Content

Titelei/Inhaltsverzeichnis in:

Ridho Al-Hamdi

Indonesian Political Ideology, page I - XXXIV

Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998-2015

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4058-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6884-7, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828868847-I

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Ridho Al Hamdi Indonesian Political Ideology Ridho Al Hamdi Indonesian Political Ideology Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998–2015 Ridho Al Hamdi Indonesian Political Ideology. Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998–2015 © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden Baden 2017 Zugl. Diss. Technische Universität Dortmund, Fakultät Humanwissenschaften und Theologie, Institut für Philosophie und Politikwissenschaft, 2017 eISBN: 978 3 8288 6884 7 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-4058-4 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) Umschlagabbildung: Closeup of male hand holding black horse chess piece © fotolia/ Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar. To the memory of my mother, Sri Relawati ( – ) Acknowledgement This dissertation fulfils the requirements of my doctorate in political science at the Department of Philosophy and Political Science, TU Dortmund University, Germany. Many institutions and people assisted me during my doctoral studies and completing this work. Without their kind assistance, accomplishing this feat would have been unlikely. While I cannot mention all of them by name, I must recognise a few. First and foremost, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Prof. Dr. Christoph Schuck as my “Doktorvater” who helped me since the inception of my study in Germany. He also gave me the freedom to pursue my own ideas during the writing of this work. With his valuable guidance, a critical review, patience and encouragement, this dissertation was accomplished. My deepest thanks to Prof. a.D. Dr. Reimund Seidelmann who spent his time to read thoroughly this work and gave his constructive perspectives. My sincere gratitude also goes to Prof Dr. Udo Vorholt who examined this study with his critical questions. My presence in Germany and this work would not have been possible without the role of the Directorate General of Resources for Research, Technology and Higher Education, the Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education of the Republic of Indonesia which granted me a full scholarship. I am also extremely thankful to Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (UMY) for providing me generous funds prior to and during my stay in Germany as well as for my fieldwork research. My colleagues at TU Dortmund University have encouraged and assisted me with their cordial partnership before and during my study in Dortmund, and therefore, I want to express my appreciation to Matthias Heise, Kathrin Ruktäschel, Steve Schlegel, Thalis Weizmann, Julia Dumin, Maria Hemker, Rika Althoff, Adrianus Harsawaskita, Zarifa Mamedova and Christopher Beuter. Special thanks to German’s Familienkasse for its “Kindergeld” during my children living in Dort- VII mund as well as Sonja Wollny who connected me to BILD hilft e.V. which assisted my baby for a certain circumstance. I should not neglect my Indonesian buddies across Europe, especially who have been involving in Muhammadiyah Deutschland, for their brotherhood in social gatherings and helpful assistance during my stay in Germany. Furthermore, I want to mention my colleagues at UMY for their motivation, beneficial cooperation and technical assistance prior to and during my graduate studies: Gunawan Budiyanto, Bambang Cipto, Achmad Nurmandi, Alex Hariyanto, Ali Muhammad, Titin Purwaningsih, Nano Prawoto and Bambang Rahmanto. My grateful thanks to all my colleagues at the Department of Government Affairs and Administration of UMY. Particular thanks to Ahmad-Norma Permata who motivated me prior to my departure for Germany and provided useful ideas. During my fieldwork in Yogyakarta Municipality, I would like to thank the municipal government, including its agencies and technical institutions which provided the necessary data: the town hall, the secretariat of the DPRD, the secretariat of the KPUD, the ARSIPDA office, the KESBANG office, the bureau of statistics and other related institutions. My sincere thanks to all respondents who bestowed their time and shared their experiences and, of course, their valuable information to enrich and sharpen this study. Although they contributed to this study, nonetheless, I am responsible for any misinterpretations and incongruity in this piece of work. The greatest honours and appreciations are bestowed on my family (parents, parents-in-law and siblings) for their support and motivation. My lasting and deepest thankfulness to my beloved wife Chusnul Septina Ari and my children Queena Nabihasophie Al-Hamdi and Aizza Medinareswari Al-Hamdi, for their love, patience and encouragement who accompanied me during my studies in Germany. I dedicate this humble dissertation to them. Dortmund, July Acknowledgement VIII Abstract This study examines the influence of political ideology on Indonesia’s political parties in addressing local governance issues during the democratic era, primarily between and . Three representative parties are investigated: The Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Justice and Prosperous Party (PKS). Selecting these parties is based on a threefold consideration: representing ideological cleavage, representing people’s aspirations and the result of four election cycles. Yogyakarta Municipality is selected as the locus of study due to its good governance and overwhelming achievements nationally in addressing primarily education and health issues. Therefore, this study has three main objectives. First is figuring out the influence of ideology on the party policy and agenda in coping with public service issues. Second is to explore the effectiveness of the party agenda in dealing with those issues. Third is to discern the pattern of relationships between political parties and governance actors. Methodologically, this study adopts qualitative research methodology using a case study approach. Two techniques were used to gather data: first, in-depth elite and specialised interviews and, second, documentary analysis for collecting the necessary data. The data analysis was presented in four steps: reducing data, displaying data, drawing and verification and conclusion. The deductive and inductive analyses were employed together in displaying the data. Four main findings are presented. Firstly, the policies made by PDIP, PAN and PKS in addressing public services have similar roles as defenders of the welfare state. They concur that education and health are basic needs for human life which should be subsidised entirely by the government. Their distinctive ideologies together comprise the ideology of welfarism, or so-called “symbiotic ideology”. The role of the party chairperson and daily boards are more dominant than other positions in deciding policies. There are three determining factors which IX influence those parties in producing policies: the party regulation, internal stimuli and external stimuli. Secondly, the agendas which are performed by PDIP, PAN and PKS occur in two distinctive ways: structural and functional. The former demonstrates the involvement of those parties in five legislative bodies: the parliament board, the social welfare commission, the legislation body, the budgeting body and the special committee. The latter can be known through general statements of the party’s fractions which are delivered in the parliament plenary sessions and through the individual view of the parties’ elites. All parties tend to be defenders of people’s interests indicating that the parties’ agendas are working effectively and, in turn, Yogyakarta Municipality experienced positive growth. Thirdly, the relationship between parties and the state actors reveals that political ideology is waning. The changeable politics in administration or parliament indicates that the ideology is blunt in the power arena. This can be seen in the political contest in the executive arena being marked by three different approaches in three government regimes: ideological, pragmatic and pragmatic-opportunist. In the same vein, in the legislative arena, parties liquefy if they cope with public service and parliamentary affairs; conversely, the circumstances become extreme clashes if they deal with issues linked to religion and ethnicity. Fourthly, the relationship between parties and society reveals the resurgence of ideology when parties approach the grassroots. Each party will cultivate close ties with collateral-mass organisations or alliances. PDIP tends to strengthen the web of Marhaenism devotees, PAN relies on the Muhammadiyah network while PKS maximises the role of liqo’ linkages. To build up their internal forces, each has its own strategy to recruit cadres. PDIP prefers to recruit cadres from Marhaenism-based organisations, PAN tends to recruit cadres from mainly Muhammadiyah and ‘Aisyiyah and most of PKS’ cadres originate particularly from the Campus Da’wa Institutes. With economic society, PDIP attempts to struggle for the wong cilik group although it also seems to stand up for the conglomerates’ interests, PAN prefers to build up reciprocal cooperation with business clusters while PKS has little concern with this issue. Given these relationships, Yogyakarta Abstract X Municipality is the root of Marhaen. Nonetheless, pious Muslim activities can also be found in six kampung santris: Kauman, Karangkajen, Kotagede, Suronatan, Warungboto and Nitikan. They are abbreviated into one term: “Trikaswani”. Source: The map of Yogyakarta Municipality was re-sketched by the Author, finished in . . while the map of Indonesia is from d-maps.com at http://dmaps.com/carte.php?num_car= &lang=en Abstract XI Table of Contents List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XIX List of Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXI Glossary and Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XXIII Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Why Study Political Ideology in Indonesia? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 1 Scope and Limitations of this Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 3 Objectives of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 5 Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 5 Case Study. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1. 5 Data-Gathering Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2. 7 Data Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. 10 Structure of the Study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 12 Chapter I Democratisation and Good Governance in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Democratisation and Decentralisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 15 Understanding Democracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 15 The Democratisation Wave in Indonesia Today . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 20 Decentralisation and its Impacts on Local Politics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 25 Good Governance and Public Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 29 Governance and Basic Needs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 29 XIII Two Major Public Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 34 Education Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.1. 35 Health Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.2. 38 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 41 Chapter II Political Ideology and Political Parties in Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Political Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 43 Defining Ideology in the Political Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 43 The Variants of Indonesian Society. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 50 The Abangan Variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.1. 51 The Santri Variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.2. 55 The Jemaah Tarbiyah Variant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2.3. 58 Political Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 63 Concept of Political Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 63 Model of Party Classification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 68 Change and Goal in a Political Party . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. 73 The Configuration of Political Cleavage. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4. 76 Selected Parties: Formulating the Analytical Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 80 The Nationalist-Secular: PDIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. 80 The Nationalist-Muslim: PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2. 82 The Nationalist-Islamist: PKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. 85 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 88 Chapter III Yogyakarta: The Country’s Leading Municipality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 92 Public Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 97 Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 97 Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 103 Table of Contents XIV Governance Actors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 107 Executive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. 107 Legislature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2. 111 Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. 125 Economic Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.4. 127 Three Ideological Parties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 130 PDIP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.1. 133 PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.2. 135 PKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.3. 136 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. 138 Chapter IV Towards a Welfare State: Party Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Party Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 141 Education Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 142 Health Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 145 Party Policy-makers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 148 Policy Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 150 Party Regulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.1. 150 Internal Stimuli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2. 151 External Stimuli . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.3. 152 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 153 Chapter V Fighting for People’s Interests: Party Agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Party Involvement in the DPRD’s Tool Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 156 The Commission of Social Welfare. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 158 Legislation Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 159 Budgetary Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 163 Special Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.4. 166 Table of Contents XV Party Attitudes towards Raperda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 168 Education System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 169 Retribution of Health Services. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 171 Health Insurance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. 173 Exclusive Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.4. 175 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 177 Chapter VI Changeable Politics: Parties and the State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 The Creation of Cleavage: Parties in the Administration Arena . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 179 Ideological Approach: 2001–2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 181 Pragmatic Approach: 2006–2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 186 Pragmatic-Opportunist Approach: 2011–2015 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 192 Relying on Issues: Parties in the Legislative Arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 199 Party and its Fraction: Seemed Solid with a Tiny Clash . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 200 Among Fractions: Occasionally Thawing and Freezing . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 203 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 205 Chapter VII The Resurgence of Ideology: Parties and Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 When the Ideology is Still Vigorous: Parties and Civil Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 207 PDIP: Strengthening Marhaenism Devotees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.1. 210 PAN: Depending on Muhammadiyah Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2. 216 PKS: Maximising Liqo’ Linkages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.3. 220 Having Variant Bonds: Parties and Economic Society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 225 PDIP: Attempting to Struggle for Wong Cilik? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 225 PAN: Towards a Proportional Cooperation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 228 PKS: Tending towards Less Partnership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3. 231 TRIKASWANI: Kampung Santri in the Root of Marhaen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 233 Concluding Remarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 240 Table of Contents XVI Chapter VIII Conclusion: The Waning and Revival of Political Ideology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Towards a Symbiotic Ideology: Welfarism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. 244 Blunt in the Power Arena, Sharp to the Grassroots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. 247 Waning Ideology: A Contest in the Power Arena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.1. 247 The Revival of Ideology: Approaching the Grassroots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2. 250 Theoretical and Practical Implications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3. 251 Proposal for Further Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4. 255 Appendices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Appendix 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 Appendix 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Appendix 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 Appendix 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 Appendix 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Table of Contents XVII List of Tables Table . The Human Development Index in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Table . Indonesia’s Governance Index in Yogyakarta Municipality, Table . The Number of Schools in Yogyakarta Municipality, Table . The Number of Schools, Classes, Students and Teachers in Yogyakarta Municipality, Table . The Number of Students who Passed their Exam in Yogyakarta Municipality, Table . The Profile of the Regional Government in Yogyakarta Municipality, Table . Distribution of Votes and Seats for the Big Nine Parties in the Election Table . The Profile of Legislators, – Table . Distribution of Votes and Seats for the Big Six Parties in the Election Table . The Profile of Legislators, – Table . Distribution of Votes and Seats for the Big Seven Parties in the Election Table . The Profile of Legislators, – XIX Table . Distribution of Votes and Seats for the Big Eight Parties in the Election Table . The Profile of Legislators, – Table . The DPRD Board in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Table . Parties’ Involvement in the Commission of Social Welfare, – Table . Parties’ Involvement in the Legislation Body, – Table . The Number of Local Regulations Issued by the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Table . Parties’ Involvement in the Budgetary Body, – Table . The Income and Expenditure Budget in Yogyakarta Municipality Table . Parties’ Involvement in the Special Committee for , – Table . The Comparison of Electoral Votes between Islam-based Parties and Secular Parties in Yogyakarta Municipality, – List of Tables XX List of Figures Figure . Political Ideologies in Contemporary Indonesia Figure . The Invention of Political Ideologies and Their Institutionalisation in Contemporary Indonesia Figure . Yogyakarta Municipality Administrative System Figure . The Electoral Performance of PDIP, PAN and PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality ( ) Figure . The Parliamentary Seats of PDIP, PAN and PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality ( ) Figure . Determining Factors Influencing the Party Policy Figure . The Effectiveness Process of the Party Agenda Figure . The Creation of Cleavage in Yogyakarta Municipality, – Figure . The Creation of Political Forces XXI Glossary and Abbreviations ABA ‘Aisyiyah Bustanul Athfal, kindergarten under ‘Aisyiyah management abangan nominal Muslim ABY Aliansi Buruh Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta Labour Alliance) AD Anggaran Dasar (Statute) aliran literally stream, denoting various streams in political affairs such as Islamist, nationalist and secularist. Alun-Alun Lor North Field, located in front of the Yogyakarta Kraton Palace Al-Qur’an Muslim Holy book angkringan It denotes a roadside food stall, usually bought by lowerclass people, such as pedicab drivers, students, toilers, street musicians and the like. Most angkringans consist of Javanese local-traditional foods and drinks APBD Anggaran Pendapatan Belanja Daerah (Regional Income and Expenditure Budget) APBS Anggaran Pendapatan Belanja Sekolah (School Income and Expenditure Budget) ART Anggaran Rumah Tangga (rule) ASKES Asuransi Kesehatan (Health Insurance) ASMI Akademi Sekretari dan Manajemen Marsudirini (Marsudirini Management and Secretary Academy) As-Sunnah The Prophet Muhammad’s way of life Balegda Badan Legislasi Daerah (Legislation Body) Bamus Badan Musyawarah (Consultative Body) Banggar Badan Anggaran (Budgetary Body) Batik Javanese textile dyeing BHP Badan Hukum Pendidikan (Legal Body of Education) BKPM Badan Koordinasi Penanaman Modal (Indonesia’s Investment Coordinating Council) BN Basic Needs BOSDA Biaya Operasional Sekolah Daerah (Local School Operational Financial Support) XXIII BPJS Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial (Social Insurance Administrative Body) BPK Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan (Financial Auditing Agency) BPUPKI Badan Penyelidik Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (Committee for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence) BUMD Badan Usaha Milik Daerah (Local State-owned Enterprises) BUMN Badan Usaha Milik Nasional (National State-owned Enterprises) CSR Corporate Social Responsibility da’wa Islamic proselytising Dagadu a local creative garment industry in Yogyakarta DAK Dana Alokasi Khusus (Special Allocation Fund) Dapil daerah pemilihan (election district) DAU Dana Alokasi Umum (General Allocation Fund) DEPAG Departemen Agama (Indonesia’s Religious Department) desa village level in rural area DIY Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta (Special Territory of Yogyakarta) DMI Dewan Masjid Indonesia (Indonesian Mosque Council) DPC Dewan Pimpinan Cabang, organisational structure of PAN at the sub-district/sub-municipal levels; or Dewan Pengurus Cabang, organisational structure of PKS at the sub-district/ sub-municipal levels DPC Party Dewan Pimpinan Cabang Partai, organisational structure of PDIP at the district and municipal levels DPD Dewan Pimpinan Daerah, organisational structure of PAN at the district and municipal levels; or Dewan Pengurus Daerah, organisational structure of PKS in executive functions at the district and municipal levels DPD Party Dewan Pimpinan Daerah Partai, organisational structure of PDIP at the provincial level DPLN Party Dewan Perwakilan Luar Negeri Partai (Foreign Representative Board), organisational structure of PDIP in foreign countries DPP Dewan Pimpinan Pusat, organisational structure of PAN at the national level DPP Party Dewan Pimpinan Pusat Partai, organisational structure of PDIP at the national level DPRD Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Daerah (People’s Regional Representative Council) Glossary and Abbreviations XXIV DPRt Dewan Pimpinan Ranting, organisational structure of PAN at the levels of village or nagari; or Dewan Pengurus Ranting, organisational structure of PKS at the village level DPT Dana Purna Tugas (Retirement Fund) DPTD Dewan Pimpinan Tingkat Daerah, organisational structure of PKS at the district and municipal levels DPTP Dewan Pimpinan Tingkat Pusat, organisational structure of PKS at the national level DPTW Dewan Pimpinan Tingkat Wilayah, organisational structure of PKS at the provincial levels DPW Dewan Pimpinan Wilayah, organisational structure of PAN at the provincial level DSD Dewan Syariah Daerah (Municipal Sharia Board) EIU Economist Intelligence Unit EKPPD Evaluasi Kinerja Pemerintah Daerah (Evaluation of the Local Government Performance) FKDK Fraksi Kebangkitan Demokrasi dan Keadilan (Justice and Democracy Awakening Fraction) FKPMY Forum Komunikasi Pelajar Muslim Yogyakarta (Communicating Forum for Yogyakarta’s Muslim Pupils) FORMI Federasi Olahraga Rekreasi Masyarakat Indonesia (Federation of Recreation Sport for Indonesian Society) FPI Fraksi Persatuan Islam (Islamic Union Fraction) fraksi A fraction (faction) in the legislature. It consists of members of a party or some parties. FSLDK Forum Silaturahmi Lembaga Dakwah Kampus (Forum for Coordinating Campus Predication) FSRMY Forum Silaturahim Remaja Masjid Yogyakarta (Coordinating Forum for Yogyakarta’s Mosque Adolescent) FUI Forum Ukhuwah Islamiyah (Islamic Brotherhood Forum) GAMKI Gerakan Angkatan Muda Kristen Indonesia (Indonesia Christian Youth Movement) Gapeknas Gabungan Pekerja Konstruksi Nasional (National Construction Labour Relations Alliance) GENPRO Global Entrepreneur Professional, an Indonesian Muslim business community Gerindra Gerakan Indonesia Raya (Greater Indonesian Movement) GMNI Gerakan Mahasiswa Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian National Student Movement) Golkar Golongan Karya (Functional Group) Glossary and Abbreviations XXV GPM Gerakan Pemuda Marhaenis (Marhaenist Youth Movement) GRANAT Gerakan Nasional Anti Narkotika (National Anti-drug Movement) GRM Gerakan Rakyat Marhaen (Marhaen People Movement) GSNI Gerakan Siswa Nasionalis Indonesia (Indonesian Nationalist School Pupils’ Movement) halaqah religious circles Hanura Hati Nurani Rakyat (People Pure Heart) HDI Human Development Index HMI Himpunan Mahasiswa Islam (Islamic Student Association) IAIN Institut Agama Islam Negeri (State Institutes of Islamic Religion) IDR Indonesian Rupiah, Indonesian currency IGI Indonesia Governance Index ijma acclamation system IKI Indeks Kota Islami (Islamic City Index) Ikhwanul Muslimin Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood founded by Hasan al-Banna in ILO International Labour Organization IMF International Monetary Fund IMM Ikatan Mahasiswa Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah Student Association) INKAI Institut Karate-Do Indonesia, one of the martial arts in Indonesia IPKI Ikatan Pendukung Kemerdekaan Indonesia (League of the Upholders of Indonesian Independence) IPM Ikatan Pelajar Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah School’s Pupil Association) IUD Intrauterine Device JAMKESDA Jaminan Kesehatan Daerah (Regional Government-financed Health Insurance) JAMKESMAS Jaminan Kesehatan Masyarakat (Government-financed Health Insurance) JAMSOSTEK Jaminan Sosial Tenagakerja (Employees Social Security System) Jemaah Tarbiyah Education movement JKN Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional (National Health Insurance) JMF Jamaah Musholla Fisipol, LDK at the faculty of social and political science UGM Glossary and Abbreviations XXVI Jogja The other well-known name for Yogyakarta Municipality JPD Jaminan Pendidikan Anak (Children Education Insurance) JSIT Jaringan Sekolah Islam Terpadu (Indonesia’s Network of Integrated Islamic Schools) jumatan Friday group-prayer, Friday service kabupaten district KAJASHA Yayasan Keluarga Alumni Jamaah Shalahuddin (Foundation for Jamaah Shalahuddin Alumni) KAMMI Kesatuan Aksi Mahasiswa Muslim Indonesia (Indonesian Muslim Student Action Union) kampung It does not denote an administrative territory, but it pictures a societal community having a similar culture and practice and usually consisting of some surrounding groups Karang Taruna village-based youth organisation, concentrates itself in social and welfare purposes KB Keluarga Berencana (Family Planning) KBM Keluarga Besar Marhaenis (Great Family of Marhaenist) kecamatan sub-municipality in urban area or sub-district in rural area kelurahan village level in urban area Kesbang Kesatuan Bangsa (National Unity) KIH Koalisi Indonesia Hebat (Outstanding Indonesia Coalition) KJB Koalisi Jogja Bersatu (United Yogyakarta Coalition) KJKS Koperasi Jasa Keuangan Syariah Umbul Sejahtera (Sharia Finance Service Cooperative of Umbul Sejahtera) KKB Klinik Keluarga Berencana (Family Planning Clinics) KLN Koordinator Luar Negeri (Foreign Coordinator), organisational structure of PAN in foreign countries KMP Koalisi Merah Putih (White Red Coalition) KMP Keluarga Muslim Psikologi (Muslim Family of Psychology), LDK in the faculty of psychology UGM KMS Keluarga Menuju Sejahtera (Family towards Prosperity), provided for poor people Konfercab Konferensi Cabang (Branch Conference) Konferda Konferensi Daerah (Regional Conference) KONI Komite Olahraga Nasional Indonesia (National Sports Committee of Indonesia) kos-kosan rented rooms/houses or apartments kota a city or municipality, headed by an elected mayor Glossary and Abbreviations XXVII KPK Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi (Corruption Eradication Commission) KPM Koalisi Pelangi Mataram (Mataram Rainbow Coalition) KPU Komisi Pemilihan Umum (Election Commission) KPUD Komisi Pemilihan Umum Daerah (Regional Election Commission) KRJ Koalisi Rakyat Jogja (Yogyakarta People Coalition) KSPSI Konfederasi Serikat Pekerja Seluruh Indonesia (All Indonesian Workers Union Confederation) kyai Muslim elder, cleric lapak seller a person who sells belongings in a tiny place, usually on the floor/ground without any tents or stalls LDK Lembaga Dakwah Kampus (Campus Predication Institute) LIPIA Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Islam dan Arab (Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies of Ibn Saud University) liqo’ meeting LOD Lembaga Ombudsman Daerah (Regional Ombudsman Institution) los seller a person who sells in small aisles madrasah Islamic school masjid mosque MENA Middle East and North Africa Merdeka Indonesian term, freedom MIPI Masyarakat Ilmu Pemerintahan Indonesia (Indonesian Government Scientists’ Association) Malioboro Street Name of a famous street and area located at the heart of Yogyakarta Municipality, as a major shopping centre mainly for tourists MI Madrasah Ibtidaiyah (Islamic primary school) MPD Majelis Pertimbangan Daerah (Municipal Consultative Assembly) MPP Majelis Pertimbangan Partai (Advisory Board) MPR Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat (People’s Consultative Assembly) MTs Madrasah Tsanawiyah (Islamic junior high school) mubaligh Islamic missionaries muktamar national congress Munas Musyawarah Nasional (National Deliberation) murabbi teacher/senior, mentor Glossary and Abbreviations XXVIII Murba Musyawarah Rakyat Banyak (Deliberation of Common People) Muscab Musyawarah Cabang (Sub-District/Sub-Municipal Deliberation) Musda Musyawarah Daerah (District/Municipal Deliberation) musholla Well-known also as langgar (a place for prayer), smaller than mosque and frequently privately owned Musran Musyawarah Ranting (Village Deliberation) MUSRENBANG Musyawarah Perencanaan Pembangunan (Development Planning Deliberation). Muswil Musyawarah Wilayah (Provincial Deliberation) musyawarah deliberation to build consensus Nasdem Nasional Demokrat (National Democrat) NCC Napza Crisis Centre NGO Non-Government Organisation NII Negara Islam Indonesia (Islamic State of Indonesia) NKRI Negara Kesaturan Republik Indonesia (United State of Republic of Indonesia NU Nahdhatul Ulama (Resurgence of Islamic Scholars) PAC Party Pimpinan Anak Cabang Partai, organisational structure of PDIP at sub-district and sub-municipal levels Pak Literally means Mister. It is a term for respecting other persons PAN Partai Amanat Nasional (National Mandate Party) Panggar Panitia Anggaran (Budgetary Committee) Panmus Panitia Musyawarah (Consultative Committee) Pansus Panitia Khusus (Special Committee) Parkindo Partai Kristen Indonesia (Indonesian Christian Party) PAR Party Pengurus Anak Ranting Partai (Sub-Village Board), organisational structure of PDIP under village level PAUD Pendidikan Anak Usia Dini (Early Childhood Education) patungan voluntary dues system PBB Partai Bulan Bintang (Star Crescent Party) PBR Partai Bintang Reformasi (Reformation Star Party) PBSD Partai Buruh Sosial Demokrat (Socialist Democrat Labour Party) PBVSI Persatuan Bola Voli Seluruh Indonesia (Indonesian Volleyball Association) Glossary and Abbreviations XXIX PCM Pimpinan Cabang Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah Sub- Municipal Board) PDA Pimpinan Daerah ‘Aisyiyah (Municipal Board of ‘Aisyiyah) PDAM Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (Drinking Water Local Company) PDI Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (Indonesian Democracy Party) PDIP Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan (Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle) PDK Partai Demokrasi Kebangsaan (National Democratic Party) PDKB Partai Demokrasi Kasih Bangsa (National Democracy Party of Devotion) PDM Pimpinan Daerah Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah Municipal Board) PDP Partai Demokrasi Pembaharuan (Democratic Renewal Party) PDS Partai Damai Sejahtera (Prosperous Peace Party) Pelopor Pioneer pengajian Islamic forums and teachings PERBASI Persatuan Bola Basket Seluruh Indonesia (Indonesian Basketball Association) perda peraturan daerah (local regulation) Permai Persatuan Rakyat Marhaen Indonesia (Indonesian Marhaen People’s Union) Perwal peraturan walikota (mayoral regulation) pesantren Islamic boarding school, a place for santri PHBS Perilaku Hidup Bersih dan Sehat (Clean and Health Life Behavior) PIAK Penilaian Inisiatif Anti Korupsi (Anti-Corruption Initiative Assessment) PII Pelajar Islam Indonesia (Indonesian Muslim Pupils) pilkada pemilihan kepala daerah (regional head elections) pilwalkot Pemilihan walikota (mayoral election) PK Partai Keadilan (Justice Party) PKB Partai Kebangkitan Bangsa (National Awakening Party) PKDI Partai Kasih Demokrasi Indonesia (Indonesian Democratic Party of Devotion) PKI Partai Komunis Indonesia (Indonesian Communist Party) PKK Pembinaan Kesejahteraan Keluarga (Family Welfare Movement) Glossary and Abbreviations XXX PKL Pedagang Kaki Lima (Street-based Vendors) PKNU Partai Kebangkitan Nasional Ulama (National Awakening of Islamic Scholars Party) PKPB Partai Karya Peduli Bangsa (Care for the Nation Functional Party) PKPI Partai Keadilan dan Persatuan Indonesia (Indonesian Justice and Unity Party) PKS Partai Keadilan Sejahtera (Justice and Prosperous Party) PMKRI Perhimpunan Mahasiswa Katholik Republik Indonesia (Indonesian Catholic Student Association) PNBK Partai Nasional Banteng Kemerdekaan (Freedom Bull National Party) PNI Partai Nasionalis Indonesia (Indonesian National Party) POLRI Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia (Indonesian National Police) Posyandu Pos Pelayanan Terpadu (Integrated Service Centre) PPD Partai Persatuan Daerah (United Regional Party) PPDB Penerimaan Peserta Didik Baru (New Pupil Registration Online System) PPDI Partai Penegak Demokrasi Indonesia (Indonesian Democracy Upholder Party) PPKBD Pos Pelayanan Keluarga Berencana Desa (Village Family Planning Post) PPLN Party Pengurus Perwakilan Luar Negeri Partai (Foreign Provincebased Representative Board), organisational structure of PDIP at the federal state or province levels in foreign countries PPP Partai Persatuan Pembangunan (United Development Party) PPPI Partai Pengusaha dan Pekerja Indonesia (Indonesian Entrepreneurs and Workers Party) PPRN Partai Peduli Rakyat Nasional (National People’s Concern Party) PRM Pimpinan Ranting Muhammadiyah, the organisational structure of Muhammadiyah at the levels of kelurahan, desa, RW, RT or certain communities PRP Pengurus Ranting Partai, organisational structure of PDIP at village levels PSI Partai Sosialis Indonesia (Indonesian Socialist Party) PSI Partai Sarikat Indonesia (Indonesian Union Party) PSIM Persatuan Sepak Bola Indonesia Mataram (Indonesian Mataram Football Club) Glossary and Abbreviations XXXI PTSP Pelayanan Terpadu Satu Pintu (One-stop Integrated Service) Puskesmas Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat (Public Health Centre) PUTM Pendidikan Ulama Tarjih Muhammadiyah (Muhammadiyah’s Tarjih Ulema Education) PWK Pos Wanita Keadilan (Women’s Justice Station) Rakercabsus Rapat Kerja Cabang Khusus (a special meeting of all PAC PDIPs) raperda rancangan peraturan daerah (local regulation draft) reses a period where legislators conduct activities outside the legislative building, usually three or four times each year RISMA Remaja Masjid, an adolescent predication organisation with activities centred in the mosque ROHIS Rohani Islam (Islamic Spirituality) RSKIA Rumah Sakit Keluarga Ibu dan Anak (Mother and Child Hospital) RSUD Rumah Sakit Umum Daerah (Regional Public Hospital) RT Rukun Tetangga (Neighbouring Group) RTO Real Time Online RW Rukun Warga (Surrounding Group) santri devout Muslim SAW Sallallāhu 'Alaihi waSallam (peace be upon him or PBUH) SD Sekolah Dasar (Primary School) SDI Sarekat Dagang Islam (Muslim Traders Union) Sekda Sekretaris Daerah (Executive Secretariat) Semutlis Sepuluh Menit untuk Lingkungan Sekolah (Ten Minutes for the School’s Environment) sharia Islamic Law SIT Sekolah Islam Terpadu (Integrated Islamic Schools) SJSN Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional (National Social Security System) SKI Seksi Kerohanian Islam (Islamic Spiritual Section) SKN Sistem Kesehatan Nasional (National Health System) SLB Sekolah Luar Biasa (Extraordinary School) SMA Sekolah Menengah Atas (Senior High School) SMK Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (Vocational High School) SMP Sekolah Menengah Pertama (Junior High School) STIKES Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan (Health Science College) Glossary and Abbreviations XXXII tamanisasi garden(isation), an environment-friendly movement. It denotes the process of greening a garden Taman Pintar Smart Park tarbiyah education or training model of Jemaah Tarbiyah in disseminating its ideas tata tertib standing orders Tim Sukses Success Team tool fitting In Indonesia known as Alkep (Alat Kelengkapan). It denotes the division of parliamentary duties into some bodies such as the board, commissions, the consultative body, the legislation body, the budgetary body and the honorary body. TK Taman Kanak-Kanak (Kindergarten) TNI Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Indonesian Military) TPS Tempat Pemungutan Suara (polling stations) UAD Universitas Ahmad Dahlan (Ahmad Dahlan University) UGM Universitas Gadjah Mada (Gadjah Mada University) UHC Universal Health Coverage UIN Universitas Islam Negeri (State Islamic University) UKDW Universitas Kristen Duta Wacana (Christian University of Duta Wacana) ulama Muslim scholars UMKM Usaha Micro Kecil Menengah (Micro Small and Medium Enterprises) ummah society, community UMR Upah Minimum Regional (Regional Minimum Wage) UMY Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta (Muhammadiyah University of Yogyakarta) UNDP United Nations Development Programme UST Universitas Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa (Sarjanawiyata Tamansiswa University) ustadz Islamic teachers WHA World Health Assembly WHO World Health Organisation wong cilik common people or small people YAKKUM Yayasan Kristen Untuk Kesehatan Umum (Christian Foundation for Public Health) Glossary and Abbreviations XXXIII

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References

Abstract

This book examines the influence of political ideology in Indonesia’s political parties to address governance issues during the democratic era, 1998–2015. Further, it investigates the policy, agenda and strategies of three ideological parties in Yogyakarta Municipality in coping with public service issues. The three parties are the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Justice and Prosperous Party (PKS).