Content

9 References in:

Fungai B. Chigwendere

Towards Intercultural Communication Congruence in Sino-African Organisational Contexts, page 241 - 264

1. Edition 2018, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4234-2, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-7121-2, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828871212-241

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
241 referenCes 9 References Abe, H. and Wiseman, R. L., 1983. A cross-cultural confirmation of the dimensions of intercultural effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 7(1), pp. 53–67. Ajei, M. O., 2007. Africa’s development: the imperatives of indigenous knowledge and values. Ph.D. University of South Africa. Available at: http://uir.unisa.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10500/1266/thesis.pdf?Sequence=1[Accessed 2 March 2016]. Alberts, J. K., Nakayama, T. K. and Martin, J. N., 2010. Human Communication in Society. 2nd ed. US: Pearson Education. Alden, C. and Davies, M., 2006. A profile of the operations of Chinese multinationals in Africa. South African journal of international affairs, 13(1), pp. 83–96. Alden, C., Large, D. and De Oliveira, R. S., 2008. China returns to Africa: A rising power and a continent embrace. New York: Columbia University Press. Alden, C. and Park, Y. J., 2013. Upstairs and downstairs dimensions of China and the Chinese in South Africa. pp. 643–662. In: U. Pillay, G. Hagg and F. Nyamnjoh, eds. 2012. State of the Nation: Tackling poverty and inequality. Pretoria: HSRC Press. Alexander, B. K., Arasaratnam, L. A, Avant-Mier, R., Durham, A., Flores, L., Leeds-Hurwitz, W., Mendoza, S. L., Oetzel, J., Osland, J., Tsuda, Y., Yin, J. and Halualani, R., 2014. Defining and Communicating What “Intercultural” and “Intercultural Communication” Means to Us. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 7(1), pp. 14–37. Allen, P. M. and Varga, L., 2007. Complexity: The Co-evolution of Epistemology, Axiology and Ontology. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences, 11(1), pp. 19–50. Allwood, J., 1985. Intercultural Communication. Translated from Swedish by J. Allwoood. In: J. Allwood, ed. 1985. Tvärkulturell kommunikation, Papers in Anthropological Linguistics 12. Dept of Linguistics, University of Göteborg. [online] Available at: http://sskkii.gu.se/jens/publications/docs001-050/041E.pdf. [Accessed 24 October 2017]. Andersen, P. A, Hetch, M. L., Hoobler, G. D. and Smallwood, M., 2003. Nonverbal communication across cultures. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 2003. Cross cultural and intercultural communication. London: Sage. pp. 73–90. Aneas, M. A. and Sandin, M. P., 2009. Intercultural and Cross-cultural communication research: Some reflections about culture and qualitative methods. Research. Forum Qualitative Social Research, [e-journal] 10(1), pp. 1–13. Available at: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901519. [Accessed 27 October 2013]. Anedo, O., 2012. China-Africa culture differences in business relations. African Journal of Political Science and International Relations, 6(4), pp. 92–96. 242 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Ani, N. C, 2013. Appraisal of African Epistemology in the Global System. Alternation, 20(1), pp. 295–320. Applebaum, B., 2000. On the Meaning and Necessity of a White, Anti-Racist Identity. In: L. Stone, Ed. 2000. Philosophy of Education Society. Urbana: Illinois. pp. 306–317. Ardichvilli, A., Maurer, M., Li, W., Wentling, T. and Stuedemann, R., 2006. Cultural Influences on knowledge sharing through online communities of practice. Journal of Knowledge Management, 10(1), pp. 94–107. Arsene, C., 2014. Chinese employers and their Ugandan workers: Tensions, frictions and cooperation in an African city. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 43(1), pp. 139–176. Asante, M. K., 1987. The Afrocentric idea. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press. Asante, M. K., 1991. The Afrocentric Idea in education. Journal of Negro Education, 60, pp. 170–79. Asante, M. K., 1999. Afrocentric Theories of Communication. In: J. L. Lucaites, C. M. Condit and S. Caudill, eds.1999. Contemporary Rhetorical Theories: A Reader. New York: The Guilford Press. pp. 552–562. Asante, M. K. 2005. “Blackness as an Ethical Trope: Toward a Post Western Assertion.” In, G. Yancy, Ed. 2005. White on White/Black on Black. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 203–216. Asante, M. K. and Vora, E., 1983. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 1983. Toward multiple philosophical approaches. International and Intercultural Communication Annual, VII, pp. 293–298. Åsvoll, H., 2014. Abduction, deduction and induction: can these concepts be used for an understanding of methodological processes in interpretative case studies? International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 27(3) pp. 289–307. Baah, A. Y. and Jauch, H. eds., 2009. Chinese investments in Africa: A labour perspective. [Pdf] African Labour Research Network. Available at: https://www.fnv.nl/site/ over-de-fnv/internationaal/mondiaal-fnv/documenten/english/publications/ Chinese_investments_in_Africa_final_report1.pdf[Accessed 18 October 2017]. Bakan, D., 1996. Some reflections about narrative research and hurt and harm’. In: R. Josselson, ed. Ethics and Process in the Narrative Study of Lives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 3–8. Barnett, G. A. and Kincaid, D. L., 1983. A mathematical theory of cultural convergence.  In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 1983. Intercultural communication theory: Current perspectives. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. pp. 171–179. Barnett, G. A. and Lee, M., 2003. Issues in Intercultural Communication Research. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. Cross Cultural and Intercultural Communication. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. pp. 259–273. 243 referenCes Barnett-Page, E. and Thomas, J., 2009. Methods for the synthesis of qualitative research: A critical review. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 1(9), pp. 1–26, [online] Available at: http://bmcmedresmethodol.biomedcentral.com/papers/10.1186/1471-2288-9-59. [Accessed 28 January 2017]. Beebe, S. A., Beebe, S. J. and Redmond, M. V., 2011. Interpersonal Communication: Relating to Others. 6th ed. United States: Pearson Education. Bell, D. A. A. and Metz, T., 2011. Confucianism and Ubuntu: Reflections and a dialogue between Chinese and African Traditions. Journal of Chinese Philosophy, 38, pp. 78– 95. Berger, C. R., 2005. Interpersonal Communication: Theoretical Perspectives, Future Prospects. Journal of Communication, 55(3), pp. 415–447. Bernard, H. R., 2006. Research Methods in Anthropology: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches.4th ed. Lanham: Altamira Press. Biddle, C., 2012. Individualism vs. Collectivism: Our Future, Our Choice. The Objective Standard, 7(1). [online] Available at: https://www.theobjectivestandard.com/ issues/2012-spring/individualism-collectivism/ [Accessed 1 March, 2016]. Blommaert, J., 1998. Different approaches to intercultural communication: A critical survey. In: Plenary lecture Lernen und Arbeiten in einer international vernetzten und multikulturellen Gesellschaft. Expertentagung Universität Bremen, Institut für Projektmanagement und Witschaftsinformatik (IPMI), 27–28 February 1998. [online] Communicatie, Informatie, Educatie. Available at: http://www.cie.ugent.be/ CIE/blommaert1.htm [Accessed April 2016]. Boafo, S. T. K. ed., 1989. Communication and Culture: African Perspectives. Nairobi: Africa Church Information Services. Bogner, A. and Menz, W., 2009. The Theory-Generating Expert Interview: Epistemological Interest, Forms of Knowledge, Interaction. In: A. Bogner, B. Littig and W. Menz, eds. Interviewing Experts. Hamshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 43–80. Booth, A., Papaioannou, D. and Sutton, A., 2012. Systematic Approaches to a successful literature review. London: Sage. Bourgeois III, L. J., 1979. Towards a Method of Middle-Range Theorising. The Academy of Management Review, 4(3), pp. 443–447. Boyne, S., 2009. The Phd literature review: its structure and contribution. In: M. Jolly and P. K. Wong, eds. 2009. The Proceedings of the Plymouth Postgraduate Symposium. UK: University of Plymouth. pp. 229–315. [online] Available at: http://www.academia.edu/413909/Boyne_S._2009_The_phd_literature_review_its_structure_and_contribution_in_Jolly_M._and_Wong_P._K._eds_The_Proceedings_of_the_Plymouth_ Postgraduate_Symposium_2009_University_of_Plymouth_UK_pp. 299–315. [Accessed 1 March 2016]. Brautigam, D., 2003. Close encounters: Chinese business networks as industrial catalysts in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Affairs, 102, pp. 447–467. 244 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Brautigam, D., 2011. China in Africa: what can Western donors learn? [Pdf] Norfund. Available at: https://www.norfund.no/getfile.php. 133986/Bilder/Publications/ Norfund_China_in_Africa.pdf [Accessed 22 April 2017]. Brautigam, D. and Xiaoyang, T., 2011. African Shenzhen: China’s special economic zones in Africa. The Journal of Modern African Studies, 49(1), pp. 27–54. Brinkmann, S., 2014. Doing without data. Qualitative Inquiry, 20(6), pp. 720–725. Bryman, A., 2004. Social research methods. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Bücker, J. J. L. E., Furrer, O., Poutsma, E. and Buyens, D., 2014. The impact of cultural intelligence on communication effectiveness, job satisfaction and anxiety for Chinese host country managers working for foreign multinationals. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 25(4), pp. 2068–2087. Burgoon, J. K., Berger, C. R. and Waldron, V. R., 2000. Mindfulness and Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Social Issues, 56(1), pp. 105–127. Cardon, P. W., 2008. A critique of hall’s contexting model: A meta-analysis of literature on intercultural business and technical communication. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 22, pp. 399–428. Cardon, P. W. and Scott, J. C., 2003. Chinese business face: Communication behaviours and teaching approaches. Business Communication Quarterly, 66(4), pp. 9–22. Chaney, L. H. and Martin, J. S., 2007. Intercultural business communication. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. Chang, Y. Y., 2008. Cultural “faces” of interpersonal communication in the USA and China. Intercultural Studies, XVII (1), pp. 299–313. Chen, G. M., 2002. The past, present, and future of Chinese communication study. China Media Reports, (2), pp. 4–12. Chen, G. M., 2011. An Introduction to key concepts in understanding the Chinese: Harmony as the foundation of Chinese Communication. China Media Research, 7(4), pp. 1–12. Chen, G. M., 2015. Seeking Common Ground While Accepting Differences through Tolerance: U. S. – China Intercultural Communication in the Global Community. In: L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter, E. R. McDaniel and C. Sexton Roy, eds. 2015. Intercultural Communication: A Reader.14th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 465–471. Chen, G. M. and Chung, J., 1994. The Impact of Confucianism on Organisational Communication. Communication Quarterly, 42(2), pp. 93–105. Chen, G. M. and Starosta, W. J., 1997. A review of the concept of intercultural sensitivity. Human Communication, 1, pp. 1–16. Chen, G. M. and Starosta, W. J., 2003. Asian approaches to human communication: A dialogue. Intercultural Communication Studies, 12, pp. 1–15. Chigwendere, F. B., 2017. Towards Intercultural Communication Congruence in Sino-African Organisational Contexts. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Rhodes University. 245 referenCes Chipandambira, N., 2015. Proverbs that show the collectivistic nature of Zimbabwean Shona culture. [phone call] (Personal communication, 15 August 2015). Chong, H. Y., 1994. Abduction? Deduction? Induction? Is There a Logic of Exploratory Data Analysis? In: American Educational Research Association, Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. New Orleans, L. A, 4–8 April 1994. [Pdf]. Available at: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED376173.pdf [Accessed 14 August 2017] Cole, C., Chase, S., Couch, O. and Clark, M., 2011. Research Methodologies and Professional Practice: Considerations and Practicalities. The Electronic Journal of Business Research Methods, [e-journal] 9(2), pp. 141–151. [online] Available at: www.ejbrm. com [Accessed 8 October 2016]. Collier, M. J., 2015. Cultural Identity and Intercultural Communication. In: L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter, E. R. McDaniel and C. Sexton Roy, eds. Intercultural Communication: A Reader, 14th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 53–61. Collier, M. J., Hegde, R. S., Lee, W. S., Nakayama, T. K. and Yep, G. A., 2001. Dialogue on the edges: Ferment in communication and culture. In M. J. Collier, ed. 2001. International and Intercultural Communication Annual 24: Transforming communication about culture: Critical new directions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 219–280. Collier, M. J., Ribeau, S. A. and Hetch, M. L., 1986. Intracultural communication rules and outcomes within three domestic cultures. International journal of Intercultural Relations, 10, pp. 439–457. Conrad, C. and Poole, M. S., 1998. Communication: Toward the twenty-first century. 4th ed. Fort Worth, TX: Harcout, Brace and Jananovich. Creswell, J. W., 2007. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Creswell, J. W. and Miller, D. L., 2000. Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39(3), pp. 124–131. Cronin, P., Ryan, F. and Coughlan, M., 2008. Undertaking a literature review: A step by step approach. British Journal of Nursing, 17(1), pp. 38–43. Crotty, M., 1998. The Foundations of Social Research: Meaning and Perspective in the Research Process. London: Sage. Croucher, S. M., Sommier, M. and Rahmani, D., 2015. Intercultural communication: Where we’ve been, where we’re going, issues we face. Communication Research and Practice, 1(1), pp. 71–87. Cruz, W., 2001. Differences in non-verbal communication styles between cultures: The Latino Anglo perspective. Leadership and Management in Engineering, pp. 51–53. Cui, G. and Awa, N. E., 1992. Measuring intercultural effectiveness: An integrative approach. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16(3), pp. 311–328. 246 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Dai, X., 2010. Intercultural Communication in China: Thirty years Review. [Pdf] People’s Republic of China: Shanghai Normal University. Available at: https://www2. hu-berlin.de/aks/PDF/Dai%20Xiaodong%20IC_Theory_in_China%20ppt.pdf [Accessed 22 August 2014]. Daigneault, P. M., Jacob, S. and Ouimet, M., 2014. Using systematic review methods within a Ph.D. dissertation in political science: challenges and lessons learned from practice. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 17(3), [online] Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13645579.2012.730704?journalCode=tsrm20#.UeanwIcVGSo [Accessed 25 October 2017]. Dainton, M., 2004. Explaining theories of interpersonal communication. [online] Available at: http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/4984_Dainton_Chapter_3.pdf. [Accessed 5 June, 2015]. Dainton, M. and Zelley, E. D., 2015. Applying Communication Theory for a Professional Life. California: Sage. Dean, O. and Popp, G. E., 1990. Intercultural Communication Effectiveness as Perceived By American Managers in Saudi Arabia and French Managers in the U. S. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 14, pp. 40–424. Denyer, D. and Tranfield, D., 2009. Producing a systematic review. [online] Available at: http://gent.uab.cat/diego_prior/sites/gent.uab.cat.diego_prior/files/01_a_01_Denyer-Tranfield-Producing-a-Systematic-Review.pdf [Accessed, 25 October, 2017]. Devito, J. A., 2013. Interpersonal messages. Foundations of interpersonal communication. [online] Available at: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205943608.pdf. [Accessed 28 May 2015]. De Vries, R. E., Bakker-Pieper, A., Siberg, R. A., Van Gameren, K. and Vlug, M., 2009. The Content and Dimensionality of Communication Styles. Communication Research, 36(2), pp. 178–206. Dhliwayo, E., 2007. A critical study of the praise singer yesterday, today and tomorrow. Masters of Arts. University of South Africa. Dietz, M. C., Orr, G. and Xing, J., 2008. How Chinese companies can succeed abroad. [Pdf] McKinsey on Finance. Available at: file:///C:/Users/Management/Downloads/ MoF_Issue_28_Summer%2008.pdf [Accessed 18 October 2017] Ding, D. D., 2006. An Indirect Style in Business Communication. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 20(1), pp. 87–100. Downe-Wamboldt, B., 1992. Content analysis: method, applications and issues. Healthcare for Women International, 13, pp. 313–321. Dunkerley, K. J. and Robinson, E. P., 2002. Similarities and differences in perceptions and evaluations of the communication styles of American and British mangers. Journal of language and social psychology, 21(4), pp. 393–409. 247 referenCes Earley. C. and Mosakowski, E., 2004. Cultural Intelligence. [online] Harvard Business Review. Available at: https://hbr.org/2004/10/cultural-intelligence [Accessed 11 August 2017]. Eaton, L. and Louw, J., 2000. Culture and Self in Africa: Individualism-collectivism predictions. The Journal of Psychology, 140(2), pp. 210–217. Eisenhardt, K. M., 1989. Theory Theories from Case Study Research. The Academy of Management Review, 14(4), pp. 532–550. Fang, T., 2003. A Critique of Hofstede’s Fifth National Culture Dimension. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 3(3), pp. 347–368. Fang, T., 2011. Yin Yang: A New Perspective on Culture. Management and Organization Review, 8(1), pp. 25–50. Fang, T. and Faure, G. O., 2011. Chinese communication characteristics: A Yin Yang perspective. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 5, pp. 320–333. Fang, T., Zhao. S. and Worm, V., 2008. The changing Chinese culture and business behaviour. International Business Review, 17(2), pp. 141–145. Faniran, J. O., 2014. Toward a Theory of African Communication. In: C. Christian and K. Nordenstreng, eds. 2014. Communication Theories in a Multi-Cultural World. New York: Peter Lang. pp. 146–159. Faure, G. O. and Fang, T., 2008. Changing Chinese Values, Keeping up with the paradoxes. International Business Review. 17, pp. 194–207. Fay, R. and Spintahourakis-katsillis, J. A., 2000. Communicating in Another Language: The Influence of culture. pp. 53–84. [online] Available at: https://www.academia. edu/3604675/_Chapter_12_The_influence_of_culture_on_communication [Accessed 7 May 2015]. Feng, G. and Mu, X., 2010. Cultural challenges to Chinese Oil companies in Africa and their strategies. Energy Policy. 38 (11), pp. 7250–7256. Francesca, A. M. and Gold, B. A., 2005. International Organisational Behaviour: Texts, Cases and Exercises. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Gallois, C., Giles, H., Jones, E., Cargile, A. C. and Ota, H., 1995. Accommodating Intercultural Encounters: Elaborations and Extensions. In: R. L Wiseman, ed. Intercultural Communication Theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 115–147. Gan, S., 2014. How to do business with China: An inside view on Chinese culture and etiquette. United Kingdom: AuthorHouse. Gao, G. and Ting-Toomey, S., 1998. Communicating effectively with the Chinese. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. Geertz, C., 1973. “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture”. In: C. Geertz, ed. The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic Books. 248 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Gelo, O., Braakman, D. and Benetka, G., 2008. Quantitative and qualitative research: Beyond the debate. Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 42(3), pp. 266– 290. Giese, K., 2014. Perceptions, Practices and Adaptations: Understanding Chinese-African Interactions in Africa. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 43(1), pp. 3–8. Golafshani, N., 2003. Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The Qualitative Report, 8(4), pp. 597–606. [online] Available: http://www.nova.edu/ssss/ QR/QR8-4/golafshani.pdf [Accessed 30 September 2016]. Grunig, L. A., Grunig, J. E. and Ehling, W. P., 1992. What is an effective organisation? In: J. E. Grunig, ed. 1992. Excellence in Public Relations and communication management. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Gu, J., 2009. China’s private enterprises in Africa and the implications for African development. The European Journal of Development Research, 21(4), pp. 570–587. Gu, F. F., Hung, K. and Tse, D. K., 2008. When does Guanxi matter? Issues of capitalisation and its dark sides. Journal of Marketing, 72, pp. 12–28. Guba, E. G., 1990. The alternative paradigm dialogue. In: E. G. Guba, 1990. The paradigm dialogue. California: Sage. pp. 17–27. Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S., 1994. Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In: N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln, eds. Handbook of qualitative research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Gudykunst, W. B., 1995. Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) theory: Current status. In: R. L. Wiseman, ed. 1995. Intercultural communication theory. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 8–58. Gudykunst, W. B., 1998. Applying anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory to intercultural adjustment training. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22, pp. 227–250. Gudykunst, W. B., 2003. Intercultural Communication theories. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 2003. Cross-Cultural and intercultural communication. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. pp. 167–189. Gudykunst, W. B., Matsumoto, Y., Ting-Toomey, S., Nishida, T., Kim, K. and Heyman, S., 1996. The influence of cultural individualism-collectivism, self-construal’s, and individual values on communication styles across cultures. Human Communication Research, 22(4), pp. 510–543. Gudykunst, W. B. and Nishida, T., 2001. Anxiety, uncertainty, and perceived effectiveness of communication across relationships and cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25(1), pp. 55–71. Gudykunst, W., B. and Ting-Toomey, S., 1988. Culture and interpersonal communication. New park, California: Sage. Guest, G., Bunce, A. and Johnson, L., 2006. How Many Interviews Are Enough?: An Experiment with Data Saturation and Variability. Field Methods, 18(59), pp. 59–82. 249 referenCes Guitel, V. D., 2006. Intercultural or Cross-cultural Management? The confirmation of a research field and the issue concerning the definition and development of an intercultural competency for expatriates and international managers. [online] Available at: file:///C:/Users/funchi/Downloads/12_Intercultural%20or%20Crosscultural%20 Management.pdf. [Accessed 16 August 2013]. Guliwe, T., Mkhonta, S. and Vickers, B., 2009. Chinese investments in South Africa. In: Y. Baah and H. Jauchi, eds. 2009. Chinese investments in Africa: A labour perspective. African Labour Research Network. pp. 300–332. Hall, E. T., 1959. The Silent Language. Garden City, New York: Doubleday. Hall, E. T., 1976. Beyond Culture. New York: Doubleday. Hall, E. T. and Hall, M. R., 1990. Understanding Cultural Differences, Germans, French and Americans. Yarmouth: Intercultural Press. Halualani, R. T., Mendoza, S. L. and Drzewiecka, J. A., 2009. “Critical” Junctures in Intercultural Communication Studies: A Review. The Review of Communication, 9(1), pp. 17–35. Halualani, R. T. and Nakayama, T. K., 2013. Critical Intercultural Communication studies. In: T. K Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 1–16. Ham-Baloyi, W. T. and Jordan, P., 2016. Systematic review as a research method in postgraduate nursing education. Health SA Gesonheid, 21, pp. 120–128. Hammer, M. R, Gudykunst, W. B. and Wiseman, R. L., 1978. Dimensions of intercultural effectiveness: An exploratory study. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 2(4), pp. 382–393. Handley, R. C., 2016. Exploring the relationship between leadership styles and quality of work life: a case study of a Chinese-South African joint venture. Masters Thesis. Rhodes University. Hannigan, T. P., 1990. Traits, attitudes, and skills that are related to intercultural effectiveness and their implications for cross-cultural training: A review of the literature. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 4(1), pp. 89–111. Hart, C., 1998. Going a literature review: Releasing the Social Science research imagination. London: Sage. Hartmann, D., Gerteis, J. and Croll. P. R., 2009. An Empirical Assessment of Whiteness Theory: Hidden from How Many? Social Problems, 56 (3), pp. 403–424. Higgins, J. P. T, and Green, S. eds., 2011. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.1.0. [Online] The Cochrane Collaboration. Available at: www. cochrane-handbook.org. [Accessed 22 March 2016]. Higgs, P., 2010. ‘Towards an indigenous African epistemology of community in education research’. Procedia Social and Behavioural Sciences, 2, pp. 2414–2421. 250 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Hill, L. B. and Faulk, E., 2005. Towards a Comprehensive Perspective for Intercultural Communication Study: Directions for IAICS. Intercultural Communication Studies, XIV (2), pp. 38–52. Hilton, C. and Kameda, N., 1999. Email and the internet as international business communication teaching and research tools: A case study. Journal of Education for business, 35(4), pp. 181–185. Hofstede, G., 1980. Motivation, leadership and organisation: Do American theories apply abroad? Organisational Dynamics, pp. 42–63. Hofstede, G., 1991. Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. London: McGrawHill. Hofstede, G., 1997. Culture and Organisations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw- Hill. Hofstede, G., 2011. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, [e-journal] 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307- 0919.1014 [Accessed 15 November 2015]. Hofstede, G. and Bond, M. H., 1988. The Confucius Connection. From Cultural Roots to Economic Growth. Organisational Dynamics, pp. 5–21. Holliday, A., Hyde, M. and Kullman, J., 2010. Intercultural Communication: An Advanced Resource book for students. 2nd ed. London: Routledge. Houghton, C., Casey, D., Shaw, D. and Murphy, K., 2013. Rigour in qualitative case-study research. Nurse Researcher, 20(4), pp. 12––7. Hsieh, H. F. and Shannon, S. E., 2005. Three Approaches to Qualitative Content Analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 1(9), pp. 1277–1288. Hu, Y. and Fan, W., 2011. An exploratory study on intercultural communication research contents and methods: A survey based on international and domestic journals published from 2001 to 2005. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, pp. 554–566. Huang, Y. H., 2010. Theorising Chinese Communication Research: A holistic framework for comparative studies. Chinese Journal of Communication. 3(1), pp. 95–113. Huang, Q., Davison, R. M. and Gu, J., 2008. Impact of personal and cultural factors on knowledge sharing in China. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 25, pp. 451–471. Hussey, J. and Hussey, R., 1997. Business Research: A Practical Guide for Undergraduate and Postgraduate Studies. London: Macmillan. Igboin, B. O., 2011 Colonialism and African Cultural Values. African Journal of History and Culture, 3(6), pp. 93–106. Jackson, T., 1999. Managing change in South Africa: Developing people and Organizations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 10(2), pp. 306–326. 251 referenCes Jackson, T., 2012. Post colonialism and organisational knowledge in the wake of China’s presence in Africa: Interrogating South-South Relations. Organisations, 19(2), pp. 181–204. Jackson, T., Louw, L. and Zhao, S., 2011. Chinese Organisation and Management in Sub-Saharan Africa: Towards a cross-cultural research agenda. In: Seventh International Symposium on Multinational Business Management – Enterprise Management in a Transitional Economy and Post Financial Crisis. Nanjing, China, 5–6 June 2011. [Pdf] Available at:http://www.ru.ac.za/media/rhodesuniversity/content/management/documents/resources/chinainafrica_researchagenda.pdf [Accessed 20 October 2017]. Jameson, D. A., 2007. Reconceptualising cultural identity and its role in intercultural business communication. Journal of Business Communication, 44(3), pp. 199–235. Jesson, J. K., Matheson, L. and Lacey, F. M., 2011. Doing you Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. London: Sage. Kane, O., 2014. Bridging Research and Expertise: Dominant West African Trends in Communication studies. Canadian Journal of Communication, 39, pp. 127–143. Kang, J. and Hyun, S. S., 2012. Effective communication styles for the customer-oriented service employee: Inducing dedicational behaviours in luxury restaurant patrons. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31, pp. 772–785. Kaplinsky, R. and Morris, M., 2009. Chinese FDI in Sub-Saharan Africa: Engaging with Large Dragons. The European Journal of Development Research, 21, p. 551. Karsten, L., and Illa, H., 2005. Ubuntu as a key African management concept: contextual background and practical insights for knowledge application. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 20(7), pp. 607–620. Khoza, R. J., 2005. Let Africa Lead: African Transformational Leadership for the 21st Century Business. Sunninghill: Vezubuntu Publishers. Khoza, R. J., 2011. Attuned Leadership: African Humanism As Compass. Cape Town: CPT Printers. Kigongo, J. K., 2002. The Relevance of African Ethics to Contemporary African Society. In: A. T Dalfovo (ed), Ethic, Human Rights, and Development in Africa: Ugandan Philosophical Studies, Washington DC, Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change, 11(8), pp. 51–67. Kim, M. S., 2005. Culture-based conversational constraints theory: Individual and culture level analysis. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 2005. Theorising about Intercultural Communication. California: Sage. pp. 93–117. Kim, M. S., 2007. The Four Cultures of Cultural Research. Communication Monographs, 74 (2), pp. 27– 285. Kincaid, D. L. ed., 1987. Communication Theory: Eastern and Western Perspectives. San Diego, CA: Academic Press. 252 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Kittler, M. G., Rygl, D. and Mackinnon, A., 2011. Beyond Culture or Beyond Control? Reviewing the use of Halls high/low context concept. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 11, pp. 63–82. Kluckhohn, F. R. and Strodtbeck, F., 1961. Variations in value orientations. Westport, CT: Greenwood. Koch, T., 1994. Establishing rigour in qualitative research: the decision trail. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(5), pp. 976–986. Koester, J. and Olebe, M., 1988. The behavioural assessment scale for intercultural communication effectiveness. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, pp. 233–246. Kondracki, N. L. and Wellman, N. S., 2002. Content analysis: Review of methods and their applications in nutrition education. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour, 34, pp. 224–230. Korzenny, F. and Korzenny, B. A. G., 1984. Quantitative Approaches: An overview. In: W. B. Gudykunst and Y. Y. Kim, eds. 1984. Methods for intercultural Communication research. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. pp. 85–94. Kriz, A., Gummesson, E. and Quazi, A., 2014. Methodology meets culture: Relational and Guanxi-oriented research in China. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14(1), pp. 27–46. Kroeber, A. L. and Kluckhohn, C., 1952. Culture: A critical review of concepts and definitions. Cambridge: Massachusetts. Kubota, R., 2012. In: C. B. Paulston, S. F. Kiesling and E. S. Rangel, eds. 2012. The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication. 1st ed. West Sussex: Blackwell. pp. 90–109. Kumaradivelu, B., 2008. In: A. Holliday, M. Hyde, J. Kullman, eds. 2010. Intercultural communication: An advanced book for students. 2nd ed. Oxford: Routledge. pp. 76–79. Ladegaard, H. J. and Jenks, C. J., 2015. Language and intercultural communication in the workplace: critical approaches to theory and practice. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15 (1), pp. 1–12. LaFrance, M. and Mayo, C., 1978. Cultural aspects of non-verbal communication. International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Lampert, B. and Mohan, G., 2015. Making Space for African Agency in China-Africa Engagements: Ghanaian and Nigerian Patrons Shaping Chinese Enterprise. In: A. W. Gadzala, ed. 2005. Africa and China: How Africans and Their Governments are Shaping Relations with China. Lanham: Rowman and Littlefield. pp. 109–126. Lee, Y., 2010. Home versus host- Identifying with either, both or neither. The relationship between dual cultural identities and intercultural effectiveness. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 10(1), pp. 55–76. 253 referenCes Lee, C. J. G., 2012. ‘Reconsidering constructivism in qualitative research’. Educational philosophy and theory, 44, pp. 403–412. Leeds-Hurwitz, W., 2013. Writing the Intercultural History of Intercultural Communication. In Nakayama, T. K. and R. T., Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. Pp. 21–33. Leung, K., 2008. Chinese Culture, modernization and international business. International Business Review, 17, pp. 184–187. Levy, Y. and Ellis, T. J., 2006. A systems approach to conduct an effective literature review in support of information systems research. Information Science Journal, 9, pp. 182–212. Lim, T. A., 2003. Languages and verbal communication. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. Cross Cultural and Intercultural Communication. London: Sage. pp. 53–71. Lin, G., 2009. Higher Education Research Methodology- Literature Method. International Education Studies, 2(4), pp. 179–181. Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. G., 1985. Naturalistic inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Littig, B., 2009. Interviewing the Elite – Interviewing Experts: Is There a Difference? In: A. Bogner, B. Littig and W. Menz, eds. Expert interviews-An introduction to a new methodological debate. Hamshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 98–116. Littlejohn, S. W. and Foss, K. A., 2008. Theories of human communication. [e-book] Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth. Available at: https://www.nelsonbrain.com/ content/littlejohn95877_0495095877_02.01_chapter01.pdf [Accessed 21 December 2015]. Littlejohn, S. W. and Foss, K. A., 2010. Theories of Human Communication. 10th ed. Long Groove, IL: Waveland Press. Liu, H., 2009. Chinese Business: Landscapes and Strategies. New York, NY: Routledge. Liu, S., 2012. Rethinking Intercultural Competence: Local and Global Nexus. Journal of Multicultural Discourses, 7(3), pp. 299–275. Liu, S., Volcic, Z. and Gallois, C., 2011. Introducing Intercultural Communication: Global Cultures and Contexts. London: Sage. Lockett, M., 1988. Culture and the problems of Chinese Management. Organisational Studies, 9(4), pp. 475–496. Lovitt, C. R., 1999. Rethinking the role of culture in international professional communication. In: C. R. Lovitt and D. Goswami, eds. Exploring the rhetoric of international professional communication: an agenda for teachers and researchers. Amityville, NY: Baywood. pp. 1–13. Luo, Y., 2008. The Changing Chinese Culture and business behaviour: The perspective of intertwinement between guanxi and corruption. International Business Review, 17, pp. 188–193. 254 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Lustig, M. W. and Koester. J., 1993. Intercultural Competence – Interpersonal Communication across Cultures. New York: Harper Collins. Ma, R., 2011. Social Relations (Guanxi): A Chinese Approach to Interpersonal Communication. China Media Research, 7(4). pp. 25–33. Mabuza, L. T., 2015. The influence of organisational culture on a high commitment work system and organisational commitment: the case of a Chinese multinational corporation in South Africa. Masters. Rhodes University. Madzingira, N., 2001. Culture, Communication and Development in Africa. [Pdf] UNDP Human Development Report. Available at: unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/ documents/IDEP/UNPAN003348.pdf [Accessed 23 October 2017]. Mangaliso, M. P., 2001. Building competitive advantage from “Ubuntu”: management lessons from South Africa. The Academy of Management Executive, 15(3), pp. 23–34. Maomeka, A. A., 1989. Communication and African Culture: A Sociological Analysis. In: S. T. K. Bofao, ed.1989. Communication and Culture: African Perspectives. Nairobi: Africa Church Information Services. Maomeka, A. A., 1997. Communalistic Societies/; Community and self-respect as African Values. In: C. Christians and M. Traber, eds. 2014. Communication ethics and universal values. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. pp. 170–193. Martin, N. J., and Nakayama, T. K. 1999. Thinking dialectically about culture and communication. Communication Theory, 9(1), pp. 1–25. Martin, J. N. and Nakayama, T. K., 2010. Intercultural Communication in Contexts. New York: McGraw Hill. Martin, J. N. and Nakayama, T. K., 2013. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 59–83. Martin, J. N. and Nakayama, T. K., 2015. Reconsidering intercultural (communication) competence in the workplace: a dialectical approach. Language and Intercultural Communication, 15(1), pp. 13–28. Mathews, L. C. and Thakkar, B., 2012. The Impact of Globalization on Cross Cultural Communication. In: H. Cuadra-Montiel, ed. 2012. Globalization- Education and management agendas. Ch.13. [Pdf] Intech. Available at: http://cdn.intechopen.com/ pdfs-wm/38267.pdf [Accessed 15 December 2016]. Matondo, M. J. P., 2012. Cross-Cultural Value Comparisons between Chinese and Sub-Saharan Africans. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(11), pp. 38–45. Mayer, C. H., 2008. Managing Conflict across cultures, values and identities: A case study in the South African automotive industry. Ph. D. Rhodes University. 255 referenCes Mayer, C-H., Boness, C. M. and Louw, L., 2017. Perceptions of Chinese and Tanzanian employees regarding intercultural collaboration. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, [e- journal] 15(0). https://doi.org/10.4102/sajhrm.v15i0.921. [Accessed 25 October 2017)]. Mayring, P., 2000. Qualitative content analysis. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, [e-journal] 1(2). Available at: http://www.qualitative-research.net/index.php/fqs/ article/view/1089/2385 [Accessed May 28, 2017]. Mazama, A., 2001. The Afrocentric Paradigm: Contours and Definitions. Journal of Black Studies, 31(4), pp. 387–405. Mazrui, A. A., 2005. The Re-invention of Africa: Edward Said, V. Y. Mudimbe, and Beyond. Research in African Literatures, 36(3), pp. 68–82. Mbigi, L., 1997. The African dream in management. Randburg: Knowledge Resources. Mbigi, L. and Maree, J., 1995. Ubuntu: The Spirit of African Transformation Management. Randburg: Knowledge Resources. McFarlin, D. B., Coster, E. A. and Mogale-Pretorius, C., 1999. South African management development in the twenty-first century. Moving toward an Africanized model. Journal of Management Development, 18(1), pp. 63–78. McSweeney, B., 2002. Hofstede’s model of national cultural differences and their consequences: A triumph of faith – A failure of analysis. Human Relations, 55(1), pp. 89– 118. Men, T., 2014. Place-based and Place-bound Realities: A Chinese Firms Embeddedness in Tanzania. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 43(1), pp. 103–138. Mendenhall, M. E., Stevens, M. J., Bird, A., Oddou, G. R. and Maznevski, M. L., 2008. Specification of the content domain of the intercultural effectiveness scale. The Kozai Monograph Series, 1(2), pp. 3–22. Mendoza, S. L., 2013. Reflections on bridging paradigms: How not to throw out the baby of collective representation with the functionalist bathwater in critical intercultural communication. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 98–111. Metz, T., 2014. Harmonising Global ethics in the future: A proposal to add south and east to west. Journal of Global Ethics, 10(2), pp. 146–155. Metz, T., 2015. Values in China as compared to Africa. In: H. Du Plessis, T. Metz, G. Raza, R. Poplak, D. Cisse, M. Davies, Y. Zhao, G. Le Pere, A. Ross and M. Lauzon-Lacroix, eds. 2015. The Rise and Decline and Rise of China: Searching for an Organizing Philosophy. South Africa: Real African Publishers. Meuser, M. and Nagel, U., 2009. The Expert Interview and Changes in Knowledge Production. In: A. Bogner, B. Littig and W. Menz, eds. Expert interviews- an introduction to a new methodological debate. Hamshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillanpp. pp. 17–42. 256 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Microsoft Word Office Support, 2017. Create or run a macro. [online] Available at: https://support.office.com/en-us/article/Create-or-run-a-macro-C6B99036-905C- 49A6-818A-DFB98B7C3C9C [Accessed 26 August 2017]. Miemis, V., 2010.  What is an expert? Emergent by Design. [online] Available at: https:// emergentbydesign.com/2010/02/25/what-is-an-expert/. [Accessed 29 October 2015]. Miike, Y., 2002. Theorising Culture and Communication in the Asian Context: An Assumptive Foundation. In: G. M. Chen, ed. Culture and Communication an East Asian Perspective. Intercultural Communication Studies, 11(1), pp. 1–21. Miike, Y., 2003. Toward an alternative metatheory of human communication: An Asiacentric vision. Intercultural Communication Studies, 12(4), pp. 39–64. Miike, Y., 2004. Rethinking humanity, culture, and communication: Asiacentric critiques and contributions. Human Communication: A Journal of the Pacific and Asian Communication Association, 7(1), pp. 62–82. Miike, Y., 2006. Non-Western Theory in Western Research? An Asiacentric Agenda for Asian Communication Studies. Review of Communication, 6(1–2), pp. 4–31. Miike, Y., 2007. An Asiacentric reflection on Eurocentric bias in Communication Theory. Communication Monographs, 74(2), pp. 272–278. Miike, Y., 2013. Culture as text and culture as theory: Asiacentricity and its raison d’etre in Intercultural Communication Research. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 190–215. Miike, Y. and Yin, J., 2015. Asiacentricity and shapes of the future: Envisioning the field of intercultural communication in the globalisation era. In: L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter, E. R. McDaniel and C. Sexton Roy, eds. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. 14th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 449–465. Miller, A. N., Deeter, C., Trelstad, A., Hawk, M., Ingram, G. and Ramirez, A., 2013. Still the Dark Continent: A content analysis of research about Africa and by African scholars in 18 major communication-related journals. Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, 6(4), pp. 317–333. Mingers, J., 2012. Abduction: the missing link between deduction and induction. A comment on Ormerod’s’rational inference: deductive, inductive and probabilistic thinking. The Journal of the Operational Research Society, 63(6) pp. 860–861. Minnameier, G., 2010. The Logicality of Abduction, Deduction and Induction. In: M. Bergman, S. Paavola, A. V. Pietarinen and H. Rydenfelt, eds. 2010. Ideas in Action: Proceedings of the Applying Peirce Conference. Helsinki, Finland: Pragmatism Network. pp. 239–251. [online] Available at: http://www.nordprag.org/nsp.1/Minnameier.pdf [Accessed 27 January 2018]. Moon, D. G., 2013. Critical reflections on culture and critical intercultural communication. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 34–52. 257 referenCes Monson, J. and Rupp, S., 2013. Africa and China: new engagements, new research. African Studies Review, 56(1), pp. 21–44. Mutere, M., 2012. Towards an Africa-centered and pan-African theory of communication: Ubuntu and the oral-aesthetic perspective, Communicatio, 38(2), pp. 147–163. Myers, L. J., 1987. The Deep Structure of Culture: Relevance of Traditional African Culture in Contemporary Life. Journal of Black Studies, 18(1), pp. 72–85. Naidoo, P., 2011. Intercultural communication: A comparative study of Japanese and South African work practice. Ph. D. University of Zululand. Nair-Venugopal, S., 2015. Issues of language and competence in intercultural business contexts. Language and Intercultural Communication. 15(1), pp. 29–45. Narh, P., 2013. Philosophical Foundation of knowledge creation on Africa. [Pdf] Farafina Institute’s Discussion Papers Series. Available at: http://www.farafina-institute.org/ attachments/article/119/Philosophical%20foundation%20of%20knowledge%20 creation%20on%20Africa.pdf [Accessed 23 October 2017]. Neuliep. J. W., 2012. The Relationship among Intercultural Communication Apprehension, Ethnocentrism, Uncertainty Reduction, and Communication Satisfaction during Initial Intercultural Interaction: An Extension of Anxiety and Uncertainty Management (AUM) Theory. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 41(1), pp. 1–16. Nkomo, S. M., 2013. A postcolonial and anti-colonial reading of African leadership and management in organisation studies: tensions, contradictions and possibilities. Organisation, 18(3), pp. 265–386. Ntuli, C. D., 2012. Intercultural Misunderstanding in South Africa: An Analysis of Nonverbal Communication Behaviour in Context. Intercultural Communication Studies, XXI (2), pp. 20–31. Nussbaum, B., 2003. African Culture and Ubuntu. World Business Academy, 17(1), pp. 1–12. Nwosu, P. O., Taylor, D. S., and Blake, C. A., 1998. Communication and development: Imperatives for an Afrocentric Methodology. In: J. D. Hamlet, ed. 1998. Afrocentric Visions: Studies in Culture and Communication. California: Thousand Oakes. pp. 229–246. Obonyo, L., 2011. Towards a theory of communication for Africa: The Challenges for emerging democracies. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 37(1), pp. 1–20. O’connor, H. and Gibson, N., 2003. A Step-by-Step Guide to Qualitative Data Analysis. Pimatiziwin: A Journal of Aboriginal and Indigenous Community Health 1(1), pp. 63–90. [online] Available at: http://www.pimatisiwin.com/uploads/1289566991.pdf. [Accessed, 8 November, 2016]. Oetzel, J., 2014. Intercultural health communication. In: T. L. Thompson, ed. 2014. Encyclopaedia of Heath Communication. Sage Publications. pp. 735–738. 258 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Okech, J. E. A., Pimpleton, A. M., Vannatta, R. and Champe, J., 2015. Intercultural Communication: An Application to Group Work. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 40 (3), pp. 268–293. Ono, K. A., 2013. Reflections on Problematizing ‘Nation’ in Intercultural communication research. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. 2013. The Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. pp. 84–97. Park, Y, J. and Alden, C., 2013. ‘Upstairs’ and ‘Downstairs’ dimensions of China and the Chinese in South Africa In: State of the Nation, 2012. Tackling Poverty and Inequality. Pretoria: HSRC Press. pp. 611–630. Paterson, S., 2014. Perceptions of organisational commitment within a selected Chinese organisation in South Africa: A case study approach. Masters. Rhodes University. Patton, M. Q, 1999. Enhancing the Quality and Credibility of Qualitative Analysis. HSR: Health Services Research, 34(5), pp. 1189–1208. Patton, M. Q., 2002. Qualitative evaluation and research methods. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Payne, G. and Payne, J., 2004. Key Concepts in Social Research. London: Sage. Pfadenhauer, M., 2009. At Eye Level: The Expert Interview – a Talk between Expert and Quasi-expert. In: A. Bogner, B. Littig and W. Menz, eds. Expert interviews-and introduction to a new methodological debate. Hamshire, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 81–97. Phatak, A. V., Bhagat, R. S. and Kashlak, R. J., 2005. International Management: Managing in a Diverse and Dynamic Global Environment. New York: McGraw Hill. Pietersen, H. J., 2005. Western Humanism, African Humanism and Work Organizations. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 31(3), pp. 54–61. Pigato, M. and Tang, W., 2015. China and Africa: Expanding Economic Ties in an Evolving Global Context. In: Investing in Africa Forum, Partnering to accelerate investment, industrialization and results in Africa. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 25 March 2015. Washington, DC: World Bank. Ping, H. and Yan, T., 2013. The Comparison of Chinese and American Interpersonal Relationships. International Academic Workshop on Social Science (IAW-SC 2013), pp. 1118–1120. Polit D. F. and Beck C. T., 2004. Nursing Research. Principles and Methods. Philadelphia, PA.: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Ponterotto, J. G., 2005. Qualitative Research in Counselling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 52(2), pp. 126–136. Praeg. S. L. and Magadla, S., 2014. Ubuntu: Curating the archive. UKZN Press. Reichertz, J., 2009. Abduction: The Logic of Discovery of Grounded Theory. Forum: Qualitative Social Research, [e- journal] 11(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.17169/fqs-11.1.1412. 259 referenCes Remenyi, D., 2013. Case Study Research: The quick guide series. 2nd ed. Reading, UK: Academic Publishing International. Ristic, I., 2013. Intracultural, Intercultural, Cross-Cultural, and International Communication: What’s the Difference? [online] igoristic wordpress. Available at: https:// igorristic.wordpress.com/2013/03/12/intracultural-intercultural-cross-cultural-and-international-communication-whats-the-difference/ [Accessed, 7 June 2013]. Rogers, E. M., 2003. Diffusion of innovations. 5th ed. New York: Free Press. Romney, K. A., Batchelder, W. H. and Weller, S. C., 1986. Culture as Consensus: A Theory of Culture and Informant Accuracy. American Anthropologist, 88(2), pp. 313–338. Rubin, J. H. and Rubin S. J., 1995. Qualitative interviewing, the Art of Hearing Data. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. Salazar, L. F., Crosby, R. A., and Diclemente, R. J., 2015. Research Methods in Health Promotion. 2nd ed. San-Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Salo-Lee, L., 2006. Introduction to Intercultural Communication. [online] Moniviestin. Available at: https://moniviestin.jyu.fi/ohjelmat/hum/viesti/en/ics/. [Accessed: 4 February, 2016]. Samovar, L. A. and Porter, R. E., 1995. Communication between Cultures. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. Sanjari, M., Bahramnezhad, F., Fomani, F. K., Shoghi, M. and Cheraghi, M. A., 2014. Ethical challenges of researchers in qualitative studies: the necessity to develop a specific guideline. Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine, 7(4). [online] Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263394/ [Accessed, 5 October 2016]. Sarantakos, S., 1993. Social Research. South Melbourne: Macmillan Education. Saunders, M., Lewis, P., and Thornhill, A., 2009. Research Methods for Business Students. 5th ed. Edinburgh: Pearson Education Schein, E. H., 1990. Organisational culture. American Psychologist, 45(2), pp. 109–119. Schein, E. H., 2010, Organisational Culture and Leadership. 4th ed. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons. Schiele. J. H., 1990. Organisational Theory from an African perspective. Journal of Black Studies, 21(2), pp. 145–161. Schwandt, T. A., 2001. Dictionary of qualitative inquiry. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Schwartz, S. H., 1992. Universals in the content and structure of values: theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 25, pp. 1–65. Schwartz, S. H., 1994. Are there universal aspects in the structure and content of human values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4), pp. 19–45. 260 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Schwartz, S. H., 1996. Value priorities and behaviour: Applying of theory of integrated value systems. In: C. Seligman, J. M. Olson, and M. P. Zanna, eds. The Psychology of Values: The Ontario Symposium, 8. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum: pp. 1–24. Schwartz, S. H., 2009. Culture matters: National value cultures, sources, and consequences. In: R. S. Wyer, C-Y. Chiu and Y-Y. Hong, eds. Understanding culture: Theory, research, and application. New York: Psychology Press. pp. 127–150. Schwartz, S. H., 2012. An Overview of the Schwartz Theory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, [e-journal] 2(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.9707/2307- 0919.1116 [Accessed 18 November 2015]. Scotland, J., 2012. Exploring the Philosophical Underpinnings of Research: Relating Ontology and Epistemology to the Methodology and Methods of the Scientific, Interpretive, and Critical Research Paradigms. English Language Teaching. 5 (9), pp. 9–16. Seale, C., 1999. Quality in qualitative research. Qualitative Inquiry, 5(4), pp. 465–478. Shen, X., 2015. Private Chinese investment in Africa: Myths and realities. Development Policy Review, 33(1), pp. 83–106. Shenton, A. K., 2004. Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qualitative Research Projects. Education for Information, 22(2), pp. 63–75. Shonhiwa, S., 2008. The Effective cross-cultural manager: A guide for business leaders in Africa. Cape Town: Zebra Press. Shuter, R., 2012. The Centrality of Culture and Indigenous Values. China Media Research, 8(3), pp. 1–10, [online] Available at: http://epublications.marquette.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1091&context=comm_fac. Accessed 23 October 2017. Singh, K. D., 2015. Creating Your Own Qualitative Research Approach: Selecting, Integrating and Operationalizing Philosophy, Methodology and Methods. Vision (09722629), 19(2), pp. 132–146. Skow, L. and Samovar, L. A., 2015. Cultural Patterns of the Maasai. In: L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter, E. R. McDaniel and C. Sexton Roy, eds. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. 14th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 141–149. Skulmoski, G. J., Hartman, F. T. and Krahn, J., 2007. The Delphi Method for Graduate Research. Journal of Information Technology Education, 6, pp. 1–21, [online] Available at : https://www.learntechlib.org/p. 111405/ [Accessed 22 October, 2017]. Slabbert, A. and Ukpere, W. I., 2011. A comparative analysis of the Chinese and South African work ethic. International Journal of Social Economics, 38(8), pp. 734–74. Smith, P. B., 2011. Communication Styles as Dimensions of National Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 42(2), pp. 216–233. Solderholm, G. W., 2013. Beyond Literature Review of Hall’s Context Dimension: Scale Development, Validation and Empirical Findings within a Norwegian Study. International Journal of Business and Management, 8(10), pp. 27–40. 261 referenCes Spitzberg, B. H., 2000. A model of intercultural communication competence. In: L. A. Samovar and R. E. Porter, eds. Intercultural Communication Competence: A Reader. 9th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth. pp. 375–387. Srivastava, A. and Thomson, S. B., 2009. Framework Analysis: A Qualitative Methodology for Applied Research Note Policy Research. Journal of Administration and Governance, 4(2), pp. 72–79. Starosta, W. J., and Chen, G. M., 2013. Expanding the Circumference of Intercultural Communication Study. In: T. K. Nakayama and R. T. Halualani, eds. The Handbook of Intercultural Communication. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell. pp. 130–146. Stenbacka, C., 2001. Qualitative research requires quality concepts of its own. Management Decision, 39(7), pp. 551–555. Sun, I. Y., Jayaram, K. and Kassiri, O., 2017. Dance of the lions: How are Africa and China engaging, and how will the partnership evolve? [Pdf] McKinsey and Company. Available at: https://www.google.co.za/search?q=Dance+of+the+lions%3A+How+a re+Africa+and+China+engaging%2C+and+how+will+the+partnership+evolve%3F+%5B&oq=Dance+of+the+lions%3A+How+are+Africa+and+China+engaging%2C+and+how+will+the+partnership+evolve%3F+%5B&aqs=chrome. 69i57.809j0j4&sourceid=chrome&ie=UTF-8 [Accessed 29 October 2017]. Tang, Y., 2014. The Paradox of Chinese Communication: The case of keki. China Media Research, 10(4), pp. 69–78. Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C., 1998. Mixed Methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oakes, California: Sage. Terre Blanche, M. T., Durrheim, K. and Painter, D., 2006. Research in Practice: Applied methods for the social sciences. Cape Town: University of Cape Town Press. Tervalon, M. and Murray-Garcia, J., 1998. Cultural humility versus cultural competence: A critical distinction in defining physician training outcomes in multicultural education. Journal of Healthcare for the Poor and Underserved, 9(2), pp. 117–125. Ting-Toomey, S., 1988. Intercultural conflict styles: A face negotiation theory. In: Y. Y. Kim and W. B. Gudykunst, eds. 1988. Theories in intercultural communication. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.  pp. 213–238. Ting-Toomey, S. and Kurogi, A., 1998. Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face-negotiation theory. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 22, pp. 187–225. Traber, R., 1989. African Communication: Problems and Prospects. Africa Media Review, 3 (3) pp. 86–97. Tranfield, D., Denyer, D. and Smart, P., 2003. Towards a Methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14, pp. 207–222. Trompenaars, F. and Hampden-Turner, C., 1993. Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Diversity in Global Business. London: Nicholas Brealey Publishing. 262 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Tung, R. L., Worm, V. and Fang, T., 2008. Sino-Western Business Negotiations Revisited—30 Years after China’s Open Door Policy. Organizational Dynamics, 37(1), pp. 60–74. Tylor-Powell, E. and Renner, M., 2003. Analysing qualitative data. Program development and evaluation. [Pdf] Madison Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin-Extension. Available at: https://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/g3658-12.pdf [Accessed 26 August 2017] University of Louisville Research Guides, 2016. Critical Thinking and Academic Research. [online] Available at: http://louisville.libguides.com/criticalthinking [Accessed 30 March 2016]. Uwah, I., 2012. Identity and culture in theorising African perspectives of communication: The case of an African cinematic model. Communicatio: South African Journal for Communication Theory and Research, 38(2), pp. 181–194. Van Den Heuvel, H., 2008. ‘Hidden Messages’ Emerging From Afrocentric Management Perspectives. Acta Commercii, pp. 51–54. Van Der Colff, L., 2003. Leadership lessons from the Africa tree. Management Decision Journal, 41(3), pp. 257–261. Varner, I. I. and Palmer, T. M., 2005. The role of cultural self-knowledge in successful expatriation. Singapore Management Review, 27(1), pp. 1–25. Verderber, K. S. and Verderber, R. F., 2008. Communicate. 12th ed. Belmont, California: Wadsworth. Victor, D., 1992. International business communication. New York: Harper Collins. Von Schirach, P. M., 2012. China’s Point man for Africa in an interview admits that Chinese companies operating in the continent follow unorthodox practices to get business – “Bags of money on the table, and bribes”. [online] Schirach reports. Available at: http://schirachreport.com/index.php. 2012/04/07/chinas-point-man-for-africa-in-an-interview-admits-that-chinese-companies-operating-in-the-continent-follow-unorthodox-practices-to-get-business-bags-of-moneyon-the-table-and-bribes [Accessed 11 May 2012]. Wah, S. S., 2001. Chinese cultural values and their implication to Chinese management. Singapore Management Review, 23(2), pp. 75–83. Wahyuni, D., 2012. The research design maze, Understanding paradigms, cases and methodologies. Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10(1), pp. 69–80. [online] Available at: https://www. researchgate.net/profile/Dina_Wahyuni5/publication/256024036_The_Research_Design_Maze_Understanding_Paradigms_Cases_Methods_and_Methodologies/links/55c0099908aed621de13a5c7.pdf [Accessed 21 March 2016]. Waneless, D., 2007. Ubuntu: We all belong to each other. International Congregational Journal, 7(1), pp. 117–119. 263 referenCes Washington, M. C., 2013. Intercultural business communication: An analysis of ethnocentrism in a globalized Business environment. Journal of Business and Management, 1(1), pp. 20–27. Watt, D., 2007. On Becoming a Qualitative Researcher: The Value of Reflexivity. The Qualitative Report, 12(1), pp. 82–101. http://www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR12-1/watt.pdf. Web finance Inc, 2017. Online Business Dictionary. [online]. Web finance Inc. Available at: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/effectiveness.html. [Accessed 5th November 2017]. Wei, X. and LI, Q., 2013. The Confucian Value of Harmony and its Influence on Chinese Social Interactions. Cross-Cultural Communication, 9, pp. 60–66. Welman, J. and Kruger, S. J., 2001. Research methodologies. 2nd ed. Cape Town: Oxford Southern Africa. Westropp, S., 2012. Cultural Comparison of China and Sub-Saharan Africa. Otago Management Graduate Review, 10, pp. 67–87. Williams, A., 2015. Proverbs that show the collectivistic nature of South African Tswana culture. [conversation] (Personal communication, 17 August 2017) Wilson, D., 1987. Traditional Systems of Communication in Modern African Development an Analytical Viewpoint. Africa Media Review, 1(2), pp. 87–104. Winter, G., 2000. A comparative discussion of the notion of validity in qualitative and quantitative research. The Qualitative Report, 4(3–4). [online] Available at: http:// www.nova.edu/ssss/QR/QR4-3/winter.html. [Accessed September 30, 2016]. Wiseman, R. L., 2003. Intercultural Communication Competence. In: W. B. Gudykunst, ed. 2003. Cross Cultural and Intercultural Communication. London: Sage. pp. 191–208. World Book, 2009. The World Book Dictionary. Chicago, IL: World Book. Xie, A., Rau, P. L, Tseng, Y., Su, H. and Zhao, C., 2009. Cross-cultural influence on communication effectiveness and user interface design. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 33, pp. 1–20. Xu, K., 2013. Theorizing Difference in Intercultural Communication: A Critical Dialogic Perspective. Communication Monographs, 80(3), pp. 379–397. Yao, X., 2000. An Introduction to Confucianism. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. Yin, R. K., 2009. Case study research: Design and methods. 4th ed. Los Angeles: Sage. Yoshitake, M., 2002. Anxiety/Uncertainty Management (AUM) Theory: A critical examination of an Intercultural Communication Theory. Intercultural Communication Studies, XI (2), pp. 177–194. 264 Chigwendere: interCultural CommuniCation CongruenCe in Sino-afriCan organiSational ContextS Yu, J. (2012) China’s geoeconomic strategy: firms with Chinese characteristics: the role of companies in Chinese foreign policy. IDEAS reports – special reports, K., Nicholas (ed.) SR012. LSE IDEAS, The London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK. Available at: http://eprints.lse.ac.uk/44205/ [Accessed 20 March 2018]. Yum, J. O., 2015. The impact of Confucianism on Interpersonal Relationships and Communication Patterns in East Asia. Communication Monographs, 55, pp. 374–388. In: L. A. Samovar, R. E. Porter, E. R. McDaniel and C. Sexton Roy, eds. 2015. Intercultural Communication: A Reader.14th ed. Boston: Cengage Learning. pp. 110–120. Yum, J. O., 1988. The impact of Confucianism on Interpersonal Relationships and Communication Patterns in East Asia. Communication Monographs, 55, pp. 374–388. Zhang, Q., 2014. Misinterpretations pf intercultural communication among Chinese foreign language educators. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 4(5), pp. 917– 922. Zhu, J. and Bao, Y., 2010. The Pragmatic comparison of Chinese and Western Politeness in Cross Cultural Communication. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 1(6), pp. 848–851.

Chapter Preview

References

Abstract

The global outlook of contemporary businesses has made the notion of intercultural communication effectiveness increasingly relevant as home and host country organisational incumbents seek to minimise intercultural communication challenges. From an academic perspective, despite the prevalence of theories and research that could serve as guidelines for addressing intercultural communication challenges, continued existence of these challenges in some contexts suggests potential inadequacy of such theories. Therefore, in this study, using a case of the Sino-African organisational context, several frameworks for enhancing intercultural communication effectiveness are proposed and developed. The frameworks culminate in a hybrid intercultural communication congruence framework to enhance intercultural communication and achieve intercultural communication congruence (IC congruence) in Sino-African organisational contexts. This book is a must for academics interested in theory development in intercultural communication, as well as organisational and management research in Africa. The bevy of frameworks developed and the methodological processes followed present a point of academic debate and raise numerous questions for future research. The book also provides useful insights into intercultural communication in Sino-African organisational contexts and would be of interest to managers, consultants and trainers working in Chinese organisations in Africa as well as on cross-cultural and intercultural management. In addition to introducing new concepts to the discourse of intercultural communication, the study marks the first comprehensive inquiry into intercultural communication in Sino-African business relationships in the organisational context.