Robert A. Forster, Appendix II: Chronology of Events in:

Cornelis Hulsman, Diana Serodio (ed.)

The 2014 Egyptian Constitution, page 141 - 144

Perspectives from Egypt

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3838-3, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6933-2,

Series: Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft, vol. 10

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Appendix II: Chronology of Events (Robert A. Forster) 2011 January 25 Mass demonstrations in Tahrir Square. February 11 President Mubarak steps down due to political pressure; SCAF assume executive powers. February 13 SCAF suspend 1971 Constitution. March 19 Referendum approves SCAF-appointed Constitu tional Review Committee's nine amendments to 1971 Constitution. March 30 SCAF's 69 article Constitutional Declaration amended March 19 Amendments and 1971 Con stitution. July 20 SCAF amends electoral law. September 27 SCAF amends electoral law and start date of elec tions. November 1 SCAF published their draft of Supra Constitu tional Principles. November 28 First round of elections for People's Assembly be gins. 2012 January 23 The first session of the People's Assembly is held. March 17 Shura Council nominates first Constituent As- March 24 Shura Council elects Constituent Assembly. Lib eral MPs walk out. March 28 First Constituent Assembly meeting held, non- Islamists walk out. April 10 First Constituent Assembly dissolved by High Administrative Court. May 23-24 First round of presidential elections: Mursi, Shafiq, Sabahi, Moussa, and other candidates. May 31 State of Emergency formally ends. June 6 Parliament agrees on revised criteria for election of Constituent Assembly. June 12 Parliament elects second Constituent Assembly. June 13 A Decree from the Ministry of Justice expands military powers of law enforcement. June 14 Election law declared unconstitutional by Su preme Constitutional Court. 141 June 15 SCAF dissolves People Assembly (Lower House). June 16-17 Second round of Presidential election held; Mursi vs. Shafiq. June 17 Constitutional Declaration issued by SCAF. June 24 Mursi announced as President of Republic. June 26 Ministerial Decree of June 13 suspended by High Administrative Court. June 30 Mursi inaugurated in front of Constitutional July 8 Presidential Decree reinstates the People's As sembly. July 10 Presidential Decree of July 8 suspended by Su preme Constitutional Court. July 11 Presidency accepts SCC ruling of July 10. August 12 Mursi fires Field Marshal Tanfawi and Chief of Staff 'Anan and nominates general 'Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi as Minister of Defence. September 22 June 14, 2012 Decision by SCC confirmed by High Administrative Court. October 14 Draft of 2012 Constitution published. November 12 Church representatives withdraw from Constitu ent Assembly. November 18-20 Non-Islamist party representatives and civil soci ety figures walk out of Constituent Assembly. November 22 Mursi issues Presidential Decree giving presi dent's office immunity to judicial oversight. November 30 Second Constituent Assembly votes on draft con stitution. December 8 Mursi revokes declaration from November 22. December 15 Referendum on 2012 Constitution is approved by 63.8 per cent majority by a 31 per cent voter turn out. 2013 February 21 President Mursi issues Presidential Decree an nouncing elections for People's Assembly; Shura Council prepares new elections law. March High Constitutional Court dismisses February 21 Presidential Decree on grounds of constitutional ity. 142 June 30 Mass protests organised by Tamarrud movement occupy public spaces across Egypt. July 3 Minister of Defense Abd al-Fattah al-Sisi deposes Mursi and announces new transitional roadmap. July 4 ' Adli Mansur sworn in as Interim President. July 5 Mansur issues Presidential Decree dissolving the Shura Council. July 8 Mansur issues Constitutional Declaration to re main until end of transitional phase outlining a roadmap and suspending the 2012 Constitution. 51 pro-Mursi supporters killed outside of the Re publican Guard. July 27 Security forces open fire on pro-Mursi supporters near Raba'a al-'Adawiyya square, killing 82 and wounding more than 280. August 14-16 Interim government clears the Nahda and Raba'a al- 'Adawiyya squares of pro-Mursi sit-ins, killing at least 817. Revenge attacks on police, security and Christians occur across Egypt. Government announces State of Emergency at 16:00. September 1 Mansur announces Committee of Fifty. November 12 State of Emergency lifted. December 14 Mansur announces national referendum for 2014 Constitution. 2014 January 14-15 2014 Constitution approved by 98.1 per cent by 38.6 per cent of voters. January 18 2014 Constitution takes effect. 143

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After President Hosni Mubarak was toppled in 2011, discussions followed immediately regarding the revision of the Egyptian Constitution. Islamist political groups insisted that Parliamentary and Presidential elections should precede the formation of a new Constitution, aiming to use their momentum to gain the upper hand in the Constitutional Assembly. Non-Islamists believed that representatives from all layers of society must first formulate a new Constitution before elections should be held. Out of this struggle emerged the 2012 Constitution, a document deeply influenced by Islamist political ideas and goals. Dissatisfied with the proceedings, the non-Islamists walked out of the Constitutional Assembly before the Constitution was finalized. In attempts to reconcile the alienated non-Islamist factions, and heal a divided Egyptian society, the Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was created. All efforts were made to avoid a similar walk-out from Islamist factions. Various political actors were interviewed during, and shortly after the 2014 constitutional formation process. This book is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the discussions and debates surrounding the formation of the 2014 Constitution. This book follows and complements the previous books in the series on recent religious and political developments in Egypt, in particular Vol. 3 The Sharia as the Main Source of Legislation? (2012), Vol. 8 Rise and Fall of the Muslim Brotherhood 2011-2013 (2016), Vol. 9 From Ruling to Opposition 2011-2013 (2017).