Introduction in:

Ridho Al-Hamdi

Indonesian Political Ideology, page 1 - 14

Political Parties and Local Governance in Yogyakarta Municipality 1998-2015

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-4058-4, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6884-7,

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Introduction Why Study Political Ideology in Indonesia? Studying political ideology in Indonesia is an appealing subject in scholarly discourse. This country is not only the third largest democratic state of the world after India and the USA, but it is also the world’s largest predominantly Muslim country, with more than million Muslim inhabitants with various beliefs and practices. Indonesia has the largest population in Southeast Asia and is geographically located outside the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) countries. This study explores how political ideology and democratic governance can grow and develop together in a Muslim country. The history of political ideology in Indonesia can be traced back to the early twentieth century, when Sutomo and Wahidin Sudirohusodo established Boedi Oetomo in as a nationalism-based movement. In , Sarekat Islam, instituted by HOS Tjokroaminoto, emerged on the national stage as a representation of mainly Muslim political forces. Afterwards, representing the ideology of communism and Marxism- Leninism, PKI was established in . More than a decade later, Tjipto Mangunkusumo, Sartono, Iskaq Tjokrohadisuryo, Sunaryo and Soekarno founded PNI in , representing the ideology of nationalism-Marhaenism. All these distinctive ideologies sought to expel colonialism groups and to gain national independence. After achieving independence in , political ideology was manifest in political parties. The s and s were the heydays of political ideology within the country. At the time, hundreds of political parties with their own ideology emerged at the national and local lev- 1. In , Indonesia had , , people (BPS Republik Indonesia, a: p. ). Of them, . percent are Muslims. The rest are divided into . percent Christians, . percent Catholics, . percent Hindu, . percent Buddhists, . percent Confucians and . percent unaffiliated (BPS Republik Indonesia, b). By , this country had . million inhabitants (BPS Republik Indonesia, : p. ). 1 els. Nevertheless, only some political parties led the election. The ideology of nationalism was manifested by PNI. The ideology of communism was embodied in PKI. The ideology of Islam was represented mainly by Masyumi and the NU Party. The ideology of socialism was symbolised by PSI. Meanwhile, the ideology of Christianity and Catholics was manifest by Parkindo and the Catholic Party. During the New Order regime, political ideology eroded and in turn simplified into merely two types: PDI represented the ideology of nationalism while PPP represented the ideology of Islam. There was also a non-ideology group namely Golkar which became the government’s political power. The downfall of Authoritarian Rule in provided a chance for all people to create political ideologies through party politics. Thus, hundreds of political parties with distinctive ideologies appeared on the political stage. Nevertheless, only tens of political parties can participate in the elections due to electoral rules. They fall on the spectrum of ideologies between the secular group on the one hand and the Islamist group on the other. Thus, political ideology has been influencing the development of political parties in Indonesia. Most political scholars argue that as one of the democratic institutions, parties play a vital role as vehicles in articulating distinctive interests among society (Lawson, : p. ; Mainwaring & Scully, : p. ; Pridham, : p.xii; Puhle, : p. ). As central political institutions, parties fulfil major functions between state and civil society (Ufen, : p. ). Therefore, this study examines political parties because they are the main agents of political representation and are virtually the only actors with access to elected positions in democratic politics (Mainwaring & Scully, : p. ). In addition, parties are also the main vehicle for individuals to enter the government. One of the reasons individuals continue to join parties is they can contest elections and gather votes to fill parliamentary seats. Parties’ interests are served when their candidates accumulate adequate votes to be elected into the government, and party support strengthens candidates’ chances of winning (Fionna, : p. ). For nearly two decades, the democratic system has been embedded in Indonesia since . Four cycles of free and fair elections including various regional head elections took place during this time. Indeed, a variety of changes occurred in all aspects of life in different Introduction 2 ways. Indonesia has a noteworthy role in promoting democratic governance while the global trend reveals that a lot of Muslim countries mainly in the MENA regions have been suffering terrible turmoil. One can argue that the political ideology in recent Indonesia is waning such that it is quite difficult for society to differentiate ideologically between one party and other parties. Despite having a party platform, as a matter of fact, such platforms are almost identical to each other. All parties seemingly have similar pragmatic goals: winning elections and gaining parliamentary seats and positions in the government. Thus, it is fascinating to observe the existence of political ideology in Indonesia’s post- New Order regime. As the sole official representative to articulate public interests, political parties are examined in this study. Scope and Limitations of this Study Broadly speaking, this study examines the influence of political ideology in Indonesia’s political parties to address governance issues during the democratic era. To measure if ideology is still alive, vague or submerged within political parties, this study investigates the influence of ideology in three ways. First is the parties’ policy in dealing with two public service issues: education and health. Second is the parties’ agenda in addressing those two public services. Third is the parties’ strategy in interacting and communicating with the so-called “governance actor” in coping with those issues. Yogyakarta Municipality was selected as a representative area for this study. It was chosen first because Muslims comprise a majority at . percent. Although devout Muslims play a vital role in Islamising society, secular groups have an ability to dominate the political stage continuously. The political contest between pious Muslims and nominal Muslims is still continuing. Second, since the establishment of decentralisation and local autonomy in the post-New Order regime, the district and municipal governments are the real executors with high authority to execute public services rather than provincial governments. Third, Yogyakarta Municipality repeatedly achieved outstanding assessments and acknowledgements in the field of governance: the cleanest city from corruption in and , Indonesia’s most live- 2. 2. Scope and Limitations of this Study 3 able city in and , the city with positive development in life expectancy in and and the best city in implementing good governance in . Fourth, the municipality has already earned many international and domestic awards with more than prizes since . By selecting this area, this study seeks to discern whether the well-implemented governance diminishes the influence of ideology or not. Three major political parties were chosen as the main object of the study: PDIP (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan, Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle), PAN (Partai Amanat Nasional, National Mandate Party) and PKS (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera, Justice and Prosperous Party). There was a threefold consideration in selecting these three parties. Firstly, they represent current types of party ideology in Indonesia. Secondly, they represent major forces of people’s aspirations both at the national and local levels. Thirdly, they have participated in four election cycles and have won seats repeatedly in national and local parliaments. One may argue that examining all parties which participated in four different elections should be carried out to present an excellent account, however such research would require a great amount of effort and is beyond the scope of the current study. Two basic human needs, education and health, were chosen as the main issue of local governance and to assess the influence of political ideology on the parties’ policy and agenda in addressing those two basic needs. Moreover, this study scrutinises the way parties interact and communicate with four key governance actors: executive, legislature, civil society and economic society. Regarding the time frame of the study, it begins in which is the inception of the democratic system after the downfall of Authoritarian Rule and continues to – the end of field research activities carried out in this study. The central question of this study is: To what extent does political ideology influence political parties in addressing local governance issues in Yogyakarta Municipality? More explicitly, this study explores the following three questions: How do the policies and agenda of political parties cope with education and health issues? Do their policies and agenda work effectively? What are their strategies in interacting and communicating with four main actors in the governance arena: executive, legislature, civil society and economic society? Introduction 4 Objectives of the Study The purpose of this study, in general, is explaining the existence of political ideology during the Indonesian democratic era, particularly from to , to discern whether it is still alive, vague or submerged. The seven aims for this study are: . To discern if the well-implemented governance in the regional government is diminishing the role and influence of ideology towards political parties, by examining the parties’ policy and agenda; . To explore if there are any differences in policies and agenda among political parties in addressing public service issues; . To explore the driving factors that could influence political parties when making a policy or policies; . To identify the main policy-makers who play a vital role within political parties; . To explore if the parties’ agenda is working effectively or not in dealing with public service issues; . To identify the relationship pattern between political parties and state actors (government and parliament); and . To identify the relationship pattern between political parties and society, including civil society and economic society. Methodology Case Study This study adopts the qualitative research method which denotes studying things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpreting phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them. This research involves studying a broad range of empirical materials which portray routine and problematic moments and meaning in individuals’ lives (Denzin & Lincoln, : pp. – ). Hence, the role of fieldwork through long-term interaction with relevant respondents is very beneficial in qualitative research in order to explore multiple perspectives (Glesne & Peshkin, : p. ). This method is the only way of 3. 4. 4.1. 4. Methodology 5 establishing the validity of findings from field research. It can provide a deeper understanding regarding social phenomena than would be obtained from purely quantitative data (Silverman, : p. ). This study uses qualitative research for three reasons. Firstly, qualitative research is the most appropriate method to explore people’s subjective experiences, embracing their interpretations of those experiences. In this sense, the qualitative method provides a chance for social researchers to investigate further the meaning, process, and context of a unit of analysis. Secondly, the qualitative method facilitates researchers investigating a case in-depth and in detail such that this method typically produces a wealth of detailed information and increases the depth of understanding about cases and real situations. Thirdly, this method has conventionally been applied in political science, especially in the context of micro-level analysis (Devine, : pp. – ; Patton, : p. ). As this study examines the influence of political ideology in political parties, qualitative research is suitable for this study. Furthermore, the qualitative method has five approaches: narrative research, phenomenological research, grounded theory research, ethnographic research and case study research (Creswell, : pp. – ). Among these approaches, the case study is the most appropriate which was employed in this study. Drawing on Creswell ( : p. ), Gerring ( : p. ), Schramm (in Yin, : p. ) and Flyvbjerg ( : pp. – ), this study defines a case study as intensive research which explores one or more cases or a decision or a set of decisions for particular objectives within a bounded system (a case) or multiple bounded systems (cases) over time through detailed and indepth data gathering by involving multiple sources of information. In doing so, the case study is a precise choice and a standard method in social science. In addition, the case study is a proper and preferred strategy when “how” or “why” questions are utilised for social sciences (Yin, : p. ). The case study is also more beneficial when inferences are descriptive rather than causal, when the study concerns more causal mechanisms than causal effects, when the strategy of a study is exploratory rather than confirmatory and when the study has useful variance which is available for only a single unit or a small number of Introduction 6 units (Gerring, : p. ). Thus, the case study entails systematic gathering of adequate information and data on particular parties to gain insight into the life of the party so that the researcher can deeply investigate a particular case (Berg & Lune, : p. ). Based on these considerations, this study is a case study. Data-Gathering Techniques To produce accurate findings, this study selected two kinds of datagathering techniques: in-depth interview and documentary analysis which are extremely advantageous to collect required and comprehensive information. It is essential, however, that in-depth interviews and documentary analysis serve as the primary data-gathering techniques in this study. In-depth Interview. An interview describes human interaction which takes place between at least two persons, but other useful possibilities include one or more interviewees (Glesne & Peshkin, : p. ). Moreover, an interview has open-ended questions and probes yield in-depth responses about respondents’ experiences, perceptions, opinions, feelings and knowledge. The data consist of verbatim quotations with sufficient context to be interpretable (Patton, : p. ). To carry out in-depth interviews, this study applies elite and specialised interviews. Elite interviewing occurs with persons with high authority representing particular groups within society while specialised interviewing is with persons with broad knowledge and information on a specific topic (Manheim & Rich, : pp. – ). Specialised interviewing enables obtaining an alternative perspective and to validate data collected from the elite interviewing (Silverman, : pp. – ). To conduct the interviews, this study used standardised open-ended interviews, which consist of a set of questions carefully and comprehensively worded before the interview. A set of questions should be arranged in the interview guide to guarantee that the same basic lines of inquiry are pursued with each respondent. The interview guide provides subject areas within which the researcher has freedom to explore, probe and ask as well as to word questions spontaneously which will 4.2. 4. Methodology 7 elucidate and illuminate the specific topic. Furthermore, the benefit in using an interview guide is that the researcher can make decisions to organise the restricted time available during the interview. Besides, the guide will help the interview be more systematic and comprehensive by delimiting in advance the topics to be explored. In conducting focus group interviews, the guide is also crucial to keep the interactions focused when some respondents have other opinions outside the topic (Patton, : pp. – ). When interviewing respondents, the interviews begin with general questions. Afterwards, more complex questions will be posed. At the end of the interview, the respondents will be given a chance to provide important information which was not covered by the interview guide. Moreover, the interviews are cross-referenced with each other so that the information is double-checked. The same technique and procedure are also applied in the interviews with the respondents from other categories. It is important to mention that although the interviews were based on the interview guide, in particular cases, the interviews were not always carried out in exactly the same manner as the interview guide had anticipated to minimise a high degree of standardisation. During the interview, the respondents were also given a chance to provide their own opinions. To ensure accuracy, the interviews were taperecorded to record information and notes were taken as well. The interviews in general were centred in Yogyakarta Municipality with key functionaries of PDIP, PAN and PKS, governance actors and relevant informants. The goal was to discern the policy, agenda and strategy of the three parties as well as to confirm other relevant data. First, a direct interview was conducted with respondents face to face and with direct talking and discussion based on an arranged schedule. The interview occurred twice or more with certain respondents. They took place approximately between June and November . All respondents in this category are mentioned in Appendix I. Second, indirect interviews were conducted with personal communication through social media such as email, telephone and other online social networks. The sources were almost all respondents in the first category and some elected legislators since until mainly from PDIP, PAN and PKS and also other appropriate informants. This sought to reconfirm necessary and missing data which were not covered in the direct inter- Introduction 8 view and in turn to accomplish the study analysis. The communication took place mainly during . Nonetheless, the second category of interviews is not mentioned in the appendix. Documentary Analysis. This study applied documentary analysis as the documents provide important sources of data on organisational rules, regulations, policies, programmes and other preliminary information which cannot be found through interviews. These documents provide many things which cannot be observed. The documents can also reveal goals or decisions which might be otherwise unknown (Patton, : p. ). Moreover, employing this technique has some advantages. Firstly, it is a helpful way in verifying the correct spelling that might have been mentioned in the interviews. Secondly, it can provide other specific details to confirm information from other sources. Thirdly, it can be beneficial in making inferences or new questions for the next interviews (Yin, : p. ). Hence, it was carried out to discern the policy, agenda and strategy of political parties. This technique was conducted before, during and after the field research. Prior to the field research, data and information related to political parties in Indonesia including in Yogyakarta Municipality were collected. In this sense, documentary analysis provides initial information regarding history, platform and general policies of political parties. During the field research, it can support the activities of the in-depth interviews. Moreover, it is also important for understanding patterns and developing interpretations in the data analysis process. After the field research, it accomplished the study analysis. This technique was also applied to gather data and information in the offices of the municipal executive board of the three political parties such as the party’s constitution and platform, the party’s policy and agenda and other relevant meeting reports. Other vital and supporting sources came from the municipal government institutions: the town hall, the related municipal agencies, the secretariat of the parliament office, the bureau of statistics and the election committee. In order to develop interpretations, other scholarly sources suitable for this study were also employed in the data analysis process. 4. Methodology 9 Data Analysis To analyse the data, this study considered reliability and validity issues. Reliability refers to the degree of consistency with which instances are assigned to the same category by different observers or by the same observers on different occasions. Meanwhile, validity indicates the extent to which an account accurately represents the social phenomena to which it refers (Hammersley in Silverman, : pp. , ). In order to develop valid interpretations, this study combined several data analysis techniques. The qualitative research should take into account the following procedures: preparing and organising data, reading data, coding and organising themes, representing data, and forming an interpretation (Creswell, : pp. – ). It can be simplified into three steps of analysing data. First is reducing data, which refers to selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting, and transforming the data which appear in written field notes or transcriptions. Second is displaying data. The data display commonly is an organised, compressed assembly of information that permits drawing conclusions and action. Third is drawing and verification. Since the beginning, the analyst should decide what things mean – noting regularities, patterns, explanations, possible configurations, causal flows and propositions. Final conclusions may not appear until data gathering is over, although the researcher claims to have been proceeding “inductively”. The conclusion is also verified as the analyst proceeds. Verification may be as brief as a fleeting second thought crossing the analyst’s mind during writing, with a short excursion back to the field notes, or it may be thorough and elaborate, with lengthy argumentation and review among colleagues to develop “intersubjective consensus”, or with extensive efforts to replicate a finding in another data set. The meanings emerging from the data have to be tested for their plausibility, sturdiness, and their confirmability. That is their validity (Miles & Huberman, : pp. – ). Therefore, the collected data from the interviews was transcribed into textual data. Since the data are a primary resource, it was treated carefully by conducting checks and re-checks between the taperecorder, field notes and textual data. After the collected data had been transcribed, they were selected and grouped into three categories: data 4.3. Introduction 10 on the policy of three major political parties in addressing two public services; data on the agenda of three major political parties in coping with two public services; and data on the strategy of three major political parties in interacting and communicating with four governance actors. In addition, the textual data was combined with field notes made during the interviews and the summaries derived from the documentary analysis. In fact, the textual data were read several times to get a comprehensive sense of these data. The validity can be checked by doublechecking all of the data among the respondents. After managing and reading the data were carried out, interpretations and arguments concerning the policy, agenda and strategy of three major political parties were described in as much detailed as possible (Silverman, : pp. – ). In developing the interpretations and arguments, this study combined two sorts of analyses: induction and deduction. The inductive analysis denotes a process of generalisation in which theories are built from empirical proofs while the deductive analysis is an analytical process in which theories are employed to explain real-world events (Manheim & Rich, : pp. – ). This study applied the inductive analysis as arguments and interpretations were mainly based on the empirical data. Additionally, this study employed deductive analysis as it used a set of theoretical frameworks on democracy, good governance, political ideology and political parties to explain the dynamics of political parties at a regular interval and a particular period in Indonesia. Furthermore, pattern-matching logic was applied for deductive analysis while the explanation-building technique was employed for inductive analysis (Yin, : pp. – ). Specifically, in applying the pattern-matching, interpretations and arguments in this study were based on simple patterns in the data. They were also based on rival explanations of the data. Meanwhile, in applying explanation-building, the interpretations and arguments in this study were developed by making initial propositions, revising the initial propositions and then comparing the revision of the theoretical framework. The final step is presenting the findings in the form of narrative texts. Since the interviews were carried out in the Indonesian language, quotations from the interviews were transcribed and displayed in tables and figures. 4. Methodology 11 The data analysis was presented in three steps. First was applying the theoretical and analytical framework. Second was elaboration of the policy, agenda and strategy based on the empirical data. Then, conclusions and theoretical implications were discussed in the last chapter. Structure of the Study This study has five main parts. The first is the introduction. The second is the theoretical and analytical framework consisting of two chapters. The third is a description of the chosen study area. The fourth is the empirical data analysis in four chapters. The last part is a conclusion. Specifically, this study comprises an introduction and eight chapters. The Introduction consists of the background of the study, the scope, limitations and aims of the study, the methodology, data gathering, data analysis and the structure of the study. Chapters I and II describe the theoretical and analytical framework. Chapter I illustrates theories of democratisation and good governance in Indonesia. There are two main sections. First is demonstrating a set of theories on democracy and democratisation in Indonesia consisting of the concept of democracy, the development of democratisation in contemporary Indonesia and decentralisation and its impacts on local politics. Second is portraying good governance and public services. It comprises the concept of governance and basic needs as well as two main public services: education and health affairs. Meanwhile, Chapter II focuses on political ideology and political parties in Indonesia. Three main sections are presented here. First is presenting the concept of political ideology comprising the theories of political ideology and three variants in Indonesian society: abangan, santri and jemaah tarbiyah. Second is explaining political parties containing the concept and model of party classification, the change and goal in a political party and the configuration of political cleavage. Third is presenting three selected political parties: the nationalist-secular PDIP, the nationalist-Muslim PAN and the nationalist-Islamist PKS. Chapter III discusses the area of the study: Yogyakarta Municipality. This chapter explores four interconnected accounts. First is a brief description of Yogyakarta Municipality including demography, popu- 5. Introduction 12 lation, religions, ethnic, history and achievements. Second is depicting two main public services within the municipality: education and health. Third is revealing four key municipal governance actors: executive, legislature, civil society and economic society. Fourth is describing three representative ideological parties in Yogyakarta Municipality: PDIP, PAN and PKS. Chapters IV to VII examine the empirical data. Chapter IV analyses the party policy in three sections. First is describing the policy of the three parties on education and health issues. Second is identifying the policy makers who play a vital role within the party. Third is describing the determining factors which influence the party policy. Chapter V explores the party agenda in two main sections. First is describing the party involvement in the legislative bodies: the commission for social welfare, the legislation, the budgetary and the special committee. Second is describing the attitudes of the three parties towards four issues related to education and health issues: the education system, the retribution of health services, health insurance and exclusive breastfeeding. Chapter VI investigates the relationship between parties and state actors. Two major sections are presented here. First is explaining the contest of parties in the municipal government arena, which starts with the mayoral election and lasts through the end of the regime which is replaced by the new regime and so on and so forth. Second is exploring the relationship between parties and their fractions as well as among fractions within the legislature. Chapter VII explores the relationship between parties and society. There are three key sections. First is analysing the way parties interact and communicate with civil society. Second is investigating the way parties cooperate and communicate with economic communities. Third is revealing the emergence of devout Muslim centres in some corners inside the municipality. Chapter VIII is a conclusion. First an executive summary of the whole study is given. Finally, theoretical and practical implications and proposals for further research are included in this chapter. 5. Structure of the Study 13

Chapter Preview



This book examines the influence of political ideology in Indonesia’s political parties to address governance issues during the democratic era, 1998–2015. Further, it investigates the policy, agenda and strategies of three ideological parties in Yogyakarta Municipality in coping with public service issues. The three parties are the Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (PDIP), the National Mandate Party (PAN) and the Justice and Prosperous Party (PKS).