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Titelei/Inhaltsverzeichnis in:

Cornelis Hulsman, Diana Serodio (Ed.)

The 2014 Egyptian Constitution, page 1 - 16

Perspectives from Egypt

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3838-3, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6933-2, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828869332-1

Series: Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft, vol. 10

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft herausgegeben von Ulrike Bechmann und Wolfram Reiss Cornells Hulsman (ed.) Diana Serodio The 2014 Egyptian Constitution Perspectives from Egypt Foreword by H.E. Amr Moussa, Chairman of the Constitutional Assembly of 2013 With contributions from: Robert A. Forster Eildert Heiko Mulder Tectum Verlag This book is mainly based on interviews with actors involved in the for mation of the 2014 Constitution. The interviews are accessible at Arab-West Report: http://www.arabwestreport.info/en Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft Beitrage zu gesellschaftlichen und politischen Fragestellungen Band 10 Ulrike Bechmann | Wolfram Reiss (Hg.) Cornelis Hulsman (ed.) Diana Serodio The 2014 Egyptian Constitution Perspectives from Egypt © Tectum - ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017 eISBN: 978-3-8288-6933-2 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-3838-3 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) ISSN: 2194-8941 Managing Editors: Matthew R. Sparks Robert A. Forster Assistant Editor: Joseph T. Coffee Editorial Reviewers: Matthew Anderson Dr. Shirin F. Ibrahim Eva Ritt Prof. Dr. Ayman Salama Umschlaggestaltung: Rita Kammerer Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet uber http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar. Notice Statements and opinions expressed in this text are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the editors, reviewers or publisher. Responsibility for the accuracy and integrity of the information presented in the following chapters is strictly with the stated authors. Due to the na ture of our collaborative editorial process, not all revisions to the text were formulated in writing. Thus, editors have incorporated all comments that were considered relevant and/or fully understood and/or fully formed and valuable to the overall narrative of the text. Incomplete notes and ideas were not included and/or elaborated on for fear of misrepresenting indi viduals. We would like to offer a very special thank you to Dr. Ayman Salama and Dr. Shirin F. Ibrahim for their invaluable efforts in helping us to insure that the information presented in this report is as accurate as possible. They gave many hours and spent many sleepless nights sitting with us to review the report. 'Words cannot describe how thankful we truly are. 5 Contents Abbreviations and Notes on Transliteration.................................... 11 Glossary (Cornelis Hulsm an)...................................................................13 Foreword (His Excellency Amr M oussa)..............................................15 1 Introduction (Cornelis Hulsm an)................................................. 17 2 Historical Context of the 2014 Constitution (Cornelis H ulsm an).......................................................................... 21 2.1 TwoRoadmaps................................................................................................. 24 2.2 Inclusion vs. Exclusion....................................................................................25 2.3 The Islamists Win the Elections....................................................................27 2.4 The Clashes in Winter 2012........................................................................... 30 2.5 Mursi's Deposal................................................................................................ 32 2.6 Formation of a New Constitution.................................................................35 3 Forming the 2012 and 2013 Constituent Assemblies: A Comparative Process (Diana Serodioand Robert R. Forster) ..................................................................................................................37 3.1 The formation of the 2012 Constituent Assembly....................................37 3.2 Changing the Process: Amendments to the Constituent Assembly's Selection Process in 2013................................................................................39 3.2.1 On the Committee of Ten.....................................................................39 3.2.2 On the Committee of Fifty...................................................................40 3.2.3 The Membership of the 2014 Constituent Assembly....................41 3.2.4 Regulations Within the 2014 Constituent Assembly....................43 3.3 General Assessment on the Committee of Fifty....................................... 46 4 Shaping Egypt's 2014 Constitution: Controversy and Negotiations (Diana Serodio).......................................................51 4.1 Opening Salvo: Egypt's Identity and the Preamble of the 2014 Constitution.......................................................................................................52 4.1.1 Defining a Civil State..........................................................................53 7 4.1.2 Shari a in Egypt's 2014 Constitution.................................................55 4.2 The Clauses on the Fundamentals of the State.........................................57 4.2.1 Shari a and the State: Defining the Role of Religion and Religious Institutions in the 2014 Constitution.......................................................... 57 4.2.2 The Role of the Drafting Committee.................................................60 4.2.3 On 'Appropriate Representation': Women, Christians, Youth, Children and Other Vulnerable Groups in the 2014 Constitution..... 61 4.3 Rights and Freedoms clauses........................................................................64 4.3.1 Clauses pertaining to Bedouin and Nubian Minority Rights .... 64 4.3.2 Negotiations on Economic and Social Rights.................................65 4.4 System of Governance and Power clauses................................................ 66 4.4.1 Defining Legislative and Executive Power..................................... 66 4.4.2 The Legislature, the Judiciary and the Armed Forces..................69 5 A Comparison of the 2012 and 2014 Constitutions (Diana Serddio)..................................................................................75 5.1 Fundamentals of the State.............................................................................. 75 5.1.1 Basic Components of the Society - Family Articles...................... 75 5.1.2 Religious Rights, Freedoms & Duties...............................................76 5.1.3 The Role of the Azhar........................................................................... 79 5.1.4 Reflections on the Fundamentals of the State's Articles..............80 5.2 Protection of Rights and Freedoms............................................................. 82 5.2.1 Women's Rights and Gender Equality.............................................82 5.2.2 Minority Rights......................................................................................84 5.2.3 Political Rights........................................................................................85 5.2.4 General Personal Rights and Freedoms.......................................... 86 5.2.5 Labour Rights......................................................................................... 87 5.2.6 Media Rights........................................................................................... 89 5.2.7 Social Security and Economic Rights................................................90 5.2.8 Social, Cultural and Environmental Responsibility..................... 91 5.2.9 Reflections on the Rights and Freedoms A rticles......................... 94 5.3 System of Government - Checks and Balances.........................................95 8 5.3.1 House of Representatives, President, Government and Autonomous Agencies.................................................................................. 94 5.3.2 The Legislative Branch......................................................................... 96 5.3.3 The President.......................................................................................... 99 5.3.4 The Cabinet........................................................................................... 101 5.3.5 Local Administration......................................................................... 103 5.3.6 Autonomous Organizations and Control Agencies................... 104 5.3.7 Reflections on the System of Government and Its Checks and Balances...........................................................................................................105 5.4 The Judiciary...................................................................................................107 5.4.1 General Provisions...............................................................................107 5.4.2 The Prosecutor General...................................................................... 108 5.4.3 The Supreme Constitutional Court.................................................109 5.4.4 Administrative Prosecution..............................................................I l l 5.4.5 National Elections Committee......................................................... I l l 5.4.6 Reflections on the Judiciary's Clauses............................................112 5.5 The Military and the Police......................................................................... 114 5.5.1 The Armed Forces................................................................................115 5.5.2 The National Defence Council......................................................... 116 5.5.3 M ilitaryCourts.....................................................................................117 5.5.4 National Security Council..................................................................118 5.5.5 The Police............................................................................................ 119 5.5.6 Reflections on Military Clauses....................................................... 119 6 Conclusion (Cornelis Hulsman and Diana Serodio) 123 Postscript: 'Constitution or Political Covenant?'.......................... 129 Appendix I: Index of Names of People and Locations (Cornelis Hulsman and Eildert HeikoM ulder).................................131 Appendix II: Chronology of Events (RobertA. Forster) 141 Appendix III: Membership of the Committee of Experts 145 Appendix IV: Members of the Committee of F ifty ...................... 147 9 AppendixV: Organizational Flowchart of Drafting Process (RobertA. Forster)..................................................................................... 153 Appendix VI: Full Text of Articles from the 2014 Constitution Referred to in This Study....................................................................... 155 Bibliography...............................................................................................159 Acknowledgements..................................................................................211 Ahout the Contributors.......................................................................... 214 About the Center for Arab-West Understanding.......................... 217 10 Abbreviations AWR Arab West Report FJP Freedom and Justice Party GDP Gross Domestic Product IJMES International Journal of Middle East Studies NGO Non-Governmental Organization SCAF Supreme Council of the Armed Forces see Supreme Constitutional Court Notes on Transliteration There are a plurality of transliteration systems used for transliterating Arabic texts into English. To ensure consistency, this book uses the IJMES transliteration chart which includes such stylistic functions as transliterat ing the letter 'g' (Egyptian colloquial) with 'j' (Modern Standard Arabic). The names of places reasonably familiar to the English-speaking reader have been written in their familiar form (for example Tahrir Square rather than midan al-tahrir). Neither the IJMES wordlist for exceptions nor not adding diacritics to names has been applied for the sake of consistency. The article is al-. After the prepositions li, bi and fi the initial 'a' of the article is replaced by - (for example bi-l-Wafan). No assimilation to sun-letters was applied. No hamza was used for the article. As for Arabic letterblocks con taining more than one word, the different words are connected through - (for example wa-bi-l-Wafan). No cases were used for single nouns since these are rarely written in modern Arabic publications. The cases in plural, however, have been used. We used the English plural for transliterated Arabic concepts (mufti - muftis). Some Arabic names have been given in the preferred spelling of the person. In case of universities we used the name they use in English (for example Zagazig University). To see a list of alternative spellings, please refer to Appendix I. All Arabic words are in italics with the exception of personal names. No italics have been used in titles and sub-titles. Names of religious groups, currents and scriptures have been capitalized. 11 Glossary (Cornelis Hulsman) This includes Islamic terms which had different meanings in traditional Is lam and that have been partly altered in the discourse of Islamists. al-Karama al-Nur al-Tajammu al-Wafd Bahd i(s) fulul Msba House o f Representatives infitdh Literally: Dignity. Name of leftwing nationalist political party inspired by the thoughts of late president Jamal Abd al-Nasir Literally: The Light, name of largest Salafist political party Literally: Assembly. Name of leftist political party Literally: The delegation, name of the oldest political party in Egypt, founded in 1918, banned between 1952 and 1978, since then called New al-Wafd Party Member(s) of the Baha’i faith, a monotheistic religion that emphasizes the spiritual unity of all human kind. Its founder was Muslim and most early followers came from Islam. Their claim of having a prophet after the prophet Muhammad is not accepted by traditional Muslims. Literally: Remnants. Derogatory term used by opponents of the Mubarak regime to describe those with a close asso ciation with the Mubarak regime. The Islamic concept of accountability based on the Qur anic verse "Enjoin what is good and forbid what is wrong," giving the government the duty to coercively command right and forbid wrong in order to keep every thing in order according to the Shari a. Islamists have made this the right of, giving any Muslim to bring another before the court for violating religious principles. Egypt's unicameral chamber (post-2014) Literally: Opening, term used for President Anwar al- Sadat's liberal economic open door policy in the 1970s 13 People's Assembly Egypt's lower bicameral chamber of Parliament (pre-2014) Muslims believe the Qur an is the compilation of God's revelations. Qur an shaykh(s) Shari a Shura Shura Council Shi a Sunna Sunni Tamarrud Islamic teacher or scholar. Plural in Arabic: shuyukh. In this text we used English grammar to make it plural since it has become a word that has more or less been adopted in to the English language. Body of legislation derived from Qur an and Sunna. Consultation Egypt's upper bicameral chamber of Parliament (pre-2014) Major branch of Islam Major branch of Islam, representing the vast majority of Muslims worldwide Adherent of the Sunna Islam, adjective for Sunna Literally: Rebellion, name of a movement demonstrating against President Mursi in 2013 14 Foreword (His ExcellencyAmrMoussa) I am pleased that the Center for Arab-West Understanding has conducted this unique scientific study on the creation of Egypt's Constitution of 2014.1 had the honor of leading the Committee of Fifty that was tasked with draft ing it. Through the constitutional referendum held on January 14 and 15, 2014, a large majority of Egyptians approved the amended Constitution which lifted the gloomy conditions that had been imposed upon the people's free will and thought. Conditions that had deprived them of a democracy that promotes self-determination in all aspects of their lives, whether political, economical, cultural, or social. It goes without saying that I might agree or disagree with some of the opi nions or comments that occurred in this comprehensive and comparative study, which has finally seen the light after one and a half years of the sus tainable efforts of this venerable scientific Center. This text is thorough in its analysis of complex constitutional and legal is sues, resulting in an ambitious comparative work examining the differences between the Constitution of 2012 and the amended one of 2014. Addition ally, this text provides an accurate assessment of the human rights conven tions ratified in the Constitution, which have been endorsed to assert the State's commitment to implementing these conventions. Compared to pre vious Egyptian Constitutions of years past, the current one endorses an un precedented guarantee of compliance to human rights. Aside from the uniqueness of this research, the study is an indispensable foundation for further studies. Furthermore it is a reliable reference for re searchers and experts, Egyptian and non-Egyptian, as they reckon the Con stitution to be a general, universal document that reflects the aspirations and the ambitions of any nation and its societal developments envisaged for the future. Finally, I am much obliged for the valuable effort of this study. I would like to take this opportunity to thank all members of the esteemed Committee of 15 Fifty that I had the honor to chair in drafting the current Constitution. Thus paving thus the right path, and laying undoubtedly and unquestionably, the horizons of freedom, democracy and development for the Egyptians: the sons and daughters of the country of the oldest of civilizations. H.E. Amr Moussa, Chairman Constituent As sembly of 2013, Presidential candidate in 2012, Secretary-General of the League of Arab States, 2001-2011, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 1991-2001 16

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Abstract

After President Hosni Mubarak was toppled in 2011, discussions followed immediately regarding the revision of the Egyptian Constitution. Islamist political groups insisted that Parliamentary and Presidential elections should precede the formation of a new Constitution, aiming to use their momentum to gain the upper hand in the Constitutional Assembly. Non-Islamists believed that representatives from all layers of society must first formulate a new Constitution before elections should be held. Out of this struggle emerged the 2012 Constitution, a document deeply influenced by Islamist political ideas and goals. Dissatisfied with the proceedings, the non-Islamists walked out of the Constitutional Assembly before the Constitution was finalized. In attempts to reconcile the alienated non-Islamist factions, and heal a divided Egyptian society, the Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was created. All efforts were made to avoid a similar walk-out from Islamist factions. Various political actors were interviewed during, and shortly after the 2014 constitutional formation process. This book is essential reading for anyone wishing to understand the discussions and debates surrounding the formation of the 2014 Constitution. This book follows and complements the previous books in the series on recent religious and political developments in Egypt, in particular Vol. 3 The Sharia as the Main Source of Legislation? (2012), Vol. 8 Rise and Fall of the Muslim Brotherhood 2011-2013 (2016), Vol. 9 From Ruling to Opposition 2011-2013 (2017).