Alptekin Erkollar, Andor Darow, Ingeborg Zulechner, LESSON TICKER: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT in:

Alptekin Erkollar (Ed.)

Enterprise & Business Management, page 17 - 24

A Handbook for Educators, Consultants, and Practitioners

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3814-7, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6842-7,

Series: Enterprise & Business Management, vol. 3

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
17 Alptekin Erkollar | Andor Darow | Ingeborg Zulechner LESSON TICKER: KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Definitions Knowledge management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual property and knowledge-based assets. It involves the creation, dissemination, and utilization of knowledge. Discipline within an organization that ensures that the intellectual capabilities of that organization are shared, maintained and institutionalized The process of systematically and actively managing and leveraging the stores of knowledge in an organization Refers to an entire integrated system for accumulation, integration, manipulation, and access of data across multiple organizations The way a company stores, organizes and accesses internal and external information. Knowledge Management is the explicit and systematic management of vital knowledge - and its associated processes of creation, organization, diffusion, use and exploitation. Knowledge generation Data => information => knowledge 18 Alptekin Erkollar | Andor Darow | Ingeborg Zulechner Knowledge classification Tacit knowledge: This type of knowledge exists in people’s heads, not articulated or documented Explicit knowledge: his type of knowledge can be processed by information systems, codified and recorded and archived and protected Transforming knowledge Tacit to Tacit E-meetings, synchronous collaboration (chat) Explicit to Tacit Visualization, browsable video / audio of representations Tacit to Explicit Answering questions, annotations Explicit to Explicit Text search, document categorization Knowledge management components strategies - processes - metrics Strategies, processes and metrics Strategy: Motivation for knowledge management and how to structure a knowledge management program. Process: Use of knowledge management to make existing practice more effective. Metrics: Measure the impact of knowledge management on an organization. How to develop a knowledge strategy? Making known the knowledge that already exists by sharing best practices Innovation: Convert ideas into products, services, improved business processes Knowledge levers: Customer knowledge, knowledge in people, products, services, processes, relationships, organizational memory, knowledge assets 19 Lesson ticker: Knowledge Management Link Knowledge strategy with business one Knowledge management architecture Access to both internal and external information sources People who facilitate, curate, and disseminate knowledge within the organization Information technology to provide automation support for many of the above activities Repositories that contain explicit knowledge Processes to acquire, refine, store, retrieve, disseminate and present knowledge Organizational incentives and management roles to support these activities Aspects of Secure Knowledge Management Protecting the intellectual property of an organization Security for process / activity management and workflow (users must have certain credentials to carry out an activity) Access control including role-based access control Risk management and economic tradeoffs Digital rights management and trust negotiation Composing multiple security policies across organizations Security for knowledge management strategies and processes Security Strategies Policies and procedures for sharing data Protecting intellectual property Should be tightly integrated with business strategy Security processes Secure workflow Processes for contracting, purchasing, order management, etc. 20 Alptekin Erkollar | Andor Darow | Ingeborg Zulechner Metrics What is impact of security on number of documents published and other metrics gathered Techniques Access control, Trust management Knowledge management cycle Knowledge creation - sharing - measurement - improvement Knowledge management technologies Expert systems - collaboration systems - trainings systems - web People and systems People Knowledge Teams - multi-disciplinary, cross-functional Learning Organization - personal / team / org development Corporate Initiatives — chief knowledge officer Systems Knowledge Data-bases - experts, best practice Knowledge Centers - hubs of knowledge Technology Infrastructure - Intranets, Domino Document Management Two ways to generate and use knowledge • sharing existing knowledge ‘Knowing what you know’ • knowledge for innovation ‘ Creating and converting’ Knowledge cycle Create - identify -collect - classify - organize / store - share / disseminate - access - use / exploit - create ... Knowledge management has exploded due to the web and has different dimensions (technology, business, goal is to take advantage of knowledge in a corporation for reuse, services will play a key role in technology). Tools are emerging, effective partnerships between business leaders, technologists and policy makers are needed.Knowledge management may subsume information management and data management. 21 Lesson ticker: Knowledge Management Levers Customer knowledge - the most vital knowledge Knowledge in people - but people ‘walk’ Knowledge in processes - know-how when needed Knowledge in products - ‘smarts’ add value Organizational memory - do we know what we know? Knowledge in relationships - richness and depth Knowledge assets - intellectual capital Implementing and maintaining knowledge management • Why to implement knowledge management? • Who’s responsible? • IT’s role in implementing? • strategy for implementing? a) macro environment i. globalization ii. technology iii. E-companies b) organizational climate i. Structure 1. formal structure Cross functional project groups Cross-discipline learning groups 2. Informal structure ii. strategy / goals iii. culture c) technical climate i. infrastructure ii. response to change d) technical, informational, personal i. technical system standardization compatibility usability ii. informational iii. Personal 22 Alptekin Erkollar | Andor Darow | Ingeborg Zulechner knowledge roles motivation learning networks • maintaining knowledge management system Principles of effective learning understanding Mental models, paradigms, context, observation, assumptions, opinion, fact, truth systems thinking - variation skills Ability to challenge assumptions Listen to understand processes Complete observe, assess, design, implement, cycle Teach others The goal of knowledge management metrics Measuring success (How am I doing?) Tracking improvement (Am I getting better?) Benchmarking (How am I comparatively doing?) Strategy Alignment (culture, incentives) Direct future investment (technology, employees) Knowledge sharing metrics Number of presentations made Number of improvement suggestions made Number of web page hits Number of patents approved Number of members in discussion lists Number of subscriptions to journals Number of shared documents published 23 Lesson ticker: Knowledge Management Number of times advice is sought Number of conferences attended Number of contacts made Incentive based approaches of knowledge management Positive incentives: Receiver: Knowledge gained, can teach others what is learned Teacher: “Knowledge Transfer Champion” prestige Negative incentives: Receiver: time, unqualified teacher Teacher: time, students not willing to lean Theory on organizational knowledge management • dimensions of knowledge creation Ontological: knowledge is created by individuals not about individuals Epistemological: humans create knowledge by involving them with objects • Knowledge Conversion: Interaction between Tacit and Explicit knowledge Socialization: tacit to tacit Externalization: tacit to explicit Combination: explicit to explicit Internatlization: explicit to tacit Knowledge management in process management Types of processes • Simple processes: Low level operation • Complex and nonadapative processes: Systems that sue the same rules • Complex and adaptive: Agents carrying out the processes are intelligent and adaptive Data mining for knowledge management Data Mining is a key technology for knowledge management 24 Alptekin Erkollar | Andor Darow | Ingeborg Zulechner Mine the data to determine the competitor strategy to improve business; also to enhance one’s own strategy Targeted marketing to customers to improve sales Determine strategies for employee retention and benefits Knowledge resource exchange The challenge is create value through alliances and collaborations The partner resource exchange model: The concepts can be extended to include multiple partners and multiple dimensions

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The development of information technology has sped up the importance of management information systems, which is an emerging discipline combining various aspects of informatics, information technology and business management. Understanding the impact of information on today’s organisations requires technological and managerial views, which are both offered by management information systems.

This publication takes an interest in the cooperation of business management and management information systems. Its contributions focus on both research areas and practical approaches, in turn showing novelties in the area of enterprise and business management. Main topics covered in this book are technology management, software engineering, knowledge management, innovation management and social media management. This book adopts an international view, combines theory and practice, and is authored for researchers, lecturers, students as well as consultants and practitioners.