Content

Chapter IV Towards a Welfare State: Party Policy in:

Ridho Al-Hamdi

Indonesian Political Ideology, page 139 - 154

Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998-2015

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4058-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6884-7, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828868847-139

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Chapter IV Towards a Welfare State: Party Policy After describing the study area including three major political parties, the following chapter analyses the policy of three political parties in addressing two public services: education and health issues. There are three main sections which will be elaborated in this chapter. First is the policy of PDIP, PAN and PKS in coping with education and health issues. Second is the party elites who have a vital influence in making the party policy. Third is determining factors in the process of policymaking inside the three parties. Although there is no an accepted definition for the concept of “policy” in the academic discourse, this study defines policy as guidance which is too imprecise to be of great use (Pal, : p. ). Some relevant concepts are proposed by Jenkins ( : p. ) and Dye ( : p. ) who argue that policy is a set of interrelated decisions taken by political actors regarding the selection of goals and the ways of obtaining them within a specified situation where these decisions should, in principle, be within the power of these actors to achieve. Therefore, policy is whatever the actors choose to do or not to do as well as why they execute it. Because all sorts of organisations embracing political parties have policies to address everything, according to Pal’s ( : p. ) concept, this study defines policy as a course of action or inaction decided by the party’s authorities through official meetings to cope with a given problem or interrelated problems. The policy eventually will assist in formulating party agendas and strategies. As guidance for actions, Pal ( : pp. – ) and Jann and Wegrich ( : p. ) proposed three steps in the creation of a policy: first, the definition of problems; second, the formulation of goals; and, three, the consideration of distinctive action alternatives. According to Pal ( : pp. – ), defining and 139 identifying problems are the heart of the policy and the key to deciphering its meaning and logic. It is a creative act. Once a problem is recognised, many possible means to alleviate, mitigate, or resolve it can be explored quickly and tentatively. Thus, the definition of the problem is inextricably bound to policy goals. Meanwhile, goals are what the policy is attempting to attain – its aims and its directions. A policy goal is formulated by the problems the policy identifies. Furthermore, analysing the policy is the most fundamental way to decide a final policy, as it is an activity in drafting problems which would be solved by a set of specified knowledge. As a result, there are some features in the policy analysis. First, the policy process is related to discussions and debates on ideas surrounding priorities, problems and solutions. Second, the policy process is a collective activity as policy decisions are usually made on the basis of organised and collaborative knowledge regarding policy problems. Third, chatting on the policy analysis cannot be disconnected with public problems (Pal, : pp. – ). As mentioned by Pal ( : pp. – ), there are two main components in the policy process. First is portraying the determining factors in creating the party policy. This study classifies two determining factors: ) internal stimuli, i.e., political culture, leadership change and internal conflict; ) external stimuli such as the election result, the birth of new parties, interest groups and public opinion. These two factors are strengthened by Harmel and Janda ( ) as elaborated in Chapter II that three determining variables in the party change are leadership change, change in dominant factions and external stimuli. These three variables could be summarised into internal and external stimuli. Second is depicting the policy content. The content can begin with a pair of explanations: ) the identification of problems and the classification of issues of the policy which it will address; ) the formulation of goals with a specific purpose. Pal ( : pp. – ) stressed that utilising academic sources such as journals, reports and any studies published by research institutes is important when deciphering policy content, because a good description of the content depends on consulting a wide range of official and unofficial sources to build a rich and textured portrait of the content. Chapter IV 140 It is also important to understand the policy process by recognising actors behind the policy content. According to Harmel and Janda ( : p. ), as an organisation parties have structural hierarchies of authority and five types of organisational actors: ( ) the top leaders who constitute the key decision makers; ( ) the middle-level leaders who lead and control its divisions; ( ) the activists who regularly conduct party operations; ( ) the members who occasionally assist the party with votes, funds or activities; ( ) the supporters who vote for the party in elections. At any time, some of these actors consist of a party faction or any intraparty combination. Pal ( : p. ) posited that each player attempts to influence the policy process in their favour and to reach the outcomes which reflect their interests. Party Policy Prior to analysing the party policy in Yogyakarta Municipality towards education and health issues, it is fundamental to highlight the recent vision of three political parties as written in their own statute after the national congress in . PDIP has two core objectives as mentioned in its statute, Article . First is realising justice and a welfare society in line with the dreams of the independence proclamation on August th, as stated in the Preamble of Indonesia’s Constitution in the frame of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity). Second is struggling for the realisation of Indonesia as a welfare state with social justice orientations, with sovereignty in political affairs, autonomy in economic affairs and its own local customs and practices. Moreover, the goal of PAN as shown in its statute, Article is realising a novel Indonesia by upholding the values of faith and piety, sovereignty, social justice and prosperity in the frame of NKRI. In the meantime, the vision and mission of PKS can be found in Articles and : Being the pioneer in realising the national dreams of Indonesia as written in the preamble of Indonesia’s Constitution. Thus, PKS wants to be a bridge for gaining so-called masyarakat madani (loosely, imagined society) with the characteristics of justice, prosperity and dignity. 1. 1. Party Policy 141 Education Issues PDIP. The party vision is education for all. Nationally, there are ten policies. First is ensuring an affordable education with no payment up to secondary school. Second is providing funds for students from poor families. Third is designing the learning curriculum by focusing on student improvement and removing the national exam system. Fourth is removing the Act of Legal Body of Education (BHP) and encouraging the social responsibility of favourite schools to provide chances for poor talented children. Fifth is ensuring justice among regions by building basic and supporting facilities based on the standard quality within the local area. Sixth is providing incentives for teachers and education technicians, particularly in isolated regions. Seventh is removing the taxes on textbooks and stopping the change of textbooks each year. Eighth is ensuring internet access in schools and providing approximately three computers for each primary school, ten computers for each junior high school and computers for each senior high school. Ninth is providing a credit system for buying computers for students at the university with the goal of one million laptops for students per year. Tenth is supporting the development of education which encourages creative industries by involving private sectors and BUMN through CSR activities (DPC PDIP Kota Yogyakarta, ). In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPC PDIP has some policies to deal with education issues. First is supporting free education up to secondary school. Second is supporting people from the KMS-Group category to earn their rights to come to school, although they have an inability to pay the school tuition. Third is supporting the programme of years of compulsory education so that all children within the municipality will graduate from secondary school. Fourth is increasing the financial subsidy for public and private schools including pupils from poorer families. Fifth is creating a task force to assist society in addressing financial problems, especially in private schools, even negotiating with the school board and helping to pay off their debts. These five policies are in line with the statement of the chairperson of the DPC PDIP in Yogyakarta Municipality, Danang Rudyatmoko. He uttered that: 1.1. Chapter IV 142 We (DPC PDIP) consistently struggle for not merely a slogan, but also for the real people’s prosperity. Therefore, education and health are the first steps which have to be realised, as they are basic needs. People cannot reach prosperity without education. (interview, Sept. ) PAN. Since until , this party has had nine major policies at the national level. First, the education system has to produce educated and moral humans and to encourage human independence and creativity. Second, the party encourages basic education for all, the eradication of illiteracy and the rights to attend school. Third, scholarly activities and its results should be published for the public. Fourth, the rapid change in technology must be used to improve education in all regions. Fifth, higher education should be directed to master sciences, technology and value-added economically as well as to increase the quality of manufacturing sectors. Sixth, all children have the ability to access basic education so the education budget must be increased continuously and, in turn, students are free from all payment and financial burden. Seventh is promoting the teachers’ status as an honourable profession by increasing their personal competence and wealth. Eighth is making teachers and students the subject of education. Ninth is improving the capacity of human resources in education to adapt their lives to the regional and global environment so that they can address all types of crises and obstacles (DPP PAN ; ; ; ). In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPD PAN has a ninefold policy related to education issues. First is free education from preliminary to secondary school. It is prioritised for public schools while private schools will be subsidised optimally. Second is encouraging children from poorer families to register in public schools. Third is increasing the budget for education affairs. Fourth is improving the quality not merely in public schools, but also private schools so that public and private schools earn similar subsidy. Fifth is providing a subsidy for teachers’ education if they interest to gain master or doctoral degrees. Sixth is supporting a financial subsidy for children from poorer families to study at universities. Seventh is providing funding for all citizens in Yogyakarta who study outside the municipality to still obtain the financial subsidy from the municipal government. Eighth is striving for the financial subsidy for the schools belonging to the DEPAG. 1. Party Policy 143 Ninth is providing a subsidy for nutrition for children from poorer families. These nine policies are in line with the statement from the chairperson of the DPD PAN in Yogyakarta Municipality, Heroe Poerwadi. He stated that: Right now, the DPD PAN has a policy that education in public schools in Yogyakarta Municipality, from the primary school to the secondary school, should be free of charge and any payments. Meanwhile, for private schools, there is a financial subsidy for them from the municipal government budget. (interview, Sept. ) PKS. The party policy in coping with education issues is creating a fair education for all people in three ways. First is providing a chance for all people to gain their education rights with affordable prices and suitable for local abilities, free of charge for nine to years of compulsory education. Thus, the education budget must be a minimum percent of the national and local budgets. Second is creating an integrated, comprehensive and qualified national education system with an inclusive agenda in order to produce a person who has independence and high competitiveness. Improving the curriculum is not merely in cognitive aspects, but also in skill capabilities to deal with working industries. Third is increasing teachers’ ability and wealth as the main pillar of the national education development (Majelis Pertimbangan Pusat PKS, : pp. , , ). Hence, this party has strategic steps. First is creating a comprehensive, integrative and applicative national education system. Second is encouraging nine-year compulsory basic education and achieving a -year compulsory education by providing learning facilities. Third is increasing the competence, wealth, appreciation and protection to teachers as the main pillar of national education. Fourth is realising the education budget a minimum percent of the national and local budget. Fifth is monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the SPN continuously. Sixth is providing entrepreneurship skills to cope with future challenges. Seventh is supporting the fundamental improvement in the decentralised education management so that the local potency grows positively. Eighth is encouraging the quality of the school management and learning process based on local situations and needs. Ninth is providing cheap, excellent and global-oriented education. Tenth is taking into account the devel- Chapter IV 144 opment of students with special needs, whether due to mental illness or special talents. Eleventh is developing formal education as a bridge for leadership training and nationalism. Twelfth is building public awareness where the main responsibility in education belongs mainly to parents. Thirteenth is utilising technology and communication functions to increase the quality of education (Majelis Pertimbangan Pusat PKS, : pp. – ). In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPD PKS has seven policies to address education issues. First is free education from preliminary to secondary school. Second is supporting years of compulsory education. Therefore, the municipal government has to fulfil people’s basic needs in education, particularly in public schools. Consequently, citizens within the municipality are obligated to finish their study through senior high school. Third is struggling for a similar subsidy between public and private schools. Fourth is encouraging the improvement of qualified teachers in teaching methods and their wages as well. Fifth is improving education facilities. Sixth is supporting the increase of scholarships for pupils who live inside the municipality. Seventh is rejecting extortion or additional payments carried out by the school board to pupil’s parents. These seven policies are in line with the testimony of the chairperson of the DPD PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality, Muhammad Syafi’i. He said that: Due to basic human needs, education should be supported by the municipal government. We said this, as we have already calculated the municipal budget and, in turn, we concluded that the municipal government has an ability to do and execute this notion. Thus, education has to be free of charge from primary school to secondary school, mainly in public institutions. (interview, Sept. ) Health Issues PDIP. This party at the national level has eight policies to address health issues. First is re-implementing the KB programme to control the number of children born. Second is improving the role of family prosperity empowerment. Second is improving the role of the PKK, the Posyandu and the Puskesmas by increasing the facilities and quality 1.2. 1. Party Policy 145 of services. Third is empowering fresh graduates and medical doctors through a government programme in disadvantaged regions. Fourth is activating the Revolusi Putih (White Revolution) by providing milk for poor children and vitamins and eggs for primary school children. Fifth is improving the Klinik Desa (village clinics) and the Rumah Sehat Pedesaan (Rural Health House). Sixth is encouraging research activities and innovations in health issues as well as creating specific and integrated health service centres at regional levels. Seventh is reducing the import of medicine by increasing the subsidy for health sectors and generic medicine production. Eighth is issuing a health insurance system for poor people (DPC PDIP Kota Yogyakarta, ). In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPC PDIP has some policies. First is providing free healthcare for people to visit all hospitals and health centres whether public or private. Second is initiating the establishment of “a hospital without classes” for all people within the municipality, particularly for lower-class society. Third is establishing a task force to assist society in coping with health affairs, mainly related to finance and payment in hospitals. Regarding this issue, the chairperson of the DPC PDIP in Yogyakarta Municipality, Danang Rudyatmoko, uttered that: Similar with education, health issues are also our main concern to be realised for people. It is almost not possible for sick people to have an ability to seek a better education. Thus, education and health are basic human rights. (interview, Sept. ) PAN. This party nationally has six main policies dealing with health issues. First is a healthy society as a requirement for a sturdy and stable state. Second is providing qualified, affordable and accessible health service for people by increasing the number of health centres and medicine production by the government. Third is providing trained and skilled personnel in assisting with childbirth to minimise maternal mortality. Fourth is improving socialisation and protection from widespread outbreak, infectious diseases, narcotics and drugs as well as effective rehabilitation for addicts. Fifth is increasing sanitation for society so that if someone has no clean water or a toilet, the government should help them. Sixth is encouraging the programme of JKN and controlling its implementation so that all people benefit from the programme (DPP PAN ; ; ; ). Chapter IV 146 In Yogyakarta Municipality, the DPD PAN has some policies. First is providing medical treatments in all public health centres free of charge. Consequently, all kinds of diseases should be paid by the municipal budget. Second is reducing the costs of health insurance for society. Third is increasing the municipal budget for health issues. Fourth is improving the quality of public health centres. Fifth is encouraging the establishment of “a hospital without classes”. These four policies are in accordance with the statement delivered by the chairperson of the DPD PAN in Yogyakarta Municipality, Heroe Poerwadi. He testified that: We also attempt consistently to struggle for free healthcare services, for all kinds of disease, mainly in public health institutions such as Puskesmas and RSUD. When the municipal government planned to establish a hospital without classes, the DPD PAN strongly supported this policy. Although we are not part of the government, the struggle for free healthcare services will usually be continued. (interview, Sept. ) PKS. The policy of this party in coping with health issues is to realise health for all people in two ways. First is with the health of body, mind and society so that they have an ability to build the nation to worship Allah (God in Islam). Second is optimising the health budget and all resources to provide excellent services (Majelis Pertimbangan Pusat PKS, : pp. – , – , ). Health for all starts with health for individuals, health for family, health for society and finally health for the nation. To realise this aim, the party has strategic solutions. First is supporting the implementation of comprehensive and integrated SKN to reduce maternal and child mortality. Second is increasing the number of professional health human resources by promoting honesty, commitment, hard work, creativity and innovation. Third is increasing the health budget for poor people. Fourth is developing a fair health care insurance system for all people. Fifth is encouraging the development of excellent health facilities based on societal needs which can be accessed easily by people. Sixth is increasing societal roles in health development by revitalising NGOs which have a concern with health issues. Seventh is repairing health management systems consisting of health information system, finance, human resources, regulations and healthcare administration. Eighth is providing qualified and affordable medicine by developing research on original medicines and local phar- 1. Party Policy 147 macy industries made in Indonesia. Ninth is encouraging society to live healthier. Tenth is supporting the implementation of the pharmacy of health and repairing the regulations on health and pharmacy issues. Eleventh is improving the quality of sciences and technology in health affairs. Twelveth is creating a national financial system so that the efficiency and quality of health services can be maintained (Majelis Pertimbangan Pusat PKS, : pp. – ). In the local context, the DPD PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality has some policies. First is that as part of people’s basic needs, the municipal government has to subsidise health issues completely. Second is supporting the improvement of health facilities in the Puskesmas so that society can obtain excellent service when they attend those health centres. Third is encouraging the establishment of a hospital without classes. These three policies are in accordance with the statement delivered by the chairperson of the DPD PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality, Muhammad Syafi’i. He uttered that: In addition to education, health issues have to be fulfilled by the municipal government as the people’s mandate. It is also part of our concern that we will struggle for it in each discussion of the APBD. We are usually consistent. (interview, Sept. ) Party Policy-makers Broadly speaking, the organisational structure within political parties has its own rights and duties from the central headquarters to provincial boards, district/municipal boards, sub-district/sub-municipal boards and village boards. Hence, the organisational decision comes from the centre to the lower level in “the top-down model”. Nonetheless, particular cases in the local context can merely be solved by elites inside the municipality. The organisational decision within PDIP, PAN and PKS share a similar pattern which is decided by a collective-collegial system. Each decision should be made and decided through the musyawarah system where each issue or problem should be discussed together in an official forum or meeting to have common agreement and, in turn, its solutions. There are some different steps in deciding a policy amongst these 2. Chapter IV 148 three parties after the musyawarah. In PDIP, if the agreement cannot be reached by the musyawarah, the decision will be made by a representative system. If the latter does not work, the decision will be handed over to the party board one level above. In PAN, after the musyawarah, the decision will be solved by a voting system where one person equals one vote. The final decision is based on the majority vote. In the meantime, PKS prefers to use ijma after the musyawarah. If the latter does not work, PKS will adopt a voting system. All participants who come to the forum have to abide by the last decision. Furthermore, the structural hierarchy of authority within PDIP, PAN and PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality is similar where the top leader or the chairperson has dominant power. There is a fourfold reason. First is that the chairperson is elected by the official deliberation so that the chairperson is the organisational mandate. Second is that as a part of the organisational responsibility, the chairperson is like a captain or pilot who is responsible for the survival of the organisation. Third is that the chairperson is wiser in making a decision, as has a lot of information from multiple sides and, of course, the decisions are for the good of the organisation. Fourth is that in many cases, there is no difference between the organisational decision and the chairperson’s statement and vise versa. It means that sometimes the chairperson’s statement could be assumed as the organisational decision and, similarly, as if the organisational decision is made personally by the chairperson. The following policy-maker after the chairperson is the Pengurus Harian (Daily Board). This board manages and controls the organisational activities day in and day out. Outside the chairperson, the Daily Board usually consists of vice chairpersons, a secretary, a treasury and deputies. PDIP and PAN tend to adopt this model. Meanwhile, PKS has a different model. The Daily Board within PKS encompasses a vice chairperson, a secretary, a treasury and the coordinator for the division of cadre. In addition, the chairperson and secretary of MPD and the chairperson and secretary of DSD are part of the policy-maker. Thus, there are nine persons who can be categorised as the core policymakers within PKS. 2. Party Policy-makers 149 Policy Determinants The policy determinants could be defined as a set of factors, whether internal or external which can influence political parties in making a policy or policies. Based on the theories introduced by Pal ( ) and Harmel and Janda ( ) as elaborated earlier, this study identifies three main factors influencing the three parties in the process of policy making. They are party regulations, internal stimuli and external stimuli. Determining Factors Influencing the Party Policy Source: compiled by the author. Party Regulation The party regulations consist of all rules made and issued officially by a political party, such as vision and missions, congressional decisions, the party instructions, the decisions of official meetings and the like. In deciding a policy, PDIP, PAN and PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality have a common tendency where the party regulation is the main guidance to decide the following steps and strategies inside the party. Nonetheless, the central board of the party plays a dominant role to control provincial and municipal/district boards, particularly in determining top local leaders, whether inside the internal party or in the regional head elections. Each party has its own strategy for winning the 3. Figure . 3.1. Chapter IV 150 election. Hence, functionaries of these three parties within the municipality have no absolute power. More specifically, the party regulations which are usually used by PDIP in Yogyakarta Municipality as guidance are the decisions made by congress, DPP, Rakernas, Rakornas, Konferda and all organisational decisions above the DPC PDIP. Furthermore, the kinds of decision within PAN are congress, Rakernas, Muswil, Rakerwil and all organisational decisions above the DPD PAN. Meanwhile, PKS uses these decisions as guidance: Munas, the Syuro Assembly decision, the Sharia Assembly decision, Muswil and all official decisions above the DPD PKS. Internal Stimuli PDIP has two internal determining factors in the process of policy making. First is the meeting of three pillars consisting of structural, legislative and executive. The structural pillar denotes all functionaries in the organisational structure of the DPC PDIP, the legislative pillar is all parliamentarians originating from PDIP while the executive pillar indicates the PDIP cadres with a position in the administration such as mayor or vice mayor. Second is the report of three service centres: DPC, fraction, and PAC-DPRt. The former denotes the office of the DPC PDIP in Yogyakarta Municipality. The middle signifies the PDIP’s fraction in the DPRD in Yogyakarta Municipality. In the meantime, the latter indicates the party offices in all sub-municipalities (PAC) and kelurahans (DPRt) in Yogyakarta Municipality. Through these three centres, any one within the municipality can deliver their aspirations and complaints. Furthermore, PAN itself has an internal driving factor in the process of policy making, namely the reports coming from the organisational structures of the party in DPC and DPRt inside the municipality. In doing so, PAN’s functionaries in DPC and DPRt usually will receive information and complaints when they attend the meetings held by the RT board and the RW board as well as from informal discussions among society in public spheres. 3.2. 3. Policy Determinants 151 Meanwhile, PKS also has an internal determining factor in the process of policy making, i.e., the Jaring Aspirasi Kader (cadre aspiration web). More technically, the DPD PKS will invite all core cadres within the municipality to discuss particular or several issues at a certain time. According to Muhammad Syafi’i (interview, Nov. ), PKS in Yogyakarta Municipality recently has between and core cadres. All aspirations coming from these core cadres will be considered by the DPD PKS when making the final decision. Nevertheless, the DPW PKS still supervises the municipal board of the party in certain cases. The mechanisms which apply in each party denote “the bottom-up model” that the party policy considers as public aspirations and proposals. After each mechanism has been implemented, the Daily Board has great authority in determining the final decision of the party still considering internal aspirations. If the final decision is not in line with the public aspiration, the Daily Board usually will explain the reasons and clarify why it has a different decision. In responding to particular cases, the Daily Board or even the party chairperson can deliver their spontaneous statements due to public demand mainly from media. Thus, the chairperson has to be able to build up the party image and attract society sympathy for the survival of the party. External Stimuli PDIP, PAN and PKS generally have similar external stimuli in the process of policy making, but in particular cases, they have some differences. The similar factors are fivefold. First is MUSRENBANG. It is an annual agenda held by the municipal government to gather people’s aspirations on municipal development so society can deliver their proposals and complaints directly. It started at the kelurahan level and continued to the sub-municipal and municipal levels. Second is reses. It is a period where legislators conduct activities outside the DPRD secretariat usually three or four times each year. Their activities mostly include visiting constituents or society and doing something for society. Third is public opinion. It represents a majority view among society on certain issues. Fourth is public hearings. It is an open forum for society 3.3. Chapter IV 152 held by the parliament or by the party to hear public aspirations and complaints. Fifth is society reports. The society reports can be divided into two kinds: ) the suggestions or complaints coming from society informally delivered to each party’s functionary or parliamentarian; ) certain communities which visit the party board or the party’s fraction officially and report on recent circumstances on particular cases or problems. Moreover, PAN and PKS frequently invite experts in their own internal forum to discuss certain issues. It can be an evaluation on what the party has to do and how the party can participate. In addition, these two parties also receive complaints and proposals from interest groups. PAN has a close relationship with Muhammadiyah while PKS has a cultural linkage with the JSIT. In particular, PAN has some other important external stimuli. First is electoral regulation. The decision made by the Constitutional Court in the election system is based on the majority vote (open proportional system). Heroe Poerwadi (interview, June ) of PAN stated that this regulation really disrupted the PAN’s strategy, as the decision was issued at the end of while PAN had activated its own strategy with the closed proportional system. This party had fewer seats than earlier elections. Second is the election result. It, of course, does not alter the party policy in general, but it changes the party strategies in winning the next elections. Third is aspirations of the municipal agencies. Particularly during Zudianto’s regime, PAN sometimes invited experts from the municipal agencies to discuss certain issues. PAN at the time was the regime party meaning it was easy to deliver ideas to the regime. Fourth is recent circumstances in the municipal government such as the name change of some municipal agencies or omitting certain irrelevant agencies and creating other agencies. Concluding Remarks PDIP, PAN and PKS tend to have similar policies in addressing two public service issues: education and health. These three parties envision free education and the improvement of school facilities, teacher quality and pupil scholarships. In the same vein, they together advo- 4. 4. Concluding Remarks 153 cate for free healthcare and the improvement of health centre facilities and worker quality. They agree that education and health are basic needs for human life which should be subsidised fully by the municipal budget. They seem to be the fighters of people’s welfare or the so-called “welfare state”. In this context, the concept of welfare could be related to other features of ‘rights’, ‘needs’, ‘equality’, ‘government policy’ and the like such that “a welfare state might be conceived as a state which views the welfare of its citizens as the primary claim on its policy-making, or it might be conceived as a state which enacts particular welfare policies” (Hamlin, : p. ). This study classifies the concept of welfare as an ideology and, therefore, it could be labelled as “welfarism”. Honderich ( : p. ) and Pike ( : p. ) postulated that welfarism is a state that has some responsibilities in securing the well-being or welfare of its people. This ideology has been developed by some liberaldemocratic theorists such as Adam Smith, Leonard T. Hobhouse and John A. Hobson as well as socialist thinkters such as Richard H. Tawney. These theoritsts support state responsibility for individual welfare ‘from the cradle to the grave’. It was in line with the thought of Honderich ( : p. ). Welfarism has been adopted by some countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany and the USA. Indonesia seemingly could duplicate this model of welfarism into its government and governance systems. Yogyakarta Municipality is considered one instance for this model. Concerning the party policy-makers, although all parties apply the collective-collegial mechanism, the chairperson and the daily board (Pengurus Harian) have dominant authorities in formulating and deciding on a set of policies. It also proves that the hierarchy of authority hypothesised by Harmel and Janda ( ) is still applicable to analyse political parties in contemporary Indonesia. Lastly, there are three main determining factors which influence the party policy: party regulations, internal stimuli and external stimuli. This finding confirms the relevance of the thesis introduced by Pal ( ) and Harmel and Janda ( ). Chapter IV 154

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Abstract

This book examines the influence of political ideology in Indonesia’s political parties to address governance issues during the democratic era, 1998–2015. Further, it investigates the policy, agenda and strategies of three ideological parties in Yogyakarta Municipality in coping with public service issues. The three parties are the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Justice and Prosperous Party (PKS).