lf c red it and play w ith charac ter, v igou r and s p ir it, yes, as if you w ere the firs t V io lin is t in Europe. You should no t play carelessly, foo lish ly im agin ing tha t they believe you consider you rse lf a great player, since m any d o n 't even know tha t you play the v io lin , and you 've been know n as a keyboard-p layer from ch ildhood , from w here, then, should com e the material fo r th is illus ion and supposition? - tw o w ords : to begin w ith , I apologise, I am no V io lin ist; then play w ith sp irit! That w ill set you above every d ifficu lty . O h, how often w ill you hear a m uch-adm ired V io lin is t and feel com passion fo r h im !" No. 355, W.A.M. to his father from Augsburg, 23.-25.10.1777 (II, 83: 66-71, 83-87, 93-96) [About Stein's eight-and-a-half year old daughter Nanette:] „Whoever sees and hears her play w ithout having to laugh must be made of stone like her father [whose name is Stein.] [...] If a passage comes twice, the second time will be played more slowly. If it comes a third time, still more slowly. [...] She has talent, but w ill come to nothing like this. She w ill never gain much speed because she makes the greatest effort to weigh her hands down. She w ill never grasp the most essential, the hardest and main thing in music, namely the tempo, because from her youth she has made the greatest effort not to play in time. [...] Everyone is amazed that I always keep accurately in time. They cannot at all grasp that the left hand must know nothing of tempo rubato in an Adagio; with them the left hand always gives way."681 No. 363, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 04.11.1777 (II, 101: 37-48) "Now I must teil you about the music here. Saturday was All Saints' Day and I was at High Mass in the chapel, the orchestra is very good and large. 10 to 11 violins on each side, 4 violas, 2 oboes, 2 flutes and 2 clarinets, 2 horns, 4 cellos, 4 bassoons and 4 double-basses, plus trumpets and timpani. One can make good music with them, but I would not trust myself to put on a Mass of mine here, why? - because they are too short? - No, everything here has to be short as well - because of the church-style? - no less. Rather because under the actual conditions one must write mainly for instruments since you could not imagine anything worse than the voices here. 6 sopranos, 6 altos, 6 tenors and 6 basses, set against 20 violins and 12 double-basses: the balance is just like 0 to 1." 260 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 679 K 279, K 280, K281, K282, K283, K284. 680 An early kind of sustaining pedal. 681 On this subject see Leopold Mozart, Violin School, 1756, p. 263, § 20 [app. p. 273/274]; and A Koch, Musikalisches Lexikon, 1802, art. Tempo rubato. [app. p. 31 7] No. 366, PostScript ofW .A.M . 8.11.1777 [Congratulations on Leopold's birthdavl (II, 110: 75-82) „Dearest Papa! I can't write poetically; l'm not a poet. I can't arrange expressions so artfully to give light and shade; l'm not a painter. I can't even express my reflections and thoughts by signs and gestures; l'm not a dancer. But I can do it w ith notes; l'm a musician." No. 373, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 14-16.11.1777 (II, 124: 33-51) „3 days ago I began to teach the sonata682 to Mlle. Rose [Cannabich]; today we finished with the first Allegro. The Andante w ill give us the most trouble; for that is full o f expression, and must be played accurately with the taste, forte and piano - just as it's written. She's very talented, and learns very easily. Her right hand is very good, but the left is unfortunately completely ruined. [...] It's a shame. She has so much innate ability, she reads quite passably, she has a very natural facility and plays with a lot of feeling." No. 377, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 22.11.1777 (II, 137: 19-28) ,,l had the pleasure of hearing Herr Fränzl [...] play a violin concerto. He pleases me very much. You know that I am no great lover of difficulties. He plays what's difficult, but you don't know that it's difficult, you believe you could immediately copy it, and that's how it should be. Also, he has a very beautiful full sound; no note is missing, you hear everything. Everything is made clear. He has a beautiful staccato, in one bow, up as well as down; and I have never heard double trills such as his. In a word, in my opinion he is no sorcerer, bu tavery solid Violinist." No. 379, W.A.M., postscript in his mother's letter to his father, Mannheim, 26.11.1777 (II, 146, 42-45) ,,l spent the evening alone with Cannabich, and then Sterkl arrived. He played 5 duets, but so quickly that you couldn't make anything out, and not at all clearly, and not in time." No. 386, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 06.12.1777 (II, 170: 31-34) „Yesterday she [Rose Cannabich] gave me again a truly indescribable pleasure, she played my sonata quite — excellently. She plays the Andante [2/4 (2/8+2/S)] [K 311] (which must not be taken quickly) with all possible feeling."683 No. 405, W.A.M., PostScript in his mother's letter to his father from Mannheim, 17.1.1778 (II, 227: 54/55, 66 - 86) „A t 11 o'clock in the morning the Privy Councillor came into me with Herr Vogler. [...] Before eating he scampered through my concerto at sight (the one that the daughter of the house plays, the one from Countess Lützow [K 246]). The first movement [Allegro aperto C] went Prestissimo, the Andante [2/4 (2/8+2/8)] allegro and the Rondeau [„Tempo di Menuetto 3/4' a 3] truly Prestississimo. He played the bass mainly other than it's written, and sometimes with another harmony and also melody; at that speed it cannot possibly be otherwise, one's eyes cannot see, nor hands grasp it. Yes, what is that then? - to play at sight like that and to shit is to me one and the same. The listeners (I mean those worthy of the name) can only say that they've seen music and clavier being played. They hear, think - and feel as little about it as he. You can easily imagine that it was unendurable, because I didn't have the courage to say to him: much too fast! It is, incidentally, much easier to play something quickly than slowly. In passages of small notes you can leave out a number of notes w ithout anyone noticing; but is that beautiful? - at speed you can change the right and left hand without anyone seeing or hearing: but is that beautiful? - And what does the art of playing at sight consist of? O f this: playing the piece in the right tempo as it should be. Expressing all the notes, appoggiature, etc. with their proper sentiment and taste as written, so that one believes the one who is playing is himself the composer." No. 411, Leopold to W.A. Mozart, 29.01.1778 (II, 244: 49-62) "This morning lanitsch and Reicha684 set off for Linz with the mail coach. [...] They both play really well, having an astonishing facility and accuracy with the bow, secure intonation, beautiful tone and the greatest expression. Reicha is a grand fellow. lanitsch has the manner of Lolli, his adagio though is much bet- Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 261 682 Probably either K 309 or K 311. See Footnote 683. 683 W ilhelm Fischer „Selbstzeugnisse Mozarts „the place refers presumably to the Piano Sonata K 309 (284b) [in the same sense as the NMA commentary, p. 420 and 452], but possibly to the directly fo llow ing Sonata in D, K 311 (284c)." - The 2nd movement o fth e non-autograph Sonata K309 in heavy 3/4 metre, according to Leopold's copy „Andante un poco adagio" w ith its 16th and 32nd notes already on the first page is certainly not in danger o f being played „too fast". K 311/11, however, is autographically „Andante con espressione 2/4 (2/8+2/8)" - „w ith all possible feeling" as Mozart favourably characterizes Rose Cannabich's playing. The beginning o f the movement, however, deceptively leads to „being played quickly", since 32nd notes appear only in b. 74, and the compound metre can easily be misjudged. 684 Anton Janitsch, 1753-1812, Violoncellist and Joseph Reicha, pianist, 1 746-1795. ter. You know l'm no lover of that awful speediness where one plays everything with barely half the tone of the violin, and must play so to speak with the bow hardly touching the violin and almost in the air. A lot is lacking in his cantabile, there are strong detachments and allegro antics in it that really pain the lis tener who understands it. Reicha plays cantabile better: both however make Beck's mistake of dragging, holding the whole orchestra back with a w ink and gesture, and only then returning to the original tempo." No. 416, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 4.2.1778 (II, 253: 96-97; 117-120) ,,l beg you to do everything possible to get us to Italy. You know my greatest inclination - to write operas. [...] Don't forget my wish is to write operas. I am envious of anyone who writes one. I'd really like to weep w ith frustration when I hear or see an aria, but Italian, not German, serioso not buffo." No. 419, PostScript ofW .A.M . to hisfather from Mannheim, 07.02.1778 (II, 265: 70-75; 266: 115-116) ,,l can't get opera-writing out of my head. Rather French than German. But Italian rather than either Ger man or French. [...] As you know, I can take on and imitate every kind and style of composition pretty well. [...] Mlle. Weber's greatest merit is that she sings cantabile superbly." No. 426, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim, 19.02.1778 (II, 287: 51-65) „It's all true, what you wrote about Mlle. Weber, except for one thing, namely that she sings like a Gabrielli; for I shouldn't like it at all if she sang like that. Those who have heard Gabrielli say and w ill say that she was only good at runs and roulades; however, because she sang them in such an extraordinary way she earned admiration; but that never survived the fourth time of hearing, for in the long run she couldn't give pleasure, one soon gets tired of coloratura passages; and she had the misfortune not to be able to sing. She was not capable of sustaining a whole-note properly, she had no messa di voce, she didn't know how to sustain, in a word, she sang with skill but w ithout understanding. [Mlle Weber], on the other hand, sings to the heart, and she likes most to sing cantabile. At first I took her through the pas sages [of quick notes] in my grand aria685, because, if she goes to Italy, she w ill have to sing bravura arias, though undoubtedly she w ill never forget how to sing cantabile, for that is her natural inclination." No. 439, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 24.03.1778 (II, 327: 59-62) „She [Rose Cannabich]686 can certainly now allow herseif to be heard everywhere. As a young lady of 14, and amateur, she plays quite well; and that's thanks to me, as the whole of Mannheim knows. She now has taste, can play trills, hold a tempo and uses better fingering: all qualities she didn't have before." No. 447, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 1.5.1778 (II, 344: 50-53) „Give me Europe's finest clavier, but people to listen who understand nothing, or don't want to understand, and who have no feeling for what l'm playing, and l'll lose all pleasure." No. 448, Leopold from Salzburg to his wife and son in Paris, 29.04.(11.05.)1778 (II, 353: 217-221; 232/33) „Since you wrote to me that you have an opera to write, then follow my advice and consider that your whole reputation depends on your first piece. Before you begin, listen, and consider that nation's taste, listen to or look at its operas. I know you, you are able to imitate everything. [...] Since then Nannerl's galantery-playing687, taste, expression and accompanying have improved astonishingly." No. 450, Leopold from Salzburg to his wife and son in Paris, 28.05.1778 (II, 362: 122-134) „The famous Carl Besozzi was here; he played twice at court. [...] His oboe [playing] is indeed whatever one can hear on this instrument; I found him quite different from when I heard him in Vienna. In short, he has everything! It's impossible to describe the clarity and purity of intonation in the fastest running and leaping passages, he especially distinguishes himself in sustaining, where he holds notes crescendo and diminuendo with an inconceivably long breath, w ithout unsettling the pure intonation in the slightest. This messa di voce did occur just too often for my taste, however, and so made a melancholy impres sion on me, like the sound of the glass harmonica, for it was almost that kind of sound." No. 452, Leopold from Salzburg to his wife and son in Paris, 11.06.1778 (II, 374; 185-198) „The government of the Palatine has set a well-known book by Vogler in Mannheim as a prescribed text for all those who teach clavier, singing and composition there. I must see this book, l've already ordered a copy to be sent to me, there w ill always be good things in it, for he could get the Clavier Method from 262 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 685 „Ah, se II crudel", „Lucio Silla" no. 11. 686 Mozart taught her the piano for a time. 687 Embellishments. Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 263 [C. Ph. E.] Bach's book, - the instruction in singing method from Tosi and Agricola and the instruction in composition from Fux, Riepl, Marpurg, Matheson, Spies, Scheibe, D'Alembert, Rameau and many others, condensing them into a shorter system, a system such as I have long had in mind; I am curious to see whether it corresponds to my own idea. You should have the book - such things are advantageous for teaching, through the experience of teaching one first comes across certain advantages in dealing with this or that, and such good methods do not come to one all at once." No. 453, W.A. Mozart's PostScript in his mother's letter to his father from Paris, 12.06.1778 (II, 377: 69-92 u. 107-119) [about the singer Raff:] „Singing like that - according to the school of Bernacchi - is not to my taste. He pushes too much for me in cantabile. [...] What I do like about him is when he sings such little things, as certain andantinos - also how he has certain arias, in which he has his own way. Everyone in his own place. I imagine that his main strength was bravura - which you can still notice with him, as far as his age allows; a good ehest and long breaths, and then - these andantinos, his voice is beautiful and very agreeable. [...] Meissner, as you know, has the bad habit of often deliberately making his voice tremble marking sustained notes in quarters, yes even in eighths - and l've never been able to stand that in him. That's truly awful. That's completely unnatural, singing like that. The human voice trembles by itself - but to such a degree that it's beautiful - that's the nature of the voice. We imitate it not only on wind instru ments, but also on strings, - yes, even on the clavier - but as soon as it's exaggerated it's no longer beau tiful - because it's unnatural. Then it seems to me just like an organ when the bellows blow. [...] How ever, as for bravura, passages in small notes and roulades, there Raff is a master - and then his good and clear pronunciation - that's beautiful. And then, as I said above, he sings Andantinos or little canzonettas [...] really delightfully. [...] I have now certainly dined at Count Sücküngen's already 6 times. [...] Today I took with me the new symphony688 that I had just finished, and which w ill open the Concert Spirituel on Corpus Christi. It pleased them both very much. I am also very content with it. However, I don't know whether people w ill like it - to teil you the truth, l'm not bothered about that. For who w ill it not please? - l'm convinced the few bright French people who are there w ill like it; as for the stupid - it's no great misfortune if it doesn't please them - even so I have hope that the donkeys w ill find something in it to please them; and then I haven't left out the prem ier coup d'archetl - and that's enough, even the oxen here make a fuss about it! - what the hell! I can't see any difference - they all start together just as elsewhere. It's ridiculous." No. 457, Leopold to his wife and son (in Paris) from Salzburg, 11.06.1778 (II, 383; 130) [Count Czernin believed that the addressee of one of his nightly serenades, Countess Lodron, was not present.] „Czernin looked up at the Windows - then he yelled [to the musicians]: Straight through,689 Then the m inuet and trio came only once, then an Adagio which he deliberately played appallingly badly [...], yel led loudly straight through, and then allonsl marchel and immediately left with his music [...] since he had persuaded himself the Countess was not at the w indow." No. 458, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 03.07.1778 (II, 388; 41-69) „I had to compose a symphony to open the Concert Spirituel. [...] I was really fearful at the rehearsal, for l've never heard anything worse in my life; you can't imagine how they twice rattled and scratched their way through the symphony, I was truly anxious - l'd have liked to rehearse it once more, but because they always have so many things to rehearse there was no more time; so I had to go to bed with a fearful heart, in a malcontent and angry mood. Next day [...] the symphony began [...] and right in the middle of the first Allegro there was a passage which I knew was bound to please; all the listeners were carried away by it - and there was a lot of applause - but because I knew, when I wrote it, what effect it would make, I brought it back once more at the end - so now it went Da capo. The Andante also pleased them, but especially the last Allegro - because l'd heard that here all final Allegros begin like the first, w ith all instruments together and mostly in unison, so I began with the 2 violins alone and only piano for 8 bars consequently the listeners (as l'd expected) went „shh" - then suddenly came a forte - and the handclapping was simultaneous with the forte - so for sheer joy I went to the Palais Royale straight after the symphony - had a lovely ice [...] and went home." 688 Symphony in D, K297, the Paris Symphony. 689 i. e. ,w ithout repeats' (Zaslaw p. 503). 264 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice No. 462, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 09.07.1778 (II, 398; 176-190) [About the first performance of the ,Paris' Symphony, K 297] „The Symphony met with much approval - and Le Gros690 is so pleased with it that he says it's his favourite symphony - the Andante, however, did not have the good fortune of contenting him - he says there are too many modulations in it - and it's too long691 - that was the result of the listeners having forgotten to make as loud and sustained a noise with their clapping as after the first and last movements - for the Andante has from me, from all conoisseurs, musiclovers and the majority of the listeners the greatest applause - just exactly the contrary of what Le Gros says - it's absolutely natural - and short. - But to content him (and, as he claims, several others) l've written another one692 - each is fine in its own way - for each has a different character - but the new one pleases me even more. [...] On 15th August - Assumption Day - the symphony will be played for the second time - with the new Andante - the sym phony is in D and the Andante in G. [...] Now Le Gros is entirely in favour of me." No. 466, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 20.07.1778 (II, 409: 160-163 and 411: 205-207) „Still, I wanted to offer my sister a little Pr^ambolum693 - l'll leave the manner of playing it to her own sensitivity - this is not a Pr^ludio for getting from one key to another, but only a kind of Capriccio - for trying out the clavier - [...] you shouldn't worry too much about the tempo - it's just one of those certain things - you play it according to your own judgement." No. 470, W.A.M. to Aloysia Weber from Paris, 30.07.1778 (II, 420: 28-32) „In the aria (Non so d'onde viene)694 which you learned by yourself - I found nothing to criticise or correct - you sang it to me with such taste, such technique and such expression as I desired - so l'm right to have every confidence in your ability and knowledge." No. 487, W.A.M. to his father from Paris, 11.09.1778 (II, 473: 33-35 and 476: 141-145) „I have just one request regarding Salzburg, and that is: that l'm not playing with the violins as I used to do - I don't want to be a Violinist any more; I wish to conduct from the clavier - accompany the arias. [...] As for the symphonies - most are not according to Parisian taste; if I have time, l'll still arrange several violin concertos - make them shorter - for our taste in Germany is for length; but in fact short and wellmade is better." No. 504, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim 12.11.1778 (II, 505: 29-46) „Herr von Dallberg [...] won't let me go until l've composed a Duodrama for him695, and in fact I didn't think it over for long; - for l've always wanted to write this kind of drama; - [...] at that time696 I twice saw such a play performed with the greatest pleasure - actually - never has anything surprised me so much! for I had always imagined such a thing would make no effect! - you probably know that there's no sing ing, only declamation - and the music is like an obbligato recitative - sometimes there is also speaking under the music, which makes the most splendid effect - what I saw was Medea by Benda - he's written another one, Ariadne auf Naxos, they're both truly - excellent; you know that Benda has always been my favourite among the Lutheran Kapellmeisters; I love these two works so much that I carry them around with me; now just imagine my delight that I have a commission to write what I have wanted to write! - Do you know what my opinion is? One should treat most operatic recitatives in this way - and only occasionally sing recitative when the text can be well expressed bythe music."697 No. 508, W.A.M. to his father from Mannheim 03.12. 1778 (II, 517: 14-18; 30-32) „l'm now writing the first act of the opera for declamation (the one I was commissioned to write) for Herr von Gemmingen698 and my own pleasure for nothing; - l'll take it away with me, and then complete it at home; - you see, so great is my longing for this kind of composition; [...] it's called Duodrama; Semiramis; [..] ah, if only we had clarinets! - you wouldn't believe what a splendid effect is made by a sympho ny with flutes, oboes and clarinets;" 690 Joseph Le Gros, director o f the Concert Spirituel. 691 Andante 6/8 (3/8 + 3/8), ca 51A min. 692 Andante 3/4, whole bar accentuation, ca. 3 m in, including the repeat. 693 Volume of Notes l/ll to the Letters NMA, 1971: „wohl KV 395" [„probably K 395"] - Preface NMA 1982 more convincingly: „keinesfalls KV 395" [„certainly not K395"]. 694 K 294. 695 for the melodrama Semiramis by v. Gemmingen. 696 on his first visit to Mannheim. 697 Compare letters NMA nos. 508 and 510. 698 See letter NMA no. 504. No. 510, W.A.M. to his father from Kaysersheim (en route to Paris), 18.12.1778 (II, 522: 65-72) „as far as a monodrama or duodrama is concerned, a singing voice is absolutely not necessary, since no note of it is sung - there is only speech - in a word, it's a recitative with instruments - simply that the actor speaks his words and doesn't sing; - when you hear it just once on the piano, you w ill like it; - but just hear it once in performance and you'll be completely carried away, l'll be sworn; - it demands only a good actor or actress." No. 545, W.A.M. to his father from Munich, 29.11.1780 (III, 35: 26-29) „N ow for the March in the 2nd Act [Idomeneo, no. 14] that we hear from the distance, I need the kind of trumpet and horn mutes that they don't have here. So would you send me one of each with the next post, so that copies can be made?" No. 555, W.A.M. to his father from Munich, 5.12.1780 (III, 48: 23-27) „because in that letter I asked you for something urgently - namely a trumpet mute - such as was made for us in Vienna - and one for Waldhorn - as can be found with the Tower wind players - to send on for I need them for the March in the 2nd Act [Idomeneo no. 14]. - but soon - No. 557 Leopold to his son in Munich, 09.12.1780 (III, 51: 7-9) „He's699 a jolly, old and foolish chap. However, he plays |: if he plays seriously : | with the surest and most astounding skill, and has nevertheless also a beautiful adagio that few good allegro players have." No. 570, W.A.M. to his father from Salzbug, 27.12.1780 (III, 72: 32-36 and 46-82) „The aria [no. 12a „Fuor dei mar"] is well written for the words - one can hear the - mare [sea] and the mare funesto [fatal sea] - and the [coloratura] passages suited to minacciar [menace] which fully express minacciar, the threatening - and this is altogether - the most magnificent aria in the opera - and has been applauded everywhere. With the Quartet [Idomeneo no. 21] l've now had trouble with him [thetenor, Raff]. The Quartet, the more often I imagine it on the stage, the more effect it makes on me. - [...] Only Raff thinks it w ill not have any effect. He said to me when we were alone - „you can't spin your voice in i t " it's too constricted - as if in a quartet you shouldn't speak much more than sing - he doesn't understand things like that at all." No. 587, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 08.04.1781 (III, 103: 13-19) „Today - and l'm writing this at 11 o'clock at night - we had a concert. 3 pieces of mine were played, new ones, of course; - a Rondo for a concerto for Brunetti [K 373]- a Sonata with violin accompaniment, for me [K 379] - which I composed last night between 11 and 12, although - so I would be finished, I only wrote out Brunetti's accompanying part, but kept my part in my head - and then a Rondo for Ceccarelli which he had to practice [K 374]." No. 588, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 11.04.1781 (III, 106: 60-64) „Whether I was at Bonno's? - certainly, we rehearsed my symphony700 there for the second time, - I recently also forgot to write to you that my symphony went magnificently and had complete success - 40 violins played - all the wind instruments doubled - 10 violas - 10 double-basses, 8 cellos and 6 bassoons." No. 606, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 16.06.1781 (III, 132: 74-81) [concerning considerations for a new opera after „Idomeneo"] „Do you believe then that l'll write an Opera Comique in the same way as an Opera Seria? - there should be so little that's frivolous in an opera seria, and so much that is learned and decent, so little learned must be in an opera buffa, and all the more frivolous and merry. It's not my fault that people also want comical music in an opera seria; - in this respect, however, we make a very clear distinction here. I find that in music the Pantaloon is notyet stamped out; and in this case the French are right." No. 608, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 27.06.1781 (III, 135: 22-29) „In my apartment we have 2 fortepianos, one for galanterie playing701, and the other is a machine that's always tuned with the low octave, as we had in London. Thus like an organ; I played Capricit [sic] and fugues on it. After lunch I am almost daily with Herr von Auerhammer; - the young lady is frightful! - yet plays enchantingly; only in cantabile she lacks the taste for what is genuinely fine and singing; she plucks at everything." Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 265 699 Karl Michael Esser, Violinist. 700 NMA: „possibly K297 (300a)" (Paris Symphony). 701 in the .galant' style w ith embellishments. 266 Excerpts from letters o f Leopold and W .A. M ozart concerning perform ance practice No. 629, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 26.09.1781 (III, 162: 21-163: 64) „Osmin's rage is made comical by the introduction into it o f Turkish music. - In working it out I have allowed his fine deep notes to shine | : in spite of the Midas of Salzburg702 : | - that, drum beim Barte des Propheten, etc. is indeed in the same tempo703, but with quick notes - and because his anger grows and grows, so must - since you think the aria is already at an end - the allegro assai - in a different metre, and in a different key - make the best effect; for someone who finds himself so violently angry exceeds all decency, measure and limitation, he forgets himself - and so the music must also forget itself - but be cause the expression of passions, violent or not, must never become disgusting, and music, even in the most dreadful situations, should never offend our ears, but must rather give pleasure, it follows that it must always remain music, so I haven't chosen a key that's foreign to F |: the key of the aria : | but one that's in a friendly relationship with it, though not the closest, D minor, but the more remote A minor. - Now Belmonte's aria O wie ängstlich, o wie feurig, [O how anxiously, o how ardently] in A major [no. 4] do you know how that's expressed - also even the heart beating lovingly is indicated there - the 2 violins in octaves - this is the favourite aria of everyone who's heard it - also mine. And it's written entirely for Adamberger's voice - you can see the trembling - shaking - you see his swelling breast rising - which is represented by a crescendo - you hear the whispering and sighing - which is expressed by the muted first violins and a flute. The Janissary Chorus is everything you could ask for from a chorus of Janissaries. brief and lively; - and entirely written for the Viennese. I've sacrificed Konstanze's aria a little to Mlle. Cavallieri's fluent gullet. - Trennung war mein ganzes Loos, und nun schwim m t mein Aug' in Thränen [Separation was my b itter fate, now my eyes are swimmming in tears] - I've tried to express this as much as an Italian bravura aria allows. I've changed the „hu i" to „schnell", thus: Doch wie schnell schwand meine Freude [Yet how sw iftly my joy was gone], etc.: I don't know what our German poets are thinking of; if they understand nothing of theatre, of what is required in an opera - then at least they shouldn't allow the characters to speak as if pigs were standing in front o f them - „hu i" is for swine; - Now for the Trio [no. 7], namely the finale to the first Act. [...] what's first indicated is very short - and because its text allows it, I've written it pretty well for 3 voices, then the pianissimo begins straight away in the major [b. 97, Allegro assai 4/4] - which should go very fast - and the close will make a lot of noise and that's everything that belongs to the end of an Act - the more noise, the better; the shorter, the better - so that people don't cool down before applauding." No. 633, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna , 13.10.81 (III, 167: 14-47) „N ow about the opera's704 text, as for Stephanie's work, you're absolutely right. - Yet the poetry for the character of the stupid, coarse and malicious Osmin is entirely fitting. - and I am well aware that its versification is not the finest - but it goes so well w ith my musical thinking | : that was already going around in my head beforehand : | that it inevitably had to please me; - [...] - as for the poetry to be found within the piece itself, I really couldn't look down on that. - Belmonte's aria O wie ängstlich, etc. could hardly be better written for music. - and except for Hui [whooshl] and Kummer ruht in meinem Schoos [G rief rests w ithin my bosom] | : for grief can't rest : | the Aria is not bad; in particular the first part. - and I don't know - in an opera the poetry must simply be the obedient daughter of the music. - Why do Italian comic operas everywhere please? - with all their miserable libretti! - even in Paris - which I w itnessed myself - because with them the music rules entirely - and you forget everything eise. All the more must an opera please whose structure is well worked out; with the words written exclusively for the music, and not here and there to create pleasant end-rhymes | : which, God knows, contribute abso lutely nothing to the worth of a theatrical performance, whatever it may be, but rather harm it : | providing words - or complete stanzas that wreck the composer's whole idea. Verse is for music the most indispensable thing - but rhymes - because of rhymes the most damaging; those gentlemen who go about it so pedantically w ill always come to grief together with the music. - It's best if a good composer, who understands the theatre, and is himself in a position to make suggestions, and a clever poet, like a real phrenix, come together. - Then one must not fear the applause of the ignorant. Poets always seem to me almost like trumpeters with their old-school rules! - If we composers would always follow our rules so faithfully | : that in the old days, before we knew any better, were quite good : | we'd also produce such useless music as they do useless libretti." 702 meaning Archbishop Hieronymus. 703 Allegro con brio 4/4. 704 Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K 384. Excerpts from letters o f Leopold and W .A. M ozart concerning perform ance practice 267 No. 657, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 12.01.1782 (III, 191: 9-11) „Clementi plays well as far as the right hand's execution is concerned.- His forte is passages in thirds but on the other hand he lacks even a kreutzer's worth of feeling or taste. In a word, a mere mechanic." No. 668, W.A.M. to Nannerl from Vienna, 20.04.1782 (III, 202: 9-10 and 203: 28-31) „l'm sending you herewith a Pr^ludio and a three-part fugue705, - [...] it's clumsily written. - the Pr^ludio goes first, and then the fugue follows. - The reason was that I had already done the fugue in my mind and wrote it down while I was thinking out the Präludium. [!] [...] Baron van Swieten, to whose house I go every Sunday, gave me all the works of Handel and Sebastian Bach to take home | : after l'd played them through for him : | . When Konstanze heard the fugues she feil in love with them; - she doesn't want to hear anything other than fugues, but especially | : in this field : | only those of Handel and Bach; - be cause she has now often heard me playing fugues out of my head, she asked me if I hadn't written any down? - and when I said no - she scolded me severely for not wanting to write what is the most artful and beautiful in music, and didn't give up begging until I wrote her a fugue, and that's how it came about. - I've intentionally written Andante maestoso [4/4] over it, so that one w on't play it quickly - for if a fugue isn't played slowly, you can't pick out the subject clearly as it enters, and so it makes no effect." No. 684, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 07.08.1782 (III, 219: 41-42) (about the Ist and 4th movements ofthe Haffner Symphony, K 385:) „the first Allegro [Allegro con spirito C] should go with a lot of fire. - The last [Presto $] - as fast as possible." No. 705, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna , 19.10.1782 (III, 239: 9-13) „Today the Russian court set off again. In the last few days my opera706 was performed for them; and I thought it a good thing to return to the clavier, and to conduct, partly in order to wake up the orchestra that had begun to fall asleep, partly | : because just now I am here : | to show myself to the ladies and gentlemen as the father of my child." No. 715, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna , 28.12.1782 (III, 245: 9-13, 20-26) „the concertos707 are just the medium between too hard and too easy - they're very brilliant - easy on the ear - naturally w ithout becoming vapid - here and there - only connoisseurs w ill have satisfaction yet so - that amateurs w ill be pleased with them too, though w ithout knowing why." [...] „this medium nowadays people no longer know how to value what is genuine in anything - in order to win applause you must either write things that are so comprehensible that a cab-driver could sing it after you, or eise so incomprehensible - that it pleases them precisely because no one with a bit of sense can understand it; [...] l'd love to write a book - a short Musical critique with examples - but N.B.: not in my name.“ No. 750, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna , 07.06.1783 (III, 272: 24-41) „N ow I must say a few words to my sister about the Clementi sonatas; - everyone that plays or hears them will feel for himself that their composition doesn't mean anything; - there are no remarkable or striking passages in them except for the 6ths and 8ves - and I beg my sister not to bother herseif too much with these, so as not to damage her calm, steady hand, nor thereby rob her hand of its natural lightness, suppleness and speedy flow. - For what in the end does one gain? - She may produce the 6ths and 8ves at the greatest speed, |: which no-one can pull off, not even Clementi : | in this way she'll pro duce a ghastly bit of hack work, but nothing in the world more than that! - Clementi is a charlatan like all Italians. - He writes Presto on a Sonata, even Prestissimo and alla Breve - and plays it Allegro in 4/4 time708; I know, because I've heard him. - What he does really quite well are his passages in 3rds; but he sweated over them day and night in London; - apart from these, however, he has nothing - not the least expression or taste - much less, feeling." No. 753, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 21.06.1783 (III, 275: 17-22) [Regarding G. Varesco, librettist of the opera L'Oca dei Cairo, K 422] „I can assure him that his libretto w ill certainly not please if the music is no good. - The music is there fore the main thing in every opera; - and so if the text is to please | : and he therefore wishes to hope for reward : | he must alter and reshape things as much and as often as I wish, and not follow his head that has not the least knowledge of the theatre and theatrical practice." 705 K 394 (383a), Andante maestoso 4/4. 706 Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K 384, 8th October 1 782. 707 K 413, K 414 and K415. 708 consequently slower in both metre and tempo word. 268 Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice No. 776, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 20.02.1784 (III, 301: 2-10) "Yesterday I had the good fortune to hear Herr Freyhold play a [Flute] Concerto of his own dis-composition. 709 - I found little in his playing and missed much; - his whole bravura consists in double-tonguing but otherwise you hear absolutely nothing - I was glad that the Adagio was very short; - the Adagio that he also played to you - for from the beginning those accompanying didn't know where he was because the piece was written in 4/4 time and he played it alla Breve - and as I then added „alla Breve" w ith my own hand, he admitted to me that Papa in Salzburg had also scolded him for that." No. 787, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 28.04.1784 (III, 312: 8-10) „Herr Richter710, pianist [...] - he plays a great deal of what concerns execution - only - as you w ill hear too coarse - too laborious - and w ithout any taste and feeling." No. 793, W.A.M. to his father from Vienna, 26.05.1784 (III, 315: 8-1 7) „The concerto that Herr Richter so extolled is the one in B flat [K 450], - which is the first I had written [like that], and which he praised to me already at that time. - l'm unable to choose between these two Concertos. - I consider them both to be concertos to make the player sweat. - Yet the one in B flat is har der than the one in D. - Incidentally l'm very curious to hear which of the three Concertos in B flat, D and G711 you and my sister like best; - The one in E flat712 doesn't at all belong with them. - It's a quite special concerto, and written more for a small than large orchestra." No. 797, W.A.M. to his fa ther from V ienna, 09.06.1784; PostScript on 12.06. (III, 318: 19/20) „Please teil her that there must be no Adagio in the concertos, but only Andantes713." No. 826, Leopold to Nannerl from Salzburg, November 1784 (III, 346: 4-18) „The opera714 was played again on Sunday with the greatest applause, and truly this opera is so beloved that the whole town acclaims it as the most marvellous work. Herr Haydn715 sat in the orchestra behind the clavier; naturally everyone always asked his opinion, and he said: if you were to have for this opera an orchestra of 60 to 70 instrumentalists with the necessary extra instruments, such as clarinets and cors anglais7'16, whose parts have to be played here by violas - only then would you hear what an excellent work this is. He really had the greatest pleasure. [...] Blonde's duet with Pedrillo717, - and then her aria718 were again encored: the Drinking-Duet Vivat Bacchus even had to be repeated 3 times. - Everyone who's seen it in Vienna says unanimously that it's acted better, more fierily and more naturally and presented with more enthusiasm here than in Vienna." No. 847, Leopold to Nannerl from Vienna, 16.02.1785 (III, 373: 46-49) „Herr [Joseph] Haydn said to me: I teil you before God, as an honest man, your son is the greatest composer whom I know personally or by reputation: he has taste, and - more than that - the greatest knowledge of composition." No. 850, Leopold to Nannerl from Vienna, 12.03.1785 (III, 379: 40-45) „Your brother's grand fortepiano has been carried out of the house to the theatre or to another house at least 12 times since l've been here. He has had a great Fortepiano pedal made, that Stands under the piano and is 3 span [27 inches] longer and astoundingly heavy, every Friday it's carried to the Mehl grube719, and was also taken to Count Cziczi's and Duke Kaunitz's." No. 907, Leopold to Nannerl from Salzburg, 07.12.1785 (III, 467: 33-41) l'm sorry that you didn't hear that [...] very skilled woman720. No note she plays is w ithout feeling, even in the symphony she played everything with expression, and no-one could play its [the symphony's] 709 Originally „scomposition" - sarcastically for the opposite o f „composition". 710 Georg Friedrich Richter. 711 K 450, K 451 and K453. 712 K 449. 713 Refers to K 450, K 451 and K 453. - In K207, K216, K 219, K242, K415 and K 488 there are indeed Adagios. 714 Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K 384. 715 i.e Joseph Haydn's brother Michael, composer in Salzburg. 716 recte: Basset horns. 717 Leopold was mistaken: there is no duet for Blonde and Pedrillo. Probably he meant Blonde's very populär duet w ith Osmin (No. 9) „Ich gehe, doch rate ich d ir“ . - The editor o fth e NMA, however: „Probably Blonde's Aria ,Welche Wonne, welche Lust' (no. 12)", [where Pedrillo stays on stage], „and the fo llow ing Aria of Pedrillo ,Frisch zum Kampfe' (no. 13)". 718 „Welche Wonne, welche Lust" (No. 12) - NMA, however: „probably ,Durch Zärtlichkeit und Schmeicheln' (no. 8)". 719 A concert hall in Vienna, Am Neuen Markt, where Mozart's Piano Concerto in D minor, K 466, was first performed. 720 The Violinist Regina Strinasacchi. Excerpts from letters of Leopold and W.A. Mozart concerning performance practice 269 Adagio more sensitively or touchingly; her whole heart and soul are in the melody that she performs; and her tone is equally as beautiful and also the strength of tone. In general I find that a woman who has ta lent plays with more expression than a man." Leopold 's PostScript on 09.12.1785 (III, 468: 61-82) „This morning from 8 to 12 I was in the theatre at the only rehearsal there's been721. [...] After breakfast I went immediately to the theatre to rearrange the orchestral seating completely, - then looked through the cello part, where there were many mistakes [...] [In the evening] I went to the opera and can assure you that, against the public's every expectation, it was performed pretty well; yes, in some numbers even better than it had been by Schmid722. E.g. Poysel plays Osmin more naturally than Brandl, - has a deeper strong bass voice, if not so beautiful, but could therefore sing the lowest passages, as they are written, an excellent actor! - Peyerl sings with much less strain, less studied and fearful, than the great Kalmes; she has a beautiful voice, a light throat, high notes, good intonation, and sang the aria with obbligato instru ments Martern aller Arten complete, including the cadenza, already composed with all the instruments, even trumpets and drums, which was omitted by Schmid and only half was sung. The tenor Mayer, as Belmonte, to my and everyone's astonishment sang and acted incomparably, and moderated his voice entirely. In short! The costumes and performance were good, and it gave pleasure. [...]" Nr. 916, Leopold to Nannerl from Salzburg, 04.01.1786 (III, 483: 69-74) „l'm sending you 1 Concerto723. The adagio [!] is a Romance, the tempo is to be taken as quickly as you can bring out the noisy quick triplets that appear right on page 3 o fthe Romance, and must be well practised so that the theme doesn't sound too feeble. Similarly one must take the first Allegro according to the fast passages." No. 1022, W.A.M. to Gottfried von laquin from Vienna, 15.01.1787 (IV, 10: 17-22) „I observed, though, with the greatest pleasure seeing how all these people leapt about with such intense pleasure to the music of my Figaro arranged as nothing but contredances and German dances; - for here nothing is spoken of but - Figaro; nothing played, sung and whistled but - Figaro: no opera patronized but - Figaro and always Figaro; definitely a great honour for me." No. 1195 W.A.M. to Constanze from Vienna, 08. and 09.10.1791 (IV, 160: 33-42) „So I went to another box [...]; there I had nothing but pleasure, and I also stayed until the end - only for Papageno's aria with the Glockenspiel724 I went on stage, because today I feit such drive to play it myself. - there I now made the joke, when Schikaneder [in one place] holds a note,725 I played an arpeggio - he was startled - looked into the wings and saw me - when it came the 2nd time - I didn't do it - now he stopped and didn't want to continue - I guessed his thought and again played a chord - then he struck the little toy bells and said ,Shut up!' - everyone laughed then - I believe many learnt through this jes tfo r the first time that he doesn't play the instrument himself." 721 for Die Entführung aus dem Serail, K 384. 722 Cuest performance in Salzburg o fth e Ansbach-Bayreuthische Hofschauspielergesellschaft, September 1784. 723 Piano Concerto in D minor, K466; the second movement has no tempo word in Mozart's hand. 724 No. 20 „Ein Mädchen oder Weibchen". 725 probably b. 35a and 35b. 270 WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART Lis t o f a l l m y w o r k s (Verzeichnüß aller meiner Werke) Time signatures and Tempo words that differ from the autograph scores Mozart's Verzeichnüß was for him no more than a catalogue; its tempo words and time signatures were not intended as interpretation indications for performers. Occasionally carelessly, therefore, not having his score to hand, he would give to an incip it a neighbouring marking such as Allegro assai in place of Presto, or the generic Allegro w ithout adding vivace as the manner of playing (such as in the worklist in Letter no. 974) - he himself knew which piece he meant. The two time-signatures that differ seriously (out of 148 entries!) - K 590/1 and K 617/b. 59 - as well as the missing $ from the Aria K 512 must be considered as errors. The Allegro assai C o f the Don Giovanni Overture corresponds almost exactly to the M olto Allegro £ of the autograph full score; as for the Allegro assai C of K 490, b. 1, Mozart was surely thinking of the sixteenths in bar 5, that as trills have no effect on the „short" Allegro C of the autograph score. In spite of their limitations, being merely catalogue entries, Mozart's autograph indications in his Ver zeichnüß should in my opinion have authority over those in copies and printed editions where the auto graph score is missing. In the lists in this book they have been so treated. Verzeichnüß / / autograph score K449 Piano Concerto in E flat, 1st movementAllegro 3/4 // Allegro vivace 3/4 K451 P ianoC oncerto inD ,1st movementAllegroC // Allegro assai C K456 P ianoC oncerto inB fla t,1st movementAllegroC // Allegro vivace C K 459 Piano Concerto in F, 1st movement Allegro vivace $ // Allegro $ K 468 „Gesellenreise" Andantino $ (for Clavier) // Larghetto $ (for organ) K 469 Aria no. 8 „Tra l'oscure ombre funeste" Larghetto 3/8 // Andante 3/8 K 486 Overture Der Schauspieldirektor Allegro assai C // Presto C K 366 Duetto no. 20b Idomeneo Andante C // (because o f new coloraturas:) Larghetto C K 366 Seena con Rondo, no. 1 0 b Idomeneo, b. 1, Allegro assai C // AllegroC K 492 Sinfonia Figaro, Allegro assai C // Presto C K495 Horn Concerto, 1st movementAllegro C // — (autograph score lost) K 512 Aria „Non so d'onde viene" Andante w ithout time signature (copies Q //-- (autograph score lost) K 527 0verture Don G/ovann/,b.31Allegro assai Q II Molto Allegro £ K 527 Aria no. 10a „Dalla sua pace" Andante 2/4 // Andantino sostenuto 2/4 K 527 Recitativo accompagnato Donna Elvira no. 21b Allegro C // Allegro assai C K545 Piano Sonata in C, 1st movementAllegro C // — (autograph unknown) K 547 Piano Sonata in F („for beginners"), 1st mov. Andante cantabile $ // -- (autograph unknown) K 549 „Piü non si trovano", Canzonetta w ithout tempo word C, // — (autograph unknown) K 575 String Quartet in D, 1st movementAllegro $ // Allegretto $ K 577 Rondo Susanna, no. 28a Figaro — £ !! // — (autograph lost; NMA ed.: „C " from copy after 1796) K 588 Overture Cosi fan tutte: Andante maestoso $ // Andante $ K 590 String Quartet in F, 1st movementAllegro moderato £ // Allegro moderato C K 593 String Quintet in D, 1st movementAdagio 3/4 // Larghetto 3/4 K 617 Adagio and Rondo in C minor/C for glass harmonica ... b. 59 Allegro C // Allegretto C Leopold Mozart, Violin School 271 LEOPOLD MOZART (1719-1787) ln the shadow of his great son, it has long been ignored what a prolific composer Leopold was, well known all over German-speaking Europe. Approximately 70 symphonies, 30 largescale serenades, 12 oratorios, concertos, chamber music, piano sonatas and innumerable divertimenti - all show that he was able to teach his son Wolfgang not only counterpoint and church music in stile antico, but perfectly well also the techniques of the ,modern' style of composition. It is no accident that a number of his works were first attributed to W olf gang. However, most of Leopold's compositions are now lost. In 1743 he became fourth Violinist of the Salzburg court orchestra, in 1758 second Violinist and in 1763 second conductor. His violin handbook - influenced by Italian sources was published in the year of his son's birth; it soon ranked as equivalent to the treatises for flute, piano and singing by Quantz, C.P.E. Bach and Tosi/Agricola. It was internationally recognised as the most important manual for violin. Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg praised it w ith enthusiasm. Three editions appeared before 1 787 and more were to follow until 1817. Far beyond violin playing, it contains fundamental insights which his son was able to make use of in his whole career, without, however, accepting every detail as dogma. Essay o n a Fundam enta l S c h o o l o f V io lin Playing, A u gsbu rg 1 7 5 6 (Versuch einer g ründlichen V iolinschule) [We have taken the liberty of adding some emphases] Chapter 1, second section: O f Metre. or the Measurement o f Musical Time, p. 30-35 § 1 Metre makes the melody, therefore metre is the soul o f music. Not only does it give it life, but holds all its component parts in their order. Metre determines the moment when the various notes must be played, and is that which is often lacking in many who have otherwise come quite far in music [...] This lack is due to their having neglected metre from the beginning. Therefore everything depends on the measurement o f musical time. [...] § 3 In ancient music there were differing opinions [about the notation of metre], and everything was in great confusion. They notated the metre by full circles and half circles which were sometimes cut through, sometimes reversed, and sometimes differentiated by a dot placed either inside or outside. However, as it no longer serves any purpose here to scrawl down such mouldy stuff, musiclovers are referred to the ancientwritings themselves. § 4 Nowadays metre is divided into even [simple or common] and uneven [triple]. [...] Even metre has two parts; uneven has three parts. [...] Here now are all the usual kinds of metres: Even metre: C; 2 or 2/4; tf. Uneven metre: 3/1; 3/2; 3/4; 3/8; 6/4; 6/8; 12/8. These species o f metre are already sufficient to show to some extent the natural difference between a slow and fast melody, and also to make it comfortable for whoever beats time.— [...] § 6 Allabreve is a contraction of common metre. It has only two parts, and is nothing other than 4/4 metre arranged into two parts. [...] The sign for Allabreve is the letter C with a line drawn through it: $. In this metre one adds few Ornaments.— § 7 This is, however, only the typical mathematical division of the bar, which we call the metre and the beat. Now we come to a major point, namely, the kind o f tempo. One must not only be able to beat time correctly and evenly, but one must also know how to recognize from the piece itself whether it calls for a slow or a somewhat faster tempo. At the beginning of every piece, it's true, specific words are written that characterize it, such as: Allegro (merry), Adagio (slow), and so on. But both slow and fast and merry have their degrees. And even if the composer takes the trouble to explain more clearly the kind of move ment required by using yet more descriptive and additional words, it is still impossible for him to describe exactly the tempo he desires for the execution o fthe piece. So it has to be deduced from the piece itself, and it is this by which the true power of a musician's understanding can w ithout fail be recognized. — [footnote e:] „The good gentlemen critics w ill not be startled if I om it the time signatures 4/8, 2/8, 9/8, 9/16, 12/16, 12/24, 12/4. In my eyes they are worthless stuff. One finds them seldom or not at all in the newer pieces; and there is really enough variety of metres for expressing everything, to be able to do w ithout these." [...] — [footnote f:] „The Italians [Welschen] call the even metre: Tempo minore; and the Allabreve: Tempo maggiore Leopold Mozart, Violin School Every melodic piece has at least one passage from which one can recognize w ith certainty what manner o f tempo the piece demands. Often, if one looks carefully, it drives forcibly into its natural tempo. This should be noted, but also that for this perception long experience and good power o f judgement are re quired. Who then w ill contradict me if I count this among the principal perfections in the art o f music? §12 The pupil must especially take great pains to end every piece that he plays in the same tempo in which he began it. [...] He must practise the difficult passages in particular and often, until he finally achieves the skill to play the whole piece at the correct and unwavering tempo throughout. Chapter 1, third section. O f the Duration or Value of the Notes, Rests, and Pots, together with an Explanation of all Musical Signs and Technical Terms: §11 There are certain passages in slow pieces where the dot must be held still a little longer than the rule mentioned above demands, if the performance is not to become too drowsy. [...] In general the do t m ust always be held somewhat longer. For not only does the performance in this way become more lively; but also it puts a stop to rushing, a fault that is almost universal; by not holding the dot long enough, how ever, the music too easily hurries. It would be very good if this longer holding of the dot could be decidedly settled on. For my part, at least, I have often done so, and I have made my opinion known by the use of two dots together with shortening the note that follows. True, it appears stränge at first. However, what does that matter? The rule has its reason; and through it musical taste is promoted. [...] p. 48 Musical Technical Terms [a selection concerning Tempo, as far as they appear in W.A. Mozart]: - Prestissimo indicates the fastest tempo, and Presto assai is almost the same. This very rapid tempo requires a light and somewhat shorter stroke. - Presto means fast, and Allegro assai is only a little different. - Molto Allegro is somewhat less than Allegro assai, but is still faster than - Allegro, which indeed indicates a merry, though not too hasty tempo, especially when moderated by additional words and phrases, such as: - Allegro, ma non tanto, or non troppo, or moderato, which is to say that one should not exaggerate the speed. For this a lighter and livelier bow-stroke is called for, yet certainly more serious and never as short as in the fastest tempo. - Allegretto, is rather slower than Allegro, usually having something pleasant, charming and playful, and much in common with Andante. It must therefore be performed in a charming, trifling and playful man ner, which charm and playfulness can be more clearly defined in this and other tempos by the word Gustoso. - Vivace means animated, and Spiritoso means that one should play with understanding and spirit; and Animoso is almost the same. All three terms form a midpoint between fast and slow, which the piece must itself make more apparent. - Moderato, moderated, unassuming; not too fast and not too slow. Precisely this is indicated to us by the piece itself: we must recognize this moderation from the way it proceeds. - Tempo commodo, and Tempo giusto, similarly lead us back to the piece itself. They teil us that we must play the piece neither too fast nor too slowly, but in its own correct and natural tempo. We must there fore look for the true pace of such a piece within itself. [...] - Sostenuto means sustained, or, even more, held back and not driven forwards. Therefore in such circumstances the bowing must be serious, long and sustained, linking [the notes of] the melody together. - Maestoso, with majesty, deliberately, not hurried. - Andante, walking. The word itself teils us that the piece must be allowed its own natural pace-, especially when ma un pocco [!] Allegretto is added. [...] - [Andantino is missing!] - Lente [Lento] or Lentemente, quite leisurely. - Adagio, slowly. - Largo, a still slower tempo, to be performed with long bowstrokes and much composure. To these words that have now been explained others are added to slow pieces, such as: - Cantabile, singable, in a singing style. That is: we should endeavour to produce a singing style. This must be natural, not too artificial, and therefore played so that the instrument, as far as at all possible, Leopold Mozart, Violin School 273 imitates the art of singing. And this is music's greatest beauty.— Chapter 12. O f Reading Music correctly, and of Good Performance in general. § 3 Reading the musical works of good masters correctly according to their instructions, and playing them in accordance with the dominant affect o f the piece, is far more artistic than studying the most difficult solo or concerto. For this latter, one needs only a little good sense. And if one has sufficient ability to devise the fingering, one can with determined practice learn the most difficult passages for oneself. The former, on the contrary, is not so easy. For not only must one observe precisely everything indicated and decreed, not playing otherwise than has been written; but one must also play w ith acertain sensitivity; one must sink oneself into the affect to be expressed and with a certain good style render and perform all the features, slurs, Separation o fth e notes, the piano and forte; in a word, everything that belongs to the tasteful performance of a piece, which can only be learnt from sound judgement acquired through long experience. § 7 Before beginning to play a piece, one must thoroughly look over and consider it. One must investigate the character, tempo, and kind o f movement demanded by the piece, carefully observing whether there is not a passage which may often seem at first sight of little significance, but because of its special style of execution and expression is not quite so easy to play. Finally, every care must be taken when practising to discover and render the affect which the composer wished to display; and as the sad and joyful often alternate, each must be assiduously depicted according to its nature. In a word, it must all be so played that the player himself is moved by it. § 8 It follows from this that the indicated piano and forte must be observed most precisely, not playing endlessly with the same tone like a hurdy-gurdy. Indeed, we must know how to change from piano to forte w ithout instruction and mostly of our own accord, playing each in the right place; for this means, according to the well-known painters' maxim, Light and Shade. The notes raised by a # and % should always be played rather more strongly, then diminishing the tone again as the melody proceeds [mus. ex.] Similarly a sudden lowering of a note by a b and ^ should be marked out by a forte, [mus. ex.] One always accents half notes if they are mixed with short notes, and then relaxes the tone again afterwards. [mus. ex.] § 9 Usually, the emphasis or stress of tone falls on the ruling or struck note which the Italians call nota buona. These struck or ,good' notes, however, are noticeably different from one another. The especially ruling notes are these: in every bar, the firs t note o f the first quarter; in 4/4, the first note o f the half-bar or third quarter; in 6/4 and 6/8, the first note o f the firs t and fourth quarter [resp. eighth]; and in 12/8, the first note of the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth eighth. [...] § 10 The other good notes are those which, it is true, are always differentiated from the others by a small accent, but which must be stressed with great moderation. [...] If several notes of this kind now follow each other, over pairs of which a slur is placed, then the accent falls on the firs t of the pair, and it is not only played somewhat more strongly, but is also held a little longer; the second, however, is slurred on to it quite gently and quietly, and somewhat delayed. [...] But often 3, 4, and even more notes are bound together by such a slur and half-circle. In this case the first ofthem must be accented rather more strong ly and held longer; the others, however, must be slurred on to it in the same stroke with diminishing strength, more and more softly and w ithout the slightest emphasis. [...] § 13 In merry pieces the accent is mostly placed on the highest note, in order to make a very lively per formance. In this case the emphasis may fall on the last note of the second and fourth quarter in 4/4, or on the end o fthe second quarter in 2/4; especially when the piece begins with an upbow. [mus. ex.] In slow and sad pieces, however, this cannot be done, for then the upbow's note must not be detached, but held and played cantabile. § 1 7 [...] wherever a forte is written, one must make use of the loudness with moderation, not crazily tearing at the strings, especially when accompanying a concerto solo. [...] Often a note demands a stronger accent, sometimes a moderate one, and often one that is barely noticeable. [...] § 20 Many, who have no conception of taste, never hold the steadiness o f tempo when accompanying a concertante part, but always strive to give in to the main part. These are accompanists for bunglers and — [footnote:] „Many imagine themselves bringing something wonderfully beautiful into the world when they thoroughly wrinkle the notes o f an Adagio Cantabile, making out o f one note a few dozen. In this way such music-murderers expose their bad judgement to the light o f day. [...]" 274 Leopold Mozart, Violin School not for masters. [...] But when one accompanies a true virtuoso, one who is worthy of the name, then one must not allow oneself to be led astray by the delay ing or a n tic ipa ting of notes [rubato], which he knows how to do so skilfully and movingly, into hesitating or hurrying, but must continue to p lay a lways in the same k ind o f tem po ; otherwise one would by the accompaniment tear down what the soloist wanted to build up.— § 21 Moreover, in making music, if it is to be otherwise good, all the players in the ensemble must observe each other well, and especially watch their leader; not only so that they begin together, but so that they may play co n s tan tly in the same te m p o and with the same expression. [...] M a in ta in in g an even tem po has been impressed on the reader more than once in Chapters 6 and 7. [...] § 22 [...] All the effort that I have made in writing this book has for its aim: to bring beginners to the right way and prepare them for the knowledge of and feeling for good musical taste. I w ill close here, although I have much still to say to our esteemed concert artists. [...] JOHANN PHILIPP KIRNBERGER (1721 -1783 ) Kirnberger had rieh practical experience as harpsichordist, Violinist, ,Kapellmeister' - ultimately at the court of Frederick the Great in Berlin - and as composer. His importance today lies in his theoretical writings about music. He wrote the musical articles in Georg Sulzer's „Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste" (from 1771) as far as „M ittelstimmen" („middle voices") on the basis o fa deep knowledge of J.S. Bach's works (though actual instruction by him cannot be proved). The subsequent lemmata were written together with his student JOHANN A braham Peter S c h u lz (1747-1800), a talented writer influenced by the ,Enlightenment', until Schulz took over alone from the entry „Sarabande" onwards. In the second part of his „Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik" (1776) („The A rt o f Strict Musical Com position") Kirnberger progressed under the influence of Schulz from the principles in C. P. E. Bach's „Versuch über die wahre Art, das Clavier zu spielen" (1759/62) („Essay on the True Manner o f Playing the Clavier") to his own independent development of a theory of melody and rhythm for the second half o f the Century. It became one of the bases of Heinrich Chris toph Koch's theory of composition (1 782 ff, see below). M o za rt knew K irnberger's w o rk — , and his close friend Stadler recommended it still in 1800 as a fundamental textbook.731 722 [footnote 3:] „A skilful accompanist must also be able to assess a concerto soloist. He certainly must not give way to a sound v ir tuoso, for he would then ruin his tempo rubato. What this ,stolen tempo' is, is more easily shown than described. [...]" A About Mozart's rubato see letter no. 355, [p. 260 and the second part o f A Koch's article Tempo rubato in his Musical Dictionary [app. p. 31 7, and footnote 792], where he also ascribes this manner of playing to Franz Benda, concertmaster to Frederick the Great. — In 1782 he copied Kirnberger's canon on the copperplate engraving o f the 2nd edition o f the first part o f „The Art of Strict Musical Composition" (,Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik', 1774). 731 Siegbert Rampe, Mozarts Claviermusik, 1995, p. 76 f. Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition 275 JOHANN PHILIPP KIRNBERGER (1721 -1783 ) T he A rt o f Strict M usical C o m p o s it io n (Die Kunst des reinen Satzes in der Musik) [C ollaborator: Johann Abraham Peter Schulz] Berlin and Königsberg, 1776-79 Translated by DAVID BEACH and JÜRGEN THYM, London 1982 [Emphases added] Volum e II, Section 4. Tempo, Metre, and Rhythm111 [...] Thus tempo, metre, and rhythm give melody its life and power. Tempo defines the rate of speed, which by itself is already important since it designates a livelier or quieter character. Metre determines the accents in addition to the length and brevity o fthe notes and lighter or more emphatic delivery; and it shapes the notes into words, so to speak. But rhythm establishes for the ear the individual phrases formed by the words and the periods composed of several phrases. Melody becomes a comprehensible and stimulating speech by the proper combination of these three things. But it must be kept in mind that none of these elements is sufficient by itself to define any character of the melody exactly; the true expression of the melody is determined only by their synthesis and their in teraction. Two compositions may have the same degree of allegro or largo, yet still have an entirely differ ent effect; according to the type of metre, the motion is - at the same speed - more hurried or emphatic, lighter or heavier. From this it is clear that tempo and metre must combine their forces. It is the same with rhythm [i.e. periods]: the same parameters of which the song consists can, depending on metre and tempo, assume a quite different expression. He who wants to set a melody must necessarily at the same time pay attention to the united effect of tempo, metre and rhythm [see above] and not regard any of them without respect to the other two. [...] I. TEM PO (Von der Bewegung) The composer must never forget that every melody is supposed to be a natural and faithful illustration or portrayal of a mood or sentiment, insofar as they can be represented by a succession of notes. The term Gemüthsbewegung, which we Germans give to passions or affections, already indicates their analogy to tempo. (The German words used by Kirnberger fo r tem po are Bewegung and Taktbewegung. The form er also has a more general m eaningthat has been translated throughout as „motion".) [...] Furthermore, he must have acquired a correct feeling for the natural tempo of every metre, or for what is called tempo giusto. This is attained by diligent study of all kinds of dance pieces. Every dance piece has its definite tempo, determined by the metre and the note values that are employed in it. Regarding metre, those having longer values, like alla breve, 3/2, and 6/4 metre, have a heavier and slower tempo than those of smaller values, like 2/4, 3/4, and 6/8 metre, and these in turn are less lively than 3/8 or 6/16 metre. Thus for example, a loure in 3/2 metre has a slower tempo than a minuet in 3/4 metre, and the latter is in turn slower than a passepied in 3/8 metre. Regarding note values, dance pieces involving sixteenth and thirty-second notes have a slower tempo than those that tolerate only eighth and at most sixteenth notes as the fastest note values in the same metre. Thus, for example, a sarabande in 3/4 metre has a slower tempo than a minuet, even though both are written in the same metre. Thus the tempo giusto is determined by the metre and by the longer and shorter note values o f a composition. Once the young composer has a feeling for this, he w ill soon understand to what degree the adjectives largo, adagio, andante, allegro, presto, and their modifications larghetto, andantino, alle gretto, prestissimo, add or take away from the fast or slow motion o f the natural tempo. He w ill soon be able not only to write in every type of tempo, but also in such a way that this tempo is captured quickly and correctly by the performers. However, tempo in music is not limited just to the different degrees of slow and fast motion. There are passions in which the images flow monotonously like a gentle brook; others where they flow faster with a moderate noise, but w ithout delay; some in which the succession of images is similar to wild brooks swollen by heavy rains, which rush violently along and sweep with them everything that Stands in 732 Rhythmic units. See the clear formulation o f H iller in his „D ictionary as Appendix" p. 353. 276 Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition their way; and again others in which the images are similar to the w ild sea, which violently beats against the shore and then recedes to crash again with new force. Similarly, tempo in melody can also be violent or tender, skipping or monotonous, fiery or bland even when the degree of fast or slow motion is the same, depending upon the type of note values chosen for the melody. [...] Each of these examples is distinguished from the others by a characteristic motion that is feit first of all through the differences of tempo and metre, and in those that have the same tempo and metre through the difference of note values from which the melody is composed. The young composer must pay particular attention to this and must, by diligent study of the works of excellent masters, gain sufficient experience in the particular effect o f each type o f note value in every metre. Assuming he has a correct feeling for this, he w ill thereby obtain control over the means by which he incorporates into his melody exactly that type of motion which allows the mood of the chosen passion to be perceived most clearly. Thus the composer, in constructing a piece, has to consider two things regarding tempo: (1) the slow or fast pace of the tempo; (2) the characteristic motion of the parts o f the measure [bar], or the type of rhythmic733 changes. Lively sentiments generally require a fast tempo; but the expression can become playful, or flirtatious, or happy, or tender, or pathetic by means of the type of characteristic motion of the parts o fthe measure [bar], or the rhythmic steps. Likewise, a slower tempo generally is appropriate to the expression of sad sentiments, but through the second type of motion the expression can become more or less agitated, tender or violent, gentle or painful. O f course, it is not the motion alone that has this effect; the remaining good qualities of an expressive melody must be united with it, but then it contributes most forcefully to the expression. [...] He [the young composer] must be careful in w riting a piece not to hurry or drag. Although these words are common only in the theory of performance, they can also be applied to composition. It can easily happen that a composer, w ithout noticing it, rushes the tempo in writing a fiery allegro, or lets it drag in a sad largo; or, out of fondness for a phrase, he may unwittingly become lax about the tempo, so that the phrase becomes vague because of its fast rate of rhythmic motion or dull because of its slowness. The composer suffers in the performance of such a piece, but through his own fault.— He must not overstep the limits o ffast or slow tempo. What is too fast cannot be performed clearly, and what is too slow cannot be comprehended. This applies mainly to pieces where the composer himself indicates the tempo. Because o fthe long period of Vibration of low notes, all short note values must be avoided in the low register; but in the high register they are more effective than long sustained notes. [...] Linally, the composer must not neglect to designate the tempo of his piece as precisely as possible whenever it cannot be determined from the features given above. He must use the terms allegro assai, allegro moderato, poco allegro &c. wherever the word allegro would indicate a tempo that is too fast or not fast enough. The same is true of slow pieces. The words that refer to characteristic motion, such as maestoso, scherzando, vivo, mesto &c. are often of the greatest significance in expressive pieces, and not meaningless for those who want to perform a piece well. Hasse735 is so precise in the designation of his tempi that he often makes lengthy descriptions of how the piece is to be performed: „Andantino grazioso, ma non patetico, non languente-, - Allegretto vivo, e con spirito; or allegretto vivo, che arrivi quasi all'allegro intiero-, - Un poco lento, e maestoso, ma che non languisca, e abbia il dovuto suo m oto ." II. METRE (Von dem Tackte) Everything that can be said to a composer about this subject beyond what I have already stated about tempo is contained in the following main topics: (1) that all types of metres invented and in use up to now be described to him, each according to its true structure and its precise execution; (2) that the spirit or character o f each metre be defined as precisely as possible; (3) finally, for the Situation where the me lody is to be written to a given text, that directions be given how the best or at least a suitable type of metre is to be chosen for it. [...] 1. If one hears a succession of equal pulses that are repeated at the same time interval, experience teaches us that we immediately divide them metrically in our minds by arranging them in groups containing an equal number of pulses; and we do this in such a way that we put an accent on the first pulse of each group or imagine hearing it stronger than the others. This division can occur in three ways, that is, 733 „rhythm ic" here in the modern sense. — [Very interesting! The printed scores of less disciplined composers could possibly be more rigid than the music was actually intended by them!] 735 Johann Adolf Hasse, 1699-1783. Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition 277 we divide the pulses into groups of two, three, or four. We do not arrive at any other division in a natural way. [...] The measure [bar] consists of two, three, or four equal beats; besides these, there is no other natural type of measure [bar]. To all appearances, only three time signatures would be required to indicate these metres, namely, one that indicates a measure of two, another that indicates a measure of three, and a third that indicates a measure of four beats. However, from what we have stated already [...] about tempo giusto and the natural motion of longer and shorter note values, it becomes clear, for example, that a measure of two quarter notes and another of two half notes, and likewise a measure of three quarter notes and another of three eighth notes, indicate a different tempo, even though they have the same number of beats. In addi tion, longer note values are always performed w ith more weight and emphasis than shorter ones; consequently, a composition that is to be performed w ith weight and emphasis can only be notated w ith long note values, and another that is to be performed in a light and playful manner can only be notated w ith short note values. [...] From this the necessity of different metres with the same number of beats becomes apparent. [...] In general, metres are divided into even and odd: even are those of two and four beats; and odd, those of three beats, which are also called triple metres. Furthermore, a distinction is made between simple and compound metres: simple metres are constituted in such a way that each measure amounts to only one foot, which cannot be divided in the middle; however, com pound metres can be divided in the m iddle o f each bar, since they are composed of two simple metres. [...] OBSERVATIONS ABOUT SIMPLE EVEN METRES OF TWO BEATS (Anmerkungen über die einfachen geraden Tackarten von zwey Zeiten) 1) 2/1 metre, which is also called large alla breve by some, consists of two whole notes or semibreves [per measure]. However, [...] it is no longer used. 2) 2/2 metre, or rather alla breve, which is always designated by or 2 [crossed through], is most often used in church pieces, fugues, and elaborate choruses. It is to be noted about this metre that it is very serious and emphatic, yet is performed twice as fast as its note values indicate, unless a slower tempo is specified by the adjectives grave, adagio &c. 3) 2/4 metre has the same tempo as alla breve but is performed much more lightly. The difference in per formance between the two metres is too noticeable for anyone to believe that it makes no difference whether a piece is written in C or in 2/4. Tempo giusto Tempo giusto fi-JiVcru^ur JiJj-i KrJi[Er[fl'î [£rii,rJ'iJj‘i (Example in Kirnberger's The A rt o f Strict Musical C om position1, p. 387) If this phrase is performed correctly, everyone w ill notice that it is much more serious and emphatic in alla breve than in 2/4 metre, where it comes close to being playful. 2/4 metre as well as the 6/8 metre that is derived from it are most often used in chamber and theater pieces. In their natural tempi, sixteenth notes and a few thirty-second notes in succession are their shortest note values. But if the tempo is modified by the adjectives andante, largo, allegro &c., more or none of these note values can be used, depending on the rate of speed. 4) 2/8 metre would be appropriate only for short amusing dance pieces because of its fast tempo and its all too great lightness of execution. However, it is not in use, and we would not have mentioned it if 6/16 metre - which is derived from it and in which many pieces have been written - did not have to be listed. It differs greatly from 6/8 metre in the hurried nature of its tempo and the lightness of its execution. [6/16 was used by J.S. Bach and Couperin among others] [...] On the violin, pieces in this and other similarly light metres are to be played just with the point of the bow; however, weightier metres require a longer stroke and more bow pressure. The fact that these and several other metres that we shall list are considered superfluous and obsolete today indicates either that good and correct execution has been lost or that an aspect of expression which is easy to obtain only in these metres is entirely unknown to us. Both [of these conclusions] do little credit to the art, which supposedly has reached its peak in our time. It is now to be noted in particular about these duple metres that each measure amounts to one foot of two parts, the first of which is ,long' [accented] and the second ,short' [unaccented], and that each main note of a melodic phrase must fall on the first beat of the measure, or, as is said, on the downbeat. [...] 278 Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition OBSERVATIONS ABOUT SIMPLE EVEN METRES OF FOUR BEATS (Anmerkungen über die einfachen geraden Tacktarten von vier Zeiten ) 2) 4/4 metre, which is designated by C, is of two types: either it is used with the adjective grave in place of the 4/2 metre just mentioned, in which case it is called ,large' 4/4 time; or it is the so-called common even metre, which is also called ,small' 4/4 time. ,Large' 4/4 time is of extremely weighty tempo and execution and, because of its emphatic nature, is suited primarily to church pieces, choruses, and fugues. Eighth and a few sixteenth notes in succession are its fastest note values. To distinguish it from small 4/4 time, it should be designated by 4/4 instead of C. The two metres have nothing in common exceptfor their signatures. Small 4/4 time has a more lively tempo and a far lighter execution. It tolerates all note values up to six teenth notes and is used very often in all styles. The same is true of 12/8 metre of [four] triple beats that is derived from 4/4 metre. A few older Com posers who were very sensitive about the manner in which their pieces were performed often designated pieces consisting only of sixteenth notes by 24/16 instead of 12/8 to indicate that the sixteenth notes should be performed lightly, quickly, and without the slightest pressure on the first note of each beat. Composers and performers today seem to know so little about these subtleties that they believe, on the contrary, that such metre designations were only an eccentricity of the older composers. 3) 4/8 metre is the lightest of the quadruple metres in execution and tempo. It is distinguished from 2/4 metre by the weight of its beats, all o f which are equally stressed—; (in 2/4 metre the first and third beats are emphasized.) Therefore, it has a somewhat slower tempo than 2/4 metre. Yet, since the liveliness of the tempo makes the stress of the beats less noticeable in both metres, the two are not as different from one another as are 4/4 metre and alla breve. Furthermore, today's composers no longer designate pieces with 4/8, but always with 2/4 instead. [...] In quadruple metre, the first and third beats are accentuated [intrinsically ,long'], but the second and fourth unaccented [intrinsically ,short']. The former are also called ,strong' [,good'] and the latter ,weak' [,bad'] beats. O f the accented beats, the first is in turn stressed more than the third: [= v - v]. Therefore the principal notes of the melody must always fall on the first beat; the other notes receive more or less weight depending on the intrinsic ,length' and ,shortness' of the other beats. In these metres, the closing note always falls on the first beat and must last four beats, except in pieces where the phrase begins on the upbeat. [...] OBSERVATIONS ABOUT ODD METRE OF THREE BEATS (Anmerkungen über die ungeraden Tacktarten von drey Zeiten) 2) 3/2 metre is used very often, especially in church pieces, because of the ponderous and slow perfor mance indicated by its note values. In this style, quarter and, at most, eighth notes are its fastest note val ues. In the chamber style, sixteenth notes can also be used in 3/2 metre; C.P.E. Bach has even begun a symphony in this metre with many thirty-second notes in a row. With such note values, the three beats of this metre must be indicated most clearly in the other voices; otherwise the melody would remain fuzzy and incomprehensible to the listener. [...] 3) 3/4 metre is because of its lighter execution not as common in the church style as 3/2; but it is used very often in the chamber and theatrical styles. Its natural tempo is that of the minuet, and in this tempo it does not tolerate many sixteenth notes, even less thirty-second notes, in succesion. However, since it assumes all degrees of tempo from the adjectives adagio, allegro &c., all note values that fit this tempo can be used, depending on the rate of speed. [...] 4) 3/8 metre has the lively tempo of the passepied; it is performed in a light but not entirely playful man ner and is widely used in chamber and theatrical music. [...] OBSERVATIONS ABOUT COMPOUND METRE (Anmerkungen über die zusammengesetzten Tacktarten) In duple as well as in triple metre there are melodies in which it is obvious that whole bars are alternately heavy and light, so that a whole bar is heard as only one beat. If the melody is of such a nature that the entire bar is feit as only one beat, two measures must be grouped together to form just one, whose first part is accented [,long'] and the other unaccented [,short']. If this contraction were not to occur, the — This kind of 4/8 metre doesn't occur in Mozart's works. Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition 279 result would be a melody consisting only of accented beats [a series of 2/8, 3/8 or 2/4 metres], because of the necessary weight of the downbeat. This would be as unpleasant as a sentence in speech consisting entirely ofone-syllable words, each of which had an accent. This resulted in compound metres, namely, compound 4/4 from two combined bars of 2/4, com pound 6/8 from two combined bars of 3/8 etc. [compound 2/4 from two combined 2/8 bars and - accor ding to Marpurg - even compound 3/4 from three combined 2/8 bars.] This combining [of bars] actually occurs only so that the player can arrive at the proper rendering and play the second half o f such a bar more lightly than the first. These metres - for example, the compound 4/4 and the simple common 4/4 - can easily be distinguished, since, in the former, the cadences fall naturally on the second part of the bars and last only half a bar, which would not be possible in simple 4/4 metre. Likewise, in compound 6/4 metre the close can occur on the fourth quarter, which is not possible in simple 6/4 metre. Otherwise, compound metres are no different from the simple ones with regard to weighty and light execution and tempo.— [...] The most useful compound metres are given in the following table: 1. Compound 4/4 metre, combined from two 2/4 measures, 2 . " 12/8 " " " " 6/8 3. " 12/16 " " " " 6/16 4. " 6/4 " " " " 3/4 5. " 6/8 " " " " 3/8 6. " 6/16 " " " " 3/16 According to the outline presented above, I now have to consider: 2) the spirit or actual character of each of these metres from the standpoint of their power to express sentiments and passions. Here it is not so much the even or odd number of beats in a bar that matters as the slower or faster tempo and the heavier or lighter gait o f the bar. One metre can be used for contrasting passions, depending upon the tempo and other factors. However, since each metre has a treatment that is most suitable and natural to it, or, if one wants, most common, then it also has to this extent a special character that can, of course, be taken away from it by a stränge and unusual treatment. Thus, what I have to say here concerns the special ease with which this or that metre can assume a certain character. It is to be noted in general that, among the metres which have the same number of beats, the one that has larger or longer beats is naturally somewhat more serious than the one of shorter beats. Thus 4/4 metre is less lively than 4/8 metre; 3/2 metre is more ponderous than 3/4, and the latter is not as lively as 3/8. For solemn and pathetic pieces, alla breve is especially appropriate and is therefore used in motets and other solemn church pieces. Large 4/4 metre has a very emphatic and serious motion and is suited to stately choruses, to fugues in church pieces, and generally to pieces where pomp and gravity is required. 3/2 metre is emphatic and very serious as long as not too many short notes are used. 4/4 metre is best suited for a lively exhilarating expression that is still somewhat emphatic. 2/4 is also lively but already combined with more lightness and, for that reason, can be used well to express playfulness. 4/8 metre is already totally fleeting, and its liveliness no longer contains any of the emphasis of 4/4 metre. The character of 3/4 appears to be gentle and noble, particularly when it consists only, or at least mostly, of quarter notes. But 3/8 metre has a liveliness that is somewhat frolicsome. These general characters are defined even more specially by the particular note value that prevails and by rules that determine progression by larger or smaller intervals. The character of 3/4 metre is entirely different when quarter notes are used almost exclusively throughout than when many eighth and even — The formulation o f Kirnberger's co-author J.A.P. Schulz in Sulzer's, „General Theory" is clearer: „Tempo and execution of compound metres correspond to the simple ones from which they are composed." (vol. IV, p. 501 [see app. p. 291 ]). Compare also A C. Weber, Theory o f Composition (,Tonsetzkunst’, p. 111/112): „Since a compound metre is nothing eise but a group o f two simple metres it follows that the beats of a compound measure move neither faster nor slower than in a simple one - under otherwise equal circumstances - for example the quarter notes in 4/4 metre move exactly like those in 2/4 metre, the eighth notes in 6/8 metre like those in 3/8, 9/8, or 12/8 metre, etc." 280 Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition still smaller notes occur, and when it progresses mostly by small intervals than when leaps occur more often. [...] From the few remarks that I have made here about the different characters of the metres, it is evident that this difference of metres is very well suited to express particular nuances o fthe passions. Each passion has its own degrees of strength and, if I may say so, its own deeper or shallower charac ter. Joy, for example, can be solemn and almost exalted; it can be overwhelming, but also leaping and frolicsome. Joy can have these and even more levels and nuances, and such is the case with the other passions as well. Above all, the composer must have a definite idea of the particular impression of the passion that he has to portray and then choose a more ponderous or lighter metre depending upon whether the affect in its particular nuance requires one or the other. 3) How is one to approach vocal pieces with regard to metre? First of all, one must pay attention to the sentiment contained in the words, and, depending upon its nature, select one o fthe more serious or lively types of metre. Everything that is sung in alla breve time, for example, can also be sung in 2/4 metre, but in performance such a piece would sound far more serious in the first metre and far more lively in the second. Second, one must investigate whether the text requires a metre of two, three, or four beats. That is, each long syllable must fall on an accented beat, and each short syllable on an unaccented beat. The key word of a line must fall on the first beat: 2/4: / Wei-ser / Da-mon, / des-sen / Haupt / Lor-beer / um und / um be- / laubt. Here a weak syllable always follows a long one, and [the line] could also be set in 3/8: 3/8: / Wei—ser / Da—mon / But, since the line has a serious character, 2/4 is preferable to 3/8. However, the following lines have a lively character, although long and short syllables alternate just as above: 6/8: „Ein / klei-nes Kind mit / Flü-geln, das / ich noch nie ge- / sehen" etc. but they must not be written in 3/8, because then the last syllable of the word „Flügeln", which is weak, would fall on the first beat and therefore would be accented. Since the close always falls in the middle during the course ofthese lines, this is indicative of compound 6/8 metre. [...] It can be seen from these few examples that different metres and rhythmic progressions can be chosen for the same words, and yet the long and short syllables always be treated correctly. Here we are talking only about those melodies where each syllable is set to one note. However, since many notes and even whole passages can be written to one syllable in an embellished melody, it becomes clear that al most all metres can fit the same words. Therefore, when writing large vocal compositions involving an embellished melody, one must have a feeling for the special effect ofeach metre and choose the one that best represents the expression to be portrayed. III. Rhythm— (Von dem Rhythm us [= Periodik]) Melody receives its character from tempo and metre, through which a gentle or violent, a sad or joyful sentiment is expressed. The flow of the melody is divided into larger or smaller phrases by the rhythm [see footnote 738], without which the melody would progress monotonously; each ofthese phrases has its special meaning, like phrases in speech. Melody becomes diversified in this way and, with its other pro perties, becomes a speech that entertains the ear and senses with manifold phrases, some of which taken together form acomplete sentence. Anyone with an average ear w ill have noticed that the greatest power of melody comes from rhythm [see above]. It unites both the melody and the harmony o f several measures into a single phrase that is immediately grasped by the ear; and several small phrases are again combined as a larger unit to form a complete sentence with a rest point at its end, which allows us to comprehend these individual phrases as a unit. [...] In speech one comprehends the meaning only at the end o f a sentence and is more or less satified by it depending on whether this meaning establishes a more or less complete statement. The same is true in — [Kirnberger's Footnote:] This word has two meanings: sometimes it means what the ancients called „rhythmoponie", that is, the rhythm ic character o f a piece; at other times it means a phrase or segment. It has the first meaning when one says, „This piece is incorrect rhythmically, or the rhythm is no good." It is used in its other meaning when one says, „a rhythm ic unit (phrase) o ffo u r measures." Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition 281 music. Not until a succession of connected notes reaches a point of rest at which the ear is somewhat satisfied does it comprehend these notes as a small unit; before this the ear perceives no meaning and is anxious to understand what this succession of notes really wants to say. However, if a noticeable break does occur after a moderately long succession of connected notes, which provides the ear with a small rest point and concludes the meaning of the phrase, then the ear combines all these notes into a comprehensible unit. This break or rest point can be achieved either by a complete cadence or simply by a melodic close with a restful harmony, w ithout a close in the bass. In the first case, we have a complete musical State ment that is equivalent to a full sentence in speech, after which a full stop is placed. But in the other case, we have a phrase that is indeed comprehensible, yet after which another or several more phrases are expected to complete the meaning of the period. The musical statement that is complete and ends with a formal cadence we w ill call a ,section' or ,period'-, but the incomplete one that ends only with a melodic break we w ill call a phrase' or a ,.rhythm ic un it'. One can easily understand that every good melody must consist of various periods and these in turn of several phrases. I first want to discuss here what is to be observed regarding these periods and phrases so that the ear is never offended or loses interest. A musical period, then, is a succession of connected notes that concludes with a complete formal ca dence. The effect of this cadence is so satisfying to the ear that it permits it to comprehend the entire succession of notes combined in this period as a unit, w ithout being disturbed in this Sensation by the expectation of what m ightfollow. If this close occurs in the principal tonic o fthe piece, the satisfaction is complete and nothing further is expected, since the entire musical speech has reached its goal. But if it occurs in a key other than the main key, the satisfaction is incomplete, since the ear wants to hear the main key again. A series of such periods, none o f which but the last closes in the main key, forms an entire composi tion. However, if one or more periods were to conclude with a cadence in the main key before the end of a composition, one would no longer have an entire melody, but a composition that is made up of two or more similar melodies. Therefore, it should be a principal rule not to conclude any period but the last in an entire piece with the principal tonic. For when this happens, the entire piece really comes to an end. However, this natural rule is often broken. In concerti and arias, the tutti and ritornelli normally close in the main key and are thus complete independent pieces. [...] Just as the ear soon perceives the metre in every composition and wants it to be retained for the entire piece, the ear is also soon taken with the rhythm ic Organization and is inclined always to count the same number of measures for each phrase; it is actually somewhat offended if this uniformity is broken. There are, of course, situations where individual phrases of more or fewer measures than all the others are very appropriate for the sake of a particular expression. But this must be considered as an exception to the rule. [...] There are also cases where a short segment of one measure can even be inserted among longer ones without disrupting the grouping of the remaining units of equal length; it is not counted, since it is heard as something foreign that attracts the attention in a very special way [for instance echo-bars]. [...] The best melodies are always those whose phrases have four bars. A few of two bars may enter in among them, but they must occur in pairs, since they are then heard as phrases of four measures with a caesura in the middle. It deserves to be noted here as something special that there are situations where a phrase of four measures can be transformed into rhythmic units of five measures by extension of certain principal notes that are to be given a special emphasis. The ear is not only not offended by it, but the excessive length of such a phrase often has great impact. 282 Kirnberger/Schulz on Musical Composition JOHANN PHILIPP KIRNBERGER G u id e t o V o c a l C o m p o s it io n with odes in various metres, Berlin 1782 (Anleitung zur Singekomposition mit Oden in verschiedenen Sylbenmaßen) [emphases added] [...] Even metre has the following features: it has four beats [...]; the first beat is long [accented], the second short [unaccented], the third long and the fourth short. The weight of the third beat is less than the weight of the first heavy beat. This rule can thus be a guideline, if one wants to make a difference between long and long, short and short, according to the greater or lesser weight and emphasis. [...] Also deserving attention is the choice between a metre of four and of two beats, or a 4/4 metre com pounded of two 2/4 metres. This last is suitable when the poet has closed the line with a feminine ending so that the last syllable, being short, falls into the middle of the 4/4 bar. The same applies to the uneven metre if one wants to have a feminine ending: one chooses 6/4 metre, compounded of two 3/4 bars, whereby the composer gets a formal closure [on the second half o f the compound bar] which is feit al most as strongly as the downbeat of the first half. However, it is absolutely wrong to apply a closing note on the last beat of a bar, whatever the metre may be. 12/8 metre must be regarded as if it were an even 4/4 metre; it is compounded o f two 6/8 metres. A metre compounded of four times 3/8 [3/8 + 3/8 + 3/8 +3/8], which would be made in such a way that one could close on the second or fourth beat, cannot occur. The strength and weakness of a tone can be known by the following: namely, the quality of the place in a line onto which it is to fall; moreover, whether the lines are in even or uneven metre; whether the even or uneven metre is ,born' [simple] or compound, and whether a note appears as a regulär or irregu lär passing note.— The strength and weakness of a tone cannot be determined by the consonant chords and essential dissonances since both can appear on each beat o fthe metre. [...] [...] Even though containing the same number of beats the $ metre oftwo beats is completely different from 2/4 metre. The former, because of its weighty and slow m otion, is suitable for religious hymns; the latter on the other hand, because of its light and swift pace, is appropriate for frolicsome and comic ef fects. It must be ascribed to error or ignorance if sublime hymns (e.g. those addressed to God) are set in 2/4 time, and if frivolous things, where sixteenth and even thirty-second notes appear, in $ metre.— [...] However, if a swifter tempo is demanded, it happens quite often [...] that $ time shall be as swift as 2/4 time, with the difference, though, that the rendition is heavier in $ time; otherwise there would be no difference between 2/4 metre and a swift $ metre, as both of them have two beats per bar. KIRNBERGER'S MUSICAL ARTICLES (until letter R) in: Johann G eo rg S u lzer: General Theory o f the Fine Arts (Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste), vol. I-Ill, Leipzig 1 7 7 1 -7 4 (see below) — [Kirnberger's Footnote:] „The rule that the first note o f a piece must always be strong is all the more wrong since [...] every melody allows the expression of passion at one moment to rise, the next to fall." — In the Adagio cantabile p of Variation XI o fth e „frivolous" Piano Sonata in D, K284, Mozart wrote even 64th notes! There are 32nd notes in seven of his p movements. SULZER / Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" 283 JOHANN ABRAHAM PETER SCHULZ (1747 -1800 ) ln 1 765, on the basis of a recommendation by C.P.E. Bach, J.A.P. Schulz became a student o f Johann Philipp Kirnberger in Berlin. On journeys between 1768 and 1772 he got to know the musical life of Austria, Italy and France. In 1770 in Danzig he made friends with Johann Friedrich Reichardt, in Vienna he met Gluck and Joseph Haydn, in Paris Gretry. Back in Berlin from 1773 Georg Sulzer and Kirnberger appointed him co-author o f the musical articles in Sulzer's „Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste" („General Theory o fthe Fine Arts") beginning with the lemma „m odulation" (although the articles „M usik", „O per" and „Rhythmus" are probably by Sulzer himself). The 67 articles from „Sarabande" onwards that then took up newer developments were assigned to Schulz alone; unsurpassable among them are those about „Tact" (metre) and „Vortrag" (execution). Kirnberger, who found it difficult to formulate his ideas stylistically well, then made use of Schulz's systematic thinking and literary skill to bring the second volume of his „D ie Kunst des reinen Satzes in der M usik" (1776) („The A rt o f Strict Musical Composition") into its present clear form. Schulz's contributions to both works „le ft a significant mark on the way music was viewed in the age o fthe Viennese classics."741 As music director of the newly-established Berlin Comedie franqaise and the princely theatre in Rheinsberg he staged - disapproved of by Kirnberger - his own theatre works in ,light style' as well as Paris productions of what he referred to as „the best French operettas" and „all grand operas by Gluck, Piccini and Sacchini".742 However, he achieved his greatestfame as composer of his „Fieder im Volkston" („populär songs") that included „Der Mond ist aufgegangen". In 1787 he was appointed Royal Danish State ,Kapellmeister' in Copenhagen where he was artistically very successful and socially beneficial until he was forced to resign in 1 795 because of an outbreak of tuberculosis.— From 1 790 he also composed numerous lyric oratorios and church music. Johann Friedrich Reichardt (cf. below) wrote a very touching obituary for the Feipzig AmZ that was informative about them both. JOHANN GEORG SULZER (1720 -1779 ) The Swiss theologian, mathematician and philosopher of the Enlightenment, J. G. Sulzer worked from 1747 as a high school professor in Berlin; in 1765 Frederick the Great ap pointed him professor of philosophy, and in 1776 director of the philosophy dass of the Prussian Academy of Sciences. The „Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste" („General Theory o f the Fine Arts") in two volumes (later divided into 4) of 1771-74 is his magnum opus, the fru it of 20 years' work. It is the first encyclopedia in the German language that comprehensively covers all aspects of the aesthetics of all arts, for the first time also on the basis of observations of the psychology of perception. Sulzer, who had no musical education, called on JOHANN PHILIPP KIRNBERGER (1721-1783) as author of the musical articles and edited the perspicacious, but obviously somewhat chaotic, texts of the same, until from the lemma „Modulation" Kirnberger's analytically and literary talented student JOHANN ABRAHAM PETER SCHULZ (1747-1800) helped him and contributed newer conceptions of music theory. (The articles „M usik"— „Oper" and „Rhythmus", however, are probably by Sulzer himself.) From „Sarabande" the articles - outstanding are those about „Tact" (metre) and „Vortrag" (execution) - come from Schulz. Fater dictionaries - like that of Koch - quoted extensively from this work and thereby increased its influence. 741 See: Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart II. 742 in: C. von Ledebur, Lexikon der Tonkünstler Berlins, Berlin 1861, p. 528 ff. — In the spirit o f his „Thoughts about the influence of music on the education of a people" he worked towards making music a part o fth e Danish school curriculum. In 1 789 he initiated a royal insurance for the widows of orchestra members. — W ith 43 pages of bibliography! 284 SULZER/ Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" G e n e ra l T h e o r y o f t h e Fine A r ts (1 7 7 1 -1 7 7 4 ) (Allgemeine Theorie der Schönen Künste) Vol. I, Leipzig 1771, vol. II-IV 1 7 7 4 ,21792-94 (Music Articles as far as „Modulation" by J.Ph. Kirnberger and Sulzer; subsequent articles by Kirnberger and J.A.P. Schulz; from „Sarabande" by Schulz alone) [emphases added] Selection of lemmas relevant for Mozart: I/23 ADAGIO (music) This Italian word means something that is moderately slow and is set before pieces which are to be play ed or sung with a languishing and tender affect. [...] Adagio is appropriate for a slow and deliberate expression, for affectionate, melancholy passions. Since every tone thereby is played clearly and deliberately such a piece must necessarily be simpler and less contrived than faster ones. All passions whose language is slow and deliberate are touching. Therefore the composer must work in an Adagio more for the heart than for the imagination. Artificially invented figurations are not suitable for that. For the more the heart is moved the less the w it is apparent. Adagio needs a particularly good execution: not only be cause at such a slow tempo each mistake is easily noticed, but also because it becomes dull through a lack of richness unless an emphatic and strong expression makes it tasty. The player who cannot settle himself into a gentle, tender affect, which indicates to him the true tone of this genre by itself, w ill not be successful in it. I/72 ALLA BREVE These words heading a piece indicate a special kind of tempo whereby a bar must be played just twice as fast as normally. [...] Thereby the entire song receives not only a faster pace, but equal feet, all o f them consisting of two beats [...] one heavy and one light - v | - v |, which makes the singing simpler and more serious than if it were executed in the same tempo by shorter notes. 1/112 ALLEGRO Means swift, and is given to such pieces that are to be played somewhat speedily and with liveliness. But since there are various degrees of swiftness before one arrives at the fastest, these are indicated by addi tional adjectives. Allegro di molto, or allegro assai, indicates the very swift tempo which comes close to the really fast or Presto; Allegretto is less swift. But nearly every piece which is indicated by Allegro has nevertheless its own degree of speed which a skilled player must guess from the expression and from the kind of notes. Allegro, or swift melody, is suitable for the expression of lively passions, of not yet entirely rollicking joy, of moderate anger, of mockery, and if need be for mere chatter, cheerful joking. There is, however, a noticeable difference between the various kinds of Allegro not only concerning the speed but also the expression; since a piece can be executed merrily, perkily, magnificently or coaxingly - at the same speed. [•••] 1/112 ALLEMANDE This term names two kinds of small pieces. The first kind is part of so-called suites for piano and other in struments. It is set in four-four metre, has a somewhat serious pace, and is supported by a full and indeed elaborate harmony. The other kind745 is a dance melody in two-four metre with a very lively and somehow skipping motion which expresses the character of cheerfulness. It is very similar to the French tambourin. The name Allemande is also used for the Swabian dance [...] This one has 3/4 metre. It has something very pleasant, merry. [...] This Allemande is a true dance of merriment. (See p. 249, mus. Ex. 424) 1/139 ANDANTE Means in music a pace of the bar which keeps the mean between swift and slow. In Andante all tones are played clearly and well separated from each other. This pace is proper for a composed, calm content, likewise for processions and marches. I/272 EXPRESSION in music The right expression of the emotions and passions in all their particular shadings is the noblest if not the only merit of a piece of music. [...] Expression is the soul of music: w ithout it it is merely an enjoyable musical box; by expression it becomes emphatic speech which irresistibly affects our heart. [...] Within every passion we find a succession of ideas which has something in common with motion, as the mere 745 This refers to the Contredanse ailemande. SULZER / Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" 285 word emotion shows, whereby every passion is expressed. There are passions in which the imagination's ideas flow uniformly; in others they stream faster, leaping and making quite some noise; in some the succession of ideas rushes along like a w ild brook swollen by strong rain and sweeps away whatever is in its way. Sometimes the mind in its imagination is like the w ild sea which now powerfully crashes against the shore and then recedes only to crash again with new force. [This almost expressionistic description was written in 1771, when Mozart was 15.] Music is perfectly suited to depict all these kinds of motions, thus to make the motions ofthe soul sensible for the ear - if they are only sufficiently familiar to the composer and if he has enough knowledge to imitate every motion by harmony and melody. For this he is in control of many different means - if he is not lacking in art. These are: 1) the mere progress of the harmony, irrespective of the metre, either in gentle and agreeable affects, lightly and naturally, w ithout great complexities or grave retardations; or in adverse and particularly violent affects, with, however, interruptions, frequent modulations into distant keys, greater complications, many and unusual dissonances and retardations, and fast resolutions. 2) the metre, by which alone the general character o f a ll kinds o f motions can be im itated. 3) the melody and the rhythm which, regarded by themselves, are equally capable of depicting the language of all passions on their own. 4) the modifications in the strength and weakness of the tones which contribute very much to the expression; 5) the accompaniment and especially the choice and alternation of the accompanying instruments; and finally 6) the modulations and lingering in other keys. i/386 TEMPO Speaking about the movement [tempo] of a piece one means the degree of speed in which the bars are played according to the character of the piece. [...] The fast movements [tempos] are expressed by Prestissimo, Presto, Allegro assai [!], Allegro di molto, Allegro, Allegretto, the moderate by Andante, Andantino, the slow by Largo, Larghetto, Adagio. These degrees of tempo w ill be further elaborated below in individual articles.746 [...] Only the composer himself is capable of indicating the fully correct degree of tempo for it. A small degree above or below can do much harm to the effect of the piece. As many words as one has thought of for this, they are still not sufficient. [...] i/440 CHAMBER MUSIC [...] Since chamber music is for connoisseurs and music lovers the pieces can be more learned and artifi cial than those intended for public use, where everything must be simpler and singable so that everybody may understand it. Also, in the church and theatre many a detail is not heard and the composer does not always need to calculate each single note, also in the secondary parts, so exactly; in chamber music, however, because of the fewer players and parts everything must be much more exactly considered since every detail is perceptible. Generally, in public music, where one always has a certain purpose, one must make sure that the expression is achieved in the simplest and most certain way; in chamber music one must make use of the most strict setting, a more refined expression and more elaborate phrases. [...] Since chamber music should not be as penetrating as church music the instruments are generally tuned somewhat less high; therefore the ,Chamber tone' is distinguished from the ,Choir tone'. I/449 CAPELLE For a good ,capelle' singers of every kind of voices are necessary, both solo-singers and others for multivoiced pieces, and a sufficient number of good players for all usual instruments. Therefore a well-manned ,capelle' w ill consist of no less than one hundred people [!] [including the chorus]. The d irec to r o r the m ost em inen t m em ber o f such a Company is called the Capellmeister. His du ty is to provide everyth ing w h ich is to be perform ed, unless he com poses the pieces h im se lf o r has taken them from som ew here eise; m oreover he is ob liged to conduct the en tire perform ance o f the music; therefore he generally plays the organ o r the principal harpsichord. i/475 CIACONNA A piece in 3/4 time made for dancing. Its tempo is moderate and the metre most clearly expressed. II/35 PHRASES [...] A m elody consists of periods, the periods of phrases, the phrases [...] of motifs. 746 W ith the exception of „Andantino", which in Sulzer's work is not described in detail. 286 SULZER/ Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" Phrases are in singing what the line is in poetry; each of them consists of a short series of exactly coherent tones which the ear can take together and understand in one go as a whole inseparable member. They must be of the kind that one cannot hold still on any tone, or feel a resting point, until one has come to the last one which allows the ear to feel a noticeable drop. Both are obtained by avoiding perfect consonances in the melody and triads in the harmony in the middle of the member or phrase; at the end of the same, however, either by means of such consonances or by the triad [...] a little calmness can be sensed. Since the phrase must be grasped as one single member in one go it cannot exceed a certain length; for at its end its beginning must not yet be extinguished in the ear. In poetry the longest line has six feet because it has been noticed that the ear cannot grasp more feet in one go. The longest phrases of the melody are those of five, at most seven bars, and even in this case they must have caesuras like the lon ger lines. The shortest lines are of two feet, the shortest phrases of two bars. But in the same way that a succession of so many short lines would soon become tedious, the singing of such short phrases would not be agreeable. Those of four bars are the most normal and best. One can also make them of three bars; however, if they are to sound well two members of three bars each must always be combined so that they are feit as phrases of six bars with a caesura in the middle. [...] In so far as only the melodiousness is concerned phrases of equal length throughout the entire me lody are the best. And they are like that in all dance melodies. But where a special expression of feeling is to be achieved single phrases which are longer or shorter than usual in the piece make a good effect. [...] In pieces for singing it is absolutely necessary that the phrases of the melody go exactly together with the phrases of the text; for singing must express the thoughts of the text, which is why in singing no break can occur until in the text there is a break in the thought. [...] 11/66 ENGLISH DANCES They are also called contre dances from the English word Country-dances, which means dances usual among the country people in the different provinces. These dances which probably have spread from England and Scotland across Europe are of many kinds and can be danced by four, six, eight and still more people at the same time. Therefore generally at balls, after minuets have been danced for a while, most of the remaining time is spent with them, since they occupy more people at the same time, and since one can continue endlessly with them; for there are innumerable contredances. Their metres vary, some in two and some in three time; all agree that they are very lively, and have mostly something rather moderately merry whereby they unite enjoyment and courtesy with each other. It seems that no nation dances more than the English; since every year huge numbers of new dances are invented and made known by printing in London. Below the music one finds there the dance described in part by Choreo graphie signs and in part very briefly by technical terms. [...] It is charming that most of the melodies are made from well-known English songs so that in English dances poetry, singing and dance are united with each other and the songs are not only sung but also danced, whereby they naturally impress much more. The music for the English dances, which are called Angloises in Germany, is in its great naivety gener ally very lively, with uncommonly clearly marked phrasing, and has often the specific characteristic that the cadences fall on the upbeat. 11/226 FERMATAS appear in one or more instrumental or vocal parts of a piece where the tone is held at w ill beyond the nominal value of the note, and drawn out with various embellishments. [...] The fermata serves to Sup port the expression of powerful passions at the places where they have increased to the utmost, also for astonishment, like an exclamation. It interrupts the singing, as when in a strong affect one pauses a little in one's speech after an exclamation in order to continue all the more impetuously afterwards. On a fermata the singer must either sustain the tone evenly or diminish it gradually, [...] according to the required affect.747 11/309 GAVOTTE A little piece of music made for dancing of a moderately cheerful and agreeable character. It is in even four-four metre which, however, is indicated by $ in the way of the alla breve, and is also conducted in only two beats. It begins with an upbeat or in the second half of the bar with the third quarter note, and its phrase breaks are every two bars, consequently always in the middle o fthe third bar. The fastest notes are eighth notes. The piece is organized in two parts, each of eight bars. If the Gavotte is not used for dancing but for piano pieces and so-called suites one is not bound to that length. 747 Here follows a reference to the textbooks of Quantz and C.Ph.E. Bach. SULZER / Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" 287 111/154 LARGO Means the slowest movement of the metre, where the main tones o f the melody follow each other in solemn slowness, brought up deep from one's breast, so to speak. This tempo is suitable for passions which manifest themselves with solemn slowness, for melancholic sadness and a somewhat gloomy devotion. In order not to become boring a Largo must be short, as it is not possible to continue for long with the utmost degree of attention which is necessary for it.— [...] (see p. 39, Ex. 013 Mass in C minor, K 427 Qui tollis) 111/371, 374, 376/77 MELODY [...] The essence of melody is expression. It must always portray some passionate feeling or a mood. Everybody who hears it must have the impression of hearing the language of someone who - imbued with a certain feeling - expresses it in that way. However, in so far as it is a work of art and taste, this passionate speech like every other work of art must form an entity in which unity and variety are combined. [...] The passionate expression depends, however, to some extent also on the key and other things belonging to harmony; but what can be brought about by metre and rhythm [periods] is much stronger. [One must discriminate here:] First the tempo as such must be regarded, whether it is slow or swift; thereafter its kind, according to which it can at the same speed be softly flowing or skipping, according to whether the tones are slurred, or strong or weaker; third, the intervals, larger or smaller, consonant or dissonant; fourth, the type of metre, if it is even or uneven, and the accents arising from that; fifth, its particular kind, or the number of its parts; sixth, the distribution o f the tones within the bar according to their length and shortness; seventh, the relationship of the paragraphs and phrases to each other. Each of these points contributes in its own way to the expression. [...] For the truth of the expression the composer must also consider the different character of the two kinds of metre. The even metre is suitable for a staid, serious and pathetic expression; the uneven one has something light, which according to the other circumstances can be used for cheerful or playful, or also for more gently tender expressions. Because of the dissimilarity of its parts, however, it can also be used for vehement passions that manifest themselves so to speak by jolts. However, the particular k ind o f metre [...] is important for the expression. Out of the even metres 2/4 — is gentler and calmer than 4/4 metre— which, depending on the tempo, can express either more seriousness or more cheerfulness than the former. Among the uneven metres 3/4 can be used for various expressions, from the noble propriety of gentle emotions to the impetuosity of violent passions, depending on other factors, especially syncopations, lengths and accents, which are connected with it. 3/8 metre is capable of the greatest cheerfulness and has always some merriment. That is why most merry dances of all peoples are set in this metre. 6/8 is suitable mainly for the expression of a gentle innocent pleasure since it mixes into the merriment of the 3/8 metre some o fthe seriousness o fthe even metre by duplication of the number of smaller steps. III/388 MINUET A small piece in 3/4 metre set for dancing which consists of two parts, each of which has eight bars. It begins with a downbeat and has its incisions every two bars on the last quarter note; just in the middle of each part they must be a little more distinct. [...] The expression must be noble and encourage a feeling of charming decency, but combined with simplicity. The fastest notes are eighth notes. It is very good, however, if one part - be it the bass, or the melody - proceeds in mere quarter notes so that the movement of the metre becomes the more noticeable for the dancers; which must generally be observed also in all other dances. An odd sixteenth note, however, can follow after a dotted eighth note. [...] When only intended for playing, minuets of 16, 32 or even 64 bars are also composed. There are such as begin with an upbeat where one feels the incisions at the second quarter note of every second bar. Others begin with the downbeat but set the incision now at the second, now at the third quarter note. [...] One must be cautious with such mixing of the incisions, though, in order not to make the rhythm lose its nature. — The Largo o fM ozart's „Q ui to llis" in his Mass in C minor, K427 takes - a tthe right tempo - more than 6 minutes! — Original erroneously: „3/4". — Compare Figaro no. 2 (Ex. 251) and no. 1 (Ex. 250) on p. 161. 288 SULZER/ Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" In minuets intended both for playing and dancing one adds a TRIO w hich agrees in tem po and rhythm w ith the m inuet. [...] The minuet seems to be invented by the Graces themselves and, more than other dances, is suited to circles of persons who excel in fine manners. [...] It seems not to be of French origin, as many believe. At least it is too staid for the liveliness of the French nation. [Written at the time of the minuet's decline! - see p. 243] 111/652 PASSACAGLIA A piece for dancing, for pleasantly serious and so-called mezzo carattere. The metre is 3/4 and begins with the third quarter note. It consists of a sentence of eight bars, the tempo is very moderate. The piece is made in the manner of the chaconne in such a way that above the same basic harmonies the melody is varied diversely; it tolerates notes of every kind. One finds also those which begin with a downbeat. [...] 111/655 PASSEPIED A piece for dancing which indeed agrees in its character with the minuet, but has a more lively tempo. Its metre is 3/8, and sixteenths are the fastest notes it tolerates. The incisions are like those in a minuet that begins with an upbeat. [...] Its character is an enchantingyet noble liveliness. [...] 111/716 POLONAISE [...] It is set in 3/4 metre and consists of two parts of 6, 8, 10 or more bars, both of them closing in the main key which is always major. [...] The tempo is faster by far than it is played in Germany, yet not quite as fast as the normal dance minuet. The Polonaises which are set by German composers and known in Germany are nothing less than true Polish dances but are generally despised in Poland under the name o fthe ,German-Polish' dance. In a ge nuine Polonaise two sixteenth notes are never linked to an eighth note. And this way is typical for the German Polonaise. It tolerates by the way all kinds of notes and combinations; but because o fthe rather fast tempo not many thirty-second notes should follow each other. [...] Its true character is solemn gravity. [...] Incidentally the German Polonaise has an agreeable character, too, but of a special kind which should be given a special name. IV/4 RECITATIVE (see also the article „Singing") There is a k ind o f passionate rendering o f speech w h ich Stands m idw ay between real s inging and co m m on declam ation; like s inging it is done in exact tones be longing to a scale, bu t w ith o u t the exact observance o f all the m etrical and rhy thm ic features o f genuine singing. [...] It d iffers from real s inging m ain ly by the fo llo w in g characteristics: Firstly it doesn't tie itself so exactly to the tempo as vocal music does. W ithin the same metre whole bars and single beats are not always o fthe same length; not seldom one quarter note is sung shorter than another. [...] The recitative has secondly no exactly determined phrase structure. Its longer and shorter phrases follow no other rule than speech itself. From that comes, thirdly, the difference that the recitative has no real melodic ideas, no genuine melody [...]. Fourthly, the recitative doesn't tie itself to a regularity of modulation into other keys which is prescribed in real singing. Finally, the recitative differs from true singing in never holding a tone noticeably longer than would happen in declamation, not even in perfect [full] cadences. [...] Generally in a recitative the tones are indeed performed cleanly, according to the scale, yet somewhat shorter than when singing. [...] IV/8 Features of a perfectly composed recitative are: 1) The recitative has no regulär melodic phrase structure but observes only the sentences and sections of the text w ithout caring for melodic regularity. In Germany and Italy recitatives are always set in 4/4 time. In the French recitative various metres appear in succession, and are therefore very difficult to accompany and still more difficult to grasp. [...] 3) Since the recitative is not really sung but only declaimed in musical tones it must have no melismatic embellishments. IV/377 SINGING [...] Singing is indisputably the most important and most fundamental act of music, against which every thing eise which music produces is a minor matter. [...] The whole art of music is an imitation o fthe art of singing. [...] Since recitative is made just for the voice and cannot be played on any instrument its execution is of principal concern for the singer. He must know exactly the emotion and the particular tone ofevery affect and his speech m ust be singing-, he must notice every modification of the passion up to the finest shadings in the words and arrange his rendering accordingly; he must know the most emphatic words and the most emphatic syllables in them and lay on them the greatest emphasis, passing speedily over others which have no great importance; he must make every comma and the other divisions of the speech SULZER / Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" 289 perceptible by a suitable lowering of his voice. This belongs to the clarity of the rendering; but it must always be done in a language appropriate to the passion of the person he represents. Strength and weakness, faster and slower tempo, measure and rests, everything here depends entirely on the singer. If he doesn't put himself completely into the passion expressed by the words, instead of a touching language which nobody can resist he will give birth to something monstrous, causing his listeners disgust and boredom. Every aria can be performed well even by a mediocre singer, but recitative is the achievement of only a complete singer who knows every passion and has control of its every tone. [...] IV/383 IN A SINGING MANNER It is a principal rule for the composer to write in a singing style - in vocal as well as in instrumental music. [...] Singing is the basis by which melody becomes a language and comprehensible for everybody. [...] One is accustomed to set Cantabile above pieces in a moderate tempo which have something aria-like about them in order to indicate that they should be executed with a particularly singing quality. Such a rendering is done with moderate strength; the notes are slurred more than detached, and one refrains from all embellishments and manners of execution which are not appropriate for the voice. IV/493 METRE [...] So, putting metres of all kinds together side by side, it would seem sufficient to have one even metre of two beats and another of four, and a third of three beats for uneven time; a precise indication at the beginning of the piece would determine the rapidity or slowness at which it should be performed: nothing more would seem to be necessary for a piece as regards metre and movement. [This opinion, described here as mistaken, corresponds precisely w ith the romantic, as well as the modern, understanding.l But, overlooking the fact that the movement is capable of infinite degrees of rapidity and slowness which cannot be defined by words or other signs, you would still need as many signs or words to describe how the piece should be e x e c u t e d ; i.e. should it be played heavily and forte, or more lightly and mezzo forte, or very lightly and, as it were, p layfu lly l For this is what the whole character of the piece depends on. There is a world of difference [...] if a piece, irrespective of its tempo, is played on the violin with the full weight of the bow, or lightly and with only the tip. What we are talking about is not some artificial rendering, but one based on the character of each individual piece, w ithout which the music would be a rigid and tedious monotone; and this character must be understood if it is to be captured in order to find the right manner of playing. Now it has become the habit of every experienced musician to play long notes, such as half- and whole-notes, heavily and strongly, and short notes, such as eighths and sixteenths, more lightly and less strongly. He w ill therefore execute a piece heavily in which he sees at most but a few eighth notes as the fastest, and another more lightly in which quarters are the longest notes, whether the pieces are in even or uneven metre and even though they may have the same playing speed. Corresponding to the very long or very short notes prevailing in the piece he will play it very heavily or very lightly. Likewise he has ac quired by experience a certain concept of the na t u ral l e n g t h o r b r e v i t y o f t he d i f f e r e n t c l as ses o f n o t es . He will therefore play a piece which has no indication of the tempo at all, or which is indicated by tempo giusto (which is the same), in a slower or swifter though right tempo according to the longer or shorter note values it consists of. At the same time he w ill give it the right g r a v i t y or l i g h t n e s s o f e x e c u t i o n and know how much slowness or swiftness he must add to, or take away from the natural length and brevity of the notes, if the piece is marked with adagio, andante, or allegro etc. The advantages of subdividing the even and uneven metres into different kinds, with longer or shor ter notes on the main beats [2/2 - 4/4 - 4/8 resp. 3/2 - 3/4 - 3/8], become in this way understandable, for in this way each metre gets its o w n p a r t i c u l a r t e m p o , i t s o w n w e i g h t in the execution and consequently its o w n c h a r a c t e r . If a piece is to be played lightly but at the same time in a slow tempo, the composer w ill choose, depending on the degree of lightness required in the execution, a metre of short or shorter beats [for exam ple 2/4 or 3/8], and use the words andante or largo or adagio etc., according to how far the slowness of the piece should exceed the natural movement of the metre. And conversely: if the piece is to be played in a heavy manner but at the same time at a fast speed, he w ill choose a heavy metre [for example $] and add the words vivace, allegro or presto, depending on the sort of execution he wants. An experienced musician seeing the species of note values in such a piece will be in a position to capture the manner of playing and the tempo which correspond exactly with the composer's ideas; at least as exactly as could be expressed by no other signs or words, however precise they might be. It was necessary to mention in advance [before the description of the metres] the essential influence of the various subspecies of even and uneven metres on both execution and tempo. Only few composers 290 SULZER / Kirnberger / Schulz: „General Theory o f the Fine Arts" know the reason for their choice of this rather than that even or uneven metre for a piece, although they immediately feel that the one they have chosen is the only right one; others, who with Rousseau consider the multiplicity of metres to be arbitrary inventions [...], have either no feeling for the particular execution of each metre, or deny it, and therefore run the risk of composing pieces which - as they are not set in the metre appropriate for their character - are performed quite differently from how they were conceived. How is it that every experienced musician, listening to a piece, regardless of whether its metre is even or uneven, knows at any moment exactly in which metre it is notated, if each metre did not have some thing characteristically its own? IV/495 [Even metres:] 1) Two-two or so-called alla breve metre, [...] is played heavily but twice as fast as its note values indicate; therefore it is mainly suited for a serious and fiery expression, and particularly fugues, and tolerates in this typical style and tempo note values no faster than eighths. [...] 2) Tw o-four metre, 2/4. It has - if no special tempo is indicated - the tempo of the preceding metre [=138-151, an absurd tempo, for the 32nd-note coloratura almost unsingable, exactly twice as fast as is usual today. An anonymous reader (of what qualification?) answered that Mozart conducted it exactly like that, and that orchestral musicians who - 28 years before [!] had played under him, confirmed the indication.— The result of Weber's home experimentation appeared then in 1828 almost literally as a footnote in Georg Nikolaus Nissen's biography of Mozart836. Nissen, Constanze's second husband, a non-musician, could not complete his biography (he died in 1826) so that the adoption of Weber's text (slightly abbreviated) derives possibly from Constanze or one of his three collaborators. Do we know how well all these „sources" were able to handle the string pendulum that Gottfried Weber promoted, and if they indeed had such phenomenal tempo memories? Nevertheless this grotesque tempo is still haunting the literature as „the most assured tempo o f a Mozartian com position" (Miehling) and as „M ozart's own tem po" (Steglich) and was - according to a press report - performed like that by Nikolaus Harnoncourt at the Salzburg Festival of 2012.— The Prague composer WENZEL JOHANN TOMASCHEK (1774-1850) had as a 17-year-old in 1791 heard performances of Don Giovanni in Prague, which 4 years previously had been produced by Mozart. As a 65-year-old - 48 years later - he believed he could exactly remember all o fthe tempos taken by that later conductor and, at the Suggestion of G.W. Fink, gave the AmZ in 1839 a list w ith metronome indications— which contains (apart from evident misprints) such crazy tempos as MM J=104 for Leporello's „Notte e giorno faticar" (no. 1 Introduzione, M olto Allegro 4/4, Ex. 139), MM J=84 for Donna Elvira's „Ah chi mi dice mai" (no. 3, „A llegro" 4/4, Ex. 154), MM J. = 126 for the chorus „Giovinette che fate all'amore" (no. 5, Allegro 6/8, ex. 331) and MM J. = 80 for Don Giovanni's Canzonetta „Deh vieni alla finestra" (no. 16, Allegretto 6/8 [3/8 + 3/8] ex. 353). In spite of Michael Gielen's objections from the point of view of theatre practice they have been seriously discussed in the Mozart literature.555 — Weber's complete text in the AmZ and the reply of Anonymous can be found - seriously discussed - in Clemens-Christoph von Gleich, Mozart, Takt und Tempo, 1993, p. 125, and Christopher Raeburn, Das Zeitmass in Mozarts Opern, 1957, p. 330. - For Raeburn, a source „o f singulär interest and extraordinary value since it informs us first hand how Mozart conducted the aria." 836 Georg Nikolaus Nissen, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts Biographie, 1828, appendix p. 123/124, footnote. — Klaus Miehling, „Das Tempo bei Mozart", MJb 1991, p. 625. A Rudolf Steglich, Über den Mozart-Klang, MJb 1950, p. 62. A Eva and Paul Badura-Skoda, too, took Nissen for the author, and the tempo indication - as being „Contemporary" - for „m ost remarkable" and worthy of discussion (Mozart-Interpretation, 1957, p. 449, and still in the enlarged second edition o f 2008, Interpreting Mozart, The Performance o f His Piano Pieces and Other Compositions, 2008, p. 450). Following Weber they put in all seriousness Pamina's aria w ith its 32nd notes on the same step as Papageno's nine bars in Andante-6/8 metre „Nun wohlan, es bleibt dabei" in Finale II o f Die Zauberflöte, b. 534-542, which have only eighth notes. A See my essay „Mälzels Mord an Mozart" ( l). — G. W. Fink „Ueber das Bedürfniss, Mozart's Hauptwerke unserer Zeit so metronomisiert zu liefern, wie der Meister selbst sie aus führen Hess" (AmZ, 19.06.1839, col. 477-481). - Relevant to that, M. Gielen: „Über die Tempi in Mozarts ,Don Giovanni', Oper Frankfurt 1977. — Walter Gerstenberg, 1960/61; Hermann Dechant, 1985 (p. 114-123); Clemens-Christoph von Gleich, 1987+88; Jean-Pierre Marty, 1988 (p. 20); Klaus Miehling, 1991+92. 353 Final c o m m e n t : This comparative study of the complete autograph tempo indications by Mozart should have demonstrated that Swarowsky's assertion that Mozart used only "two fast tempi, one medium and one slow tempo" is as untenable as the widespread belief that the sometimes grotesque metronome markings by Tomaschek - which after all appeared 49 years after Mozart's death (!) - and those by Hummel, Czerny, G. Weber, Schlesinger and others for Mozart's works, provided objective information on his tempi. If anything, they are witnesses to a change oftaste which had taken place during Rossini's time and are devoid of meaning as far as our understanding of Mozart is concerned. Metronomizations of whatever origin are in principle inconsistent with the nature of Classical tempi, which originated during a pre-technical era, before the obsession with measurement began to influence our thinking; and which are intended to be found through "handiwork" by the performers themselves - albeit within a highly sophisticated and complex system of correlated parameters. For this reason, metronome markings for Haydn and Mozart are a lw a ys wrong.

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A reference book for the musician’s practical work of interpretation, this volume, after a general presentation of 18th century principles for determining a tempo, offers a compendium of all Mozart’s autograph tempo markings in 420 lists of pieces of similar character. Thus, a comparison of slower and quicker movements is made possible by 434 music examples, and there follows a wide-ranging collection of relevant texts taken from historical sources.

The book does not claim to know “the single correct tempo” for the works of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. It hopes to be of assistance in the unavoidable search by every interpreter for the “true mouvement” of each work—for the work itself, for the performer, the instrument or instruments, the room, the public, the nature of the event. It follows that there can be no absolutely “authentic” tempo for Mozart’s works. And yet his tempo markings, since he chose them so meticulously, should be taken equally seriously with the other parameters of his famously precise notation.

Alfred Brendel writes: “an astonishing opus … one of those rare and important books in which music and musicology form a vital association; a lifelong study that makes one very much aware of a field to which attention is rarely paid. It accomplishes this by bringing to bear an understanding that never loses sight of the musical foundation on which it is built, and by a discerning intelligence that does not shy away from raising debatable topics, although without ever claiming infallibility … One cannot be grateful enough to Helmut Breidenstein for his methodological accuracy which allows us Mozart interpreters to orientate ourselves with ease and pleasure … His book sharpens our perception, at the same time giving an overview and making us sensitive to each individual case. Admiration and gratitude.”