Alptekin Erkollar (Ed.)

Enterprise & Business Management, page 109 - 140

A Handbook for Educators, Consultants, and Practitioners

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3814-7, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6842-7,

Series: Enterprise & Business Management, vol. 3

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
109 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar ONLINE CONSUMERS ENGAGEMENT ON FACEBOOK BRAND PAGES THE CASE OF THE AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY LEARNING OBJECTIVES The objective of this chapter is to examine the relationship between social networking sites and online consumer engagement. Once you have mastered the materials in this chapter, you will be able to: • Explain the significance of social media and social network sites for businesses. • Understand the role of Facebook brand pages and brand posts in communication with consumers. • Understand the concepts of consumer engagement and online consumer engagement. • Explain the characteristics of the generated contents by firms on Facebook brand pages. • Understand what kind of contents could motivate the Facebook users. CHAPTER OUTLINE Companies aim to peak consumer engagement with their social media with the brand posts they create on Facebook, one of the most utilized social media application. Reactions of the consumers towards the brand posts of the companies are realized as three basic functions which are likes, comments, and shares; and thus the online consumer engagement (OCE) takes shape. This chapter examines the effects of the posts made on brand pages of the automotive sector companies in Turkey on OCE according to their contents (entertaining, informative, rewarding), 110 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar media type (interactivity, vividness), and timing (day, hour). Necessary data were collected about the brand pages and user interactions of five brands which constitute 55% of the total personal automobile sales in the year 2015 in Turkey. The findings show that vividness of the brand post, informative and entertaining content and, working hour of users were observed to have significant effects on customers’ reactions. KEYWORDS Facebook Brand Pages, Consumer Engagement, Social Networks, Negative Binomial Regression 1 INTRODUCTION Developments in communication technology and social media applications make possible to contact more efficient and interactive relationships with customers of the companies. This chapter focuses on concepts of social media, social networks, and Facebook brand pages. The characteristics (media type, contents, and time) of the brand posts in Facebook created by companies and online consumer engagement concepts are explained. Then the effects of brand posts created by the companies on online consumer engagement are analyzed. On the contrary the traditional media, social media and social networks present companies the opportunity to be in interactive dialog with their consumers regardless of the time and place (Phillips & Young, 2009, p.  6; Clark & Melancon, 2013, p.  132). Companies, besides using social networks to build new relationships and connect more effectively with their consumers, also benefit from social networks for distributing information about their products or services virally (Dobele, et al., 2007). While social networks are systems that allow the consumers to chat with their families and friends, they also present an environment in which they can interact with both companies and other consumers. Consumers, by liking, commenting on, and sharing the companies’ posts, put the companies beyond just a place where they shop from, and engage with them (Al-Deen and Hendricks, 2013, p.   4). One of the sectors in which the online consumer engagement is realized the most is the automobile sector (McCulloch, 2015). Automobile sector, a very significant industry in Turkey, displays its presence in online media noticeably and Facebook brand pages are followed by millions of people. The companies in the automobile sector keep appearing before 111 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages the consumers with new posts, and in return get likes, comments and shares from them. In the study, assuming that the five companies which constitute 55% of the total personal automobile sales in 2015 represent the sector, detailed data were collected about their brand pages and user interactions for four months. Analyzing the obtained data, the answers were sought to the questions of (i) how the interactivity and vividness affect OCE as a media type, (ii) which one of the entertaining, informative, and rewarding contents has more effect on OCE, and (iii) whether the work days or after hours have any effect on OCE. Negative Binomial Regression Model was used for analyzing the data and the obtained results were construed. 2 SOCIAL MEDIA AND CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT 2.1 Social Media and Social Networks Marketing communication professionals have various and brand-new tool to reach today’s consumers and maintain a constant communication. Social media, which consists of internet-based applications, technology of which is based on Web 2.0, is among the most important ones of these instruments (Berthon, Pitt, Plangger, & Shapiro, 2012, p.   263). Social media makes the access possible to the customers any time the connection is on, transmits the messages, and increases feedbacks (Mudambi & Schuff, 2010, p.  185). Social media, which encourages the shifting of the power in the market from the businesses to the consumer (O’Brien, 2011, p.   32), also presents various opportunities for those who determine the marketing strategies (Liu-Thompkins & Rogerson, 2012, p.  79). Roots of the social network sites go back to the Computerized Information System of the 1980s (Zarella, 2009). The first instance of the social networks as we understand them today was which was founded in 1997. Released in 2004 at a University in the USA, Facebook spread rapidly and now draws great interest from today’s social network users (Ellison, 2007, p.   214, 218). As well as having the highest numbers of users among social networks, Facebook also manipulates 50% of the social media market (Kallas, 2013). Social media consists of internet-based applications that include virtual world tools which would provide communication with consumers 112 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar such as blog, microblog, social network, media sharing, social news and tagging, voting and rating, or forums. (Zarella, 2009). Social networks are web-based services that allow persons to create an open or semi-open profile, list the profiles of other connected users within the same system, and display their or other users’ profiles within a limited system (Ellison, 2007, p.   211). Compared to other communication instruments, social networks draw attention with 1,3 billions of active users (Facebook, 2014) according to the data of U. S. America Census Bureau (Kemp, 2014). 2.2 Facebook Brand Pages Facebook has a form that keeps together the features of creating personal information profiles, sending invitations for accessing the profiles of online persons such as colleagues or friends, and sending e-mails or instant messages (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010, p.    63). On Facebook, companies can create profiles just like persons can. The pages with the corporate profiles of the companies are called brand pages (Richter, 2011, p.  98). Companies create and manage their brand pages for the purposes of communicating with their customers, maintaining the communication, customer notification, benefiting from word-of-mouth communication, increasing customer loyalty, making the customers defenders of the companies, etc. Companies are able to make brand posts of different contents (entertaining, informative, rewarding), and different types such as video, photograph, link, event, and status on their brand pages they designed according to their goals. In accordance with the communication policies of the companies, brand pages aim to send contents to the consumers’ personal profiles, to have the contents liked by the users, to have them commented on, and to have them shared (Cvijikj, 2013, p.   846). Thanks to the brand pages, users and consumers are able to transmit their reactions, opinions, and views about the companies to other consumers and to the companies themselves. Interactions that users and consumers do on Facebook indicate their online engagement with the companies, as well as providing the companies with instant feedback. 113 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages 2.3 Consumer Engagement In recent years, consumer engagement is an attractive concept in marketing literature. A research made by MSI Research Priorities (2010) showed that it was one of the most studied concept in understanding consumer behaviors and experiences. Consumer engagement is also considered as a vital component of relationship marketing (Vivek, Beatty, & Morgan, 2012, p.    122). In the interactive and dynamic business environment, consumer engagement is seen as a necessity constituting the company performance, increasing sales, providing competitive advantage and its effect on profits (Tang, 2013). Consumer engagement is described as participation of consumers in notifications and activities of companies, and their frequency of constant communication (Vivek, 2009, p.  7). Consumer engagement affects the development of different attitudes and behaviors as well as it affect the purchases towards the companies’ products (Van Doorn, et al., 2010, p.   254). Further than constituting consumer loyalty based on logical reasons, consumer engagement is explained by Mollen and Wilson (2010:919) as repeated interactions between consumer and brand which constitute strong emotional, psychological ties or physical investments. At the same time these interactions create competitive advantage by providing protective effects on sales. Social media increases success in engagement offers many opportunities for the interest of the company and provide customers with continuous access to updated content and active communication (Zailskaite-Jakste & Kuvykaite, 2012, p.  194). In social networks, consumer engagement is realized as liking, commenting, and sharing (Shu-Chuan Chu, 2011, p.  49). In evaluation of the companies’ performances in consumer engagement, the likes, comments, and shares they receive in return of their posts on brand pages are taken into consideration. In making the consumers take action, the media type (interactivity, vividness), content (entertaining, informative, rewarding), and timing (day and hour) of the brand posts designed for the brand pages are determinant (Cvijikj, 2013; De Vries, 2012). Companies are able to verify consumer engagement at social media using Facebook brand pages. Consumers can engage by reading content created by companies and consuming, discussing and sharing with other users at different levels (Heinonen, 2011, s. 356; André, 2015, s. 114 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar 12). Consumers can show their engagement by getting in contact with companies through processes done (like, comment, share) on companies’ brand pages online. The content properties (vividness, interactivity, informative content, entertainment, position, value of comments, day of the week, length of messages, product category) put on Facebook brand pages can effect the user processes in different ways (De Vries, 2012).These effects can be studied in subcategories such as the media type, content and creating time. Media types (video, photograph, link, status, event), interactivity and vividness of the content can effect the consumer engagement in different countries (cultures) at various levels. For instance, whilst in India, the most effective media type is photographs on OCE (Jayasingh & Venkatesh, 2015, p.  24), studies done in other countries show that video contents are more effective than photographs (Cvijikj, 2013, p.  859; Golshani, 2015, p.  30). Socialization, entertainment, rewards, identity seek and information search reserve quite a ground in users’ social network interaction and OCE motivation (Park, Kee, & Valenzuela, 2009, p.  729; Heinonen, 2011, p.  359; André, 2015, p.  13; Lin & Lu, 2011, p.  1152). Besides, the quality of the products the consumers are interested in is a determinant. While consumers in favor of buying specialty products search information about and compare the properties of products such as the quality, and price, for convenience products the use of social network is realized through entertainment request (Gonzalez, 2013, p.  24). Another factor that effects the user perception is the sequence of the products on Facebook brand pages. Users see the newer contents up in the page in sequence of time. Having high visibility on web-sites creates an advertisement effect like prime-time on TV, which is more precious than other times (Rowse, 2006). The plenty time users have provide an increase in OCE on brand pages. Consumer engagement, having a great deal in modern company policies, can be realized swiftly and smoothly through social network and brand pages without time and place restraints. However, creating the objective effect on consumers and increasing OCE depend on factors like media type, content, and the creating time of the post. In this study, automobiles on the popular automobile Facebook brand pages in Turkey 115 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages are surveyed as favorable products. In this concept, media type, content, creating time of the post is studied on the effect on OCE. 2.3.1 Media Type Media type used in the brand posts describes the interactivity and vividness dimensions of the post. Vividness reflects the richness and attractiveness of the content the media type includes (Steuer, 1992, p.  83). Interactivity includes the participation to the mutual communication with the users depending on the content (Chi, 2011, p.  47). Media types sent to Facebook brand pages specifically consist of status, photographs, events, and videos. More vivid media types on brand pages are expected to draw more attention from the users and increase engagement. Similar to the results of the researches made upon web sites, vividness is seen to have an increasing and positive effect on consumer engagement (Coyle & Thorson, 2001, p.  75). On the other hand, it may be possible that the media with vivid and attractive contents receive more clicks, meaning a higher interactivity for them (Rosenkrans, 2009, p.   18). However, sometimes higher interactivity may precede the content, causing the user to skip to other sites and subjects and alienate from the engagement. Within the framework of these statements, the below hypotheses are developed: • H1a: OCE is higher in highly vivid posts. • H1b: OCE is lower in highly interactive posts. 2.3.2 Content Posts designed by the brand pages can be basically categorized as entertaining, informative, and rewarding. Users first react to entertaining contents (Phelps, Lewis, Mobilio, Perry, & Raman, 2004, p.  343), and then they react to informative ones (Park, Kee, & Valenzuela, 2009, p.  731). Rewarding contents come in third after the other two, and cause lower consumer engagement. This fact may vary for other sectors but according to the results of the previous study, in the automobile sector, entertaining, informative, and rewarding contents are respectively expected to increase consumer engagement. Within this framework the below hypotheses are developed: • H2a: OCE is highest in entertaining contents. 116 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar • H2b: OCE in informative contents is lower than entertaining contents yet higher than rewarding contents. 2.3.3 Time Evaluations made toward the time dimension in social media usage indicate that certain days and hours are more suitable for posting in social media instruments because of the volume of usage. Although there is a concurrence on that the work days are more suitable for posting on Facebook, there are different opinions as to which hours of the day are more suitable (06:00 – 08:00, 14:00 – 17:00 and 11:00, 15:00, 20:00) (Warren, 2010; Campbell, 2013). Criticality of the time dimension results from that Facebook positions the most up-to-date post on the top while displaying it. The fact that many friends and other companies contents are on the profiles of the users may cause the post to stay low and less visible. Although users are able to connect the social networks anytime anywhere where the connection is available, they may tend to frequent at certain hours. Brand posts on Facebook are shared more on workdays compared to the other days (Kallas, Don’t Post on Friday, 4PM, 2010) and are significantly followed by the users who are on their way to their homes after the work hours. It is deemed possible that the consumer engagement for the posts designed by automobile brands is more effectively realized on work days and especially during the peak hour’s right after work. The below hypotheses are formed in order to test this possibility. • H3a: OCE is the highest on work days. • H3b: OCE is the highest during the three hours following the work hours (17:00, 18:00, and 19:00). A research model is designed in which the relationships and the hypotheses mounted within the framework of the above statements are summarized. Research model of the study is presented in the Figure 1. 117 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Fig. 1. Research Model Entertaining Informative Rewarding Vividness Interactivity Day Likes Comments Shares Content Media Type Time Hour OCE 3 PURPOSE AND PAPER OUTLINE 3.1 Purpose of the Study This study examined the effects of brand pages that play a critical role for the companies in the automobile sector in Turkey, in communication with consumers, increasing the communication quality and maintaining the communication, and benefiting from word-of-mouth communication (viral). Brand posts the automobile brands made on these pages and reactions of the users (likes, comments, shares) to these posts on Facebook were examined for a period of four months, and the effects of media type, content, and time of the posts to consumer engagement were researched. OCE aims to provide the companies more effective communication with the consumers, which means forming new communications, spreading the created messages rapidly and virally for a low cost compared to the traditional media, increasing the customer loyalty, and making the customers into defenders of the company. Because of 118 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar these functions it has, importance of OCE is increasing by day. In this scope, this research which, was conducted within the framework of a descriptive research design, offers a significant contribution with its deductions for automobile brand pages in the framework of the obtained results. Although theoretic researches about OCE that were conducted towards blogs, web sites, and social media instruments (Mollen and Wilson, 2010; Brodie, et al., 2013; Zailskaite-Jakste and Kuvykaite, 2012; Wirtz, et al., 2013) and empirical studies that were conducted using Facebook brand pages (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013; De Vries, et al., 2012) exist, studies towards the brand pages of the automobile companies in Turkey are very limited. In this respect, the study also is important for being an empirical study based on data obtained from the Facebook in a sector and country that had not been studied before. In the study, data of the five companies that made the most personal automobile sales in 2015 in Turkey were examined. The companies are, respectively, Volkswagen (Sales Figure: 139.043), Ford (Sales Figure: 118.640), Renault (Sales Figure: 117.363), Fiat (Sales Figure: 109.490), and Hyundai (Sales Figure: 51.743). The total sales figures of the five companies constitute 55% of the total private automobile sales of the year 2015 (968.017) and is assumed to represent the automotive sector in the study (ODD-Automotive Distributors Association-, 2016). Brand posts of the five companies on their brand pages were examined between October 1st and December 31st. The analysis process; data of types, contents, posting times, likes, comments, shares, views of the total of 417 posts, and what time the users commented on these posts were used. Numbers of views were obtained by the relevant post being opened, and the other data were obtained via Facebook Graph API application between March 2nd and April 1st 2015. In determining the vividness and interactivity factors of the media types belonging to the brand posts, the method in the Table 1 which, has examples in the literature, was taken as the basis (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013; De Vries, et al., 2012). 119 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Table 1 Vividness and Interactivity Dimensions of Media Types Media Type Interactivity Vividness Video High High Link, Event High Medium Photograph Low Low Status Low Low Reference: Cvijikj, I. P. , Michahelles, F. (2013). Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pages. Social Network Analysis and Mining, 3(4), 843 – 861, p. 849, De Vries, L., Gensler, S., Leeflang, P.  S., (2012). Popularity of brand posts on brand fan pages: An investigation of the effects of social media marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 83 – 91, p. 86. While determining the factors of the post content, the posts that talk about the brand, the company, products, or services are accepted to be informative; and those that talk about lotteries, tickets, rewards, credit points, etc. are accepted to be rewarding. The contents that remain out of these are accepted to be entertaining (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013). Examples of contents are given in the Table 2. Table 2 Examples of Contents Entertaining It’s snowing! Leave little trails that give happiness to those around you. :) (Volkswagen, December 30th 2015) Informative It’s just the time to get a Freemont, Panda, or Punto from Fiat! Your dream Fiat models wait for you in our showrooms with special year-end discounts! (Fiat, November 18th 2015) Rewarding Kadjar invites you to the adventure! On October 27th, catch the chance to win your special Hobby pass code for the draw with Shazam in Love Again! #seyircikalma (Renault, October 25th 2015) 120 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar Dependent variables used in the study qualify as count data. The most commonly used method for explaining the relation between dependent and independent variables (count data) is the Poisson Regression Analysis. The most significant constraint of the Poisson Regression Analysis is that the variance and the average must be equal. In cases when the Poisson dispersion indicates over dispersion, in other words when the dispersion variance is higher than the average, Negative Binomial Regression is used (Sezgin and Deniz, 2004). In the study, first the suitability of the Poisson Regression analysis was checked, and because the dispersion variance was higher than the average (Table 3), Negative Regression Analysis method according to the equation (1) was preferred. In the equation (1), indicates the figures of likes, comments, and shares, which are dependent variables. The other variables (independent); “media type” indicates the media type of the post, “content type” indicates the content type of the post, “work days” indicates the posts created during work days, and “work-end” indicates the posts created following the work hours (17:00, 18:00, 19:00). Table 3 Average and Variance Values Average Variance Likes 5425.35 65703843.234 Comments 95.16 27509.940 Shares 150.55 111956.671 Negative Binomial Regression analysis was repeated three times in order to determine the relations with the dependent variables of likes, comments, and shares. Following the conducted analyses, chi-square values that indicate the relevance of the models that test the relation between the dependent variables of likes, comments, and shares and examined independent variables were summarized in the table 4. The results show that the models are statically relevant as a whole. 121 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Table 4 Chi-square, Significance Values Sig. Likes 83.780 .000 Comments 39.627 .000 Shares 462.128 .000 df = 6, N = 417 4 FINDINGS 4.1 Descriptive Statistics The five companies which achieved the most sales figures in automotive sector in 2015 are respectively Volkswagen, Renault, Ford, Fiat, and Hyundai (ODD, 2016). The numbers of likes the brand pages (vwturkiye, renaulturkiye, fordturkiye, fiatturkiye, hyundaiturkiye) of these companies received were obtained by using their Facebook Graph API application. However, because the number of likes the Volkswagen Turkey page received was abnormally higher than the other companies and the page was exactly the same with Volkswagen Australia page, the number of likes from only Turkey each company received were observed via The average number of likes for the automotive sector brands is 1,696,276 (Facebook Stats in Turkey, 2016). Considering the brand page likes, Volkswagen and Renault are above the sector average, while Ford, Fiat, and Hyundai are below the average. During the period of the study, averages of 83 posts were made on the brand pages of the companies. While Volkswagen, Ford, and Hyundai have above-average number of posts, Renault and Fiat are below the average. During the period of the study, an average of one post in one and a half day was made in the automotive sector (Table 5). 122 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar Table 5 Automotive Sector Brand Pages and Numbers of Posts Page Likes Page Likes (Local) Total Posts Post Frequency (122 Days / Total Posts) Sector Average 6,055,083 1,696,276 83 1.67 Volkswagen 25,371,110 3,701,604 97 1.26 Renault 2,079,854 2,012,284 48 2.54 Ford 597,228 585,789 109 1.12 Fiat 1,028,115 994,112 52 2.35 Hyundai 1,199,110 1,187,589 111 1.10 65 (76%) of the posts the brands in the automotive sector made during the study period are photographs, 13 (17%) are videos, and 5 (6%) are links. All brands, particularly Ford and Hyundai used photograph post type intensively. Video post type was used most frequently by Volkswagen, and the link post type was most frequently used by Renault (Table 6). 123 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Table 6 Post Types ad Frequencies of Automotive Sector Brands Post Type Frequency To ta l Po st s Vi de o Ph ot o Li nk Ev en t Vi de o Ph ot o Li nk Ev en t Sector Average 83 13 65 5 0 0.17 0.76 0.06 0.00 Volkswagen 97 25 66 6 0 0.26 0.68 0.06 0.00 Renault 48 11 31 6 0 0.23 0.65 0.13 0.00 Ford 109 9 95 5 0 0.08 0.87 0.05 0.00 Fiat 52 10 40 1 1 0.19 0.77 0.02 0.02 Hyundai 111 9 94 8 0 0.08 0.85 0.07 0.00 Total 417 64 326 26 1 In return of the total of 417 posts the automotive brands made, the users interacted with 452,475 likes, 7,936 comments, and 12,556 shares in average. Moreover, the view number information which is only kept on video posts is 2,964,935 for the total 64 videos. Hyundai has the highest number of likes per post with 10,537 likes, and Fiat has the highest number of comments per post with 178 comments, the highest number of shares per post with 378 shares, and the highest number of views per post with 758,839 views. Fiat holds a figure of views approximately more than three times higher than the sector average in number of views, an a figure of shares more than two times higher than the average in shares (Table 6 and Table 7). 124 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar Table 7 User Interactions in Return of the Posts Made on Automobile Sector Brand Pages Per Post Total Li ke s Co m m en ts Sh ar es Vi ew * Li ke s Co m m en ts Sh ar es Vi ew * Sector Average 5,412 104 177 269,925 452,475 7,936 12,556 2,964,935 Volks wagen 3,771 103 128 83,340 365,830 9,973 12,445 2,083,499 Renault 6,029 98 179 354,292 289,397 4,708 8,605 3,897,212 Ford 1,544 58 44 30,333 168,255 6,332 4,844 272,997 Fiat 5,179 178 378 758,839 269,299 9,262 19,665 7,588,389 Hyundai 10,537 85 155 122,822 1,169,592 9,405 17,220 982,577 * Only video posts have the view data. 4.2 Media Type In the media type dimension, 22% of the total 417 posts the brands designed has high interactivity, while 78% has low figures of interactivity; 15% has high vividness, while 6% has medium and 78% has low vividness. 32% of all the posts of Volkswagen which, has the highest values in interactivity in vividness, has high interactivity, and 26% have high vividness. The lowest figures belong to Ford with 87% ratio of low interactivity and the same ratio of low vividness (Table 8). In the content dimension, 23% of the posts in the sector are entertaining, 67% is informative, and 11% is rewarding. Renault has the highest ratio of entertaining posts with 40%, Hyundai has the highest ratio of informative posts with 91%, and Ford has then highest ratio of rewarding posts with 18% (Table 8). 125 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Table 8. Media Types and Contents of Automobile Brand Page Posts Sector Average Volkswagen Renault Ford Fiat Hyundai Pcs % Pcs % Pcs % Pcs % Pcs % Pcs % Media Type-Interactivity High (Video- Link-Event) 91 0.22 31 0.32 17 0.35 14 0.13 12 0.23 17 0.15 Low (Photograph-Status) 326 0.78 66 0.68 31 0.65 95 0.87 40 0.77 94 0.85 Media Type-Vividness High (Video) 64 0.15 25 0.26 11 0.23 9 0.08 10 0.19 9 0.08 Medium (Link-Event) 27 0.06 6 0.06 6 0.13 5 0.05 2 0.04 8 0.07 Low (Photograph) 326 0.78 66 0.68 31 0.65 95 0.87 40 0.77 94 0.85 None (Status) 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 0 0.00 Content Enter taining 95 0.23 34 0.35 19 0.40 28 0.26 8 0.15 6 0.05 Infor mative 278 0.67 48 0.49 26 0.54 61 0.56 42 0.81 101 0.91 Reward ing 44 0.11 15 0.15 3 0.06 20 0.18 2 0.04 4 0.04 In case the media type of the posts is photographs the average number of likes per post is 6,121 and the average number of comments per post is 98; in case the post is a video, the highest number of shares per post is 278, thus indicating the highest figure (Table 9). 126 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar Table 9 Averages of Likes, Comments, and Shares per Post of Automobile Brand Page Post Media Types Likes Comments Shares Photograph 6,121 98 129 Link, Event 4,458 69 108 Video 2,292 92 278 4.3 Time On a weekly period, the most posts were made by the automobile brands on Wednesdays with 14 posts, and the least posts on Sundays with 6,4 posts. While the companies generally make posts everyday on their Facebook brand pages, only Fiat does not have any posts on Sundays (Table10). The posts are most frequently made in the sector between 09:00 – 10:00 and 16:00 – 18:00. The time period of posting is 07:00 – 21:00. (Figure 2). Table 10 Posting Times of Automotive Sector Brand Page Posts (Days of the Week) Mon. Tue. Wed. Thu. Fr. Sat. Sun. Sector Average 12.6 13.4 14 12.8 13.8 10.4 6.4 Volks wagen 15 17 16 17 16 12 4 Renault 6 9 7 10 7 6 3 Ford 15 16 17 15 16 17 13 Fiat 12 7 11 8 12 2 0 Hyundai 15 18 19 14 18 15 12 127 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Fig. 2 Creating Times of Automotive Sector Brand Page Posts 68% of the user comments on the posts of automobile brands are posted within the first 24 hours, and 32% takes place following the first 24 hours. In the total user comments, the most comments in the first 24 hours were received by Volkswagen with the ratio of 84%, and the least were received by Renault with 29% (Table 11). Brand posts receive the most comments on Fridays (Figure 3). Comments are usually posted between 16:00 and 22:00 during the day (Figure 4). Table 11 User Comment Frequency on the Automobile Brand Page Posts within 24 Hours Comments within 24 Hours (%) Comments after 24 hours (%) Sector Average 0.68 0.32 Volkswagen 0.84 0.16 Renault 0.29 0.71 Ford 0.78 0.22 Fiat 0.48 0.52 Hyundai 0.83 0.17 128 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar Fig. 3 Distribution of User Comments on Automotive Sector Brand Page Posts According to Days Fig. 4 Distribution of User Comments on Automotive Sector Brand Page Posts According to Hours Table 12 presents the results of negative binominal regression analysis regarding media types that are formed on the pages of automobile sector, video (high interactivity and high vividness), event and link (high interactivity and medium vividness), photographs (low interactivity and low vividness), content (entertaining, informative, rewarding), time dimension (workdays, weekend, work end (17:00, 18:00,19:00), other hours), in terms of user transitions (likes, comments, and share). The effects of other variables tried to be identified by based on media type (photograph), content (entertaining), time dimension (weekend and other hours). 129 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Ta bl e 12 A na ly si s of A ut om ot iv e Se ct or B ra nd P ag e Po st s up on C on su m er E ng ag em en t D im en si on s Lik es Co m m en ts Sh ar es P ar am et er s B Ex p (B ) St d. Er ro r Si g. B Ex p (B ) St d. Er ro r Si g. B Ex p (B ) St d. Er ro r Si g. Media Type (C on st an t) 7. 52 9 18 60 .9 96 .2 18 7 .0 00 3. 43 3 30 .9 64 .1 95 5 .0 00 3. 41 0 30 .2 61 .2 20 6 .0 00 Vi de o (İ= Y, C =Y ) -.7 78 .4 59 .1 81 3 .0 00 -.1 75 .8 39 .1 52 2 .2 49 .7 46 2. 10 8 .1 66 5 .0 00 Li nk , E ve nt (İ= Y, C =O ) -.3 59 .6 99 .2 48 2 .1 48 -.4 47 .6 40 .2 21 0 .0 43 -.2 65 .7 67 .2 34 6 .2 59 Ph ot og ra ph ( İ =D , C = D ) 0 1 . . 0 1 . . 0 1 . . Content En te rt ai nm en t 1. 01 6 2. 76 2 .2 34 4 .0 00 1. 05 7 2. 87 7 .2 03 4 .0 00 1. 32 1 3. 74 8 .2 21 8 .0 00 In fo rm at io n 1. 37 9 3. 97 0 .2 07 1 .0 00 1. 03 8 2. 82 3 .1 84 5 .0 00 1. 32 8 3. 77 2 .1 99 3 .0 00 Re m un er at io n 0 1 . . 0 1 . . 0 1 . . Time W or kd ay s .0 81 1. 08 4 .1 55 8 .6 04 .3 15 1. 37 0 .1 36 5 .0 21 .3 71 1. 44 9 .1 44 8 .0 10 W ee ke nd (S at ur da y, S un da y) 0 1 . . 0 1 . . 0 1 . . W or ken d (1 7: 00 , 1 8: 00 ,1 9: 00 ) -.5 75 .5 63 .1 45 2 .0 00 -.2 25 .7 98 .1 22 7 .0 67 -.4 06 .6 66 .1 34 5 .0 03 O th er 0 1 . . 0 1 . . 0 1 . . D ev ia nc e / d f 1. 24 1 1. 19 0 1. 21 5 N eg at iv e bi no m ia l 1. 50 9 .0 88 6 1. 18 5 .0 72 9 1. 33 5 .0 82 1 130 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar 4.4 Media Type Automobile brands used media types of video (high interactivity, high vividness), link, event (high interactivity, medium vividness), and photograph (high interactivity, low vividness) on Facebook. During the research, “event “was only used once by one brand, and “status” was never used. While media type was found to be significant on likes ( (2, N=417) =19.723 p < 0.0001 ) and shares ( (2, N=417) = 23.229 p < 0.0001 ), no significance was found in commenting action. Compared to the photograph type which has low interactivity and low vividness, video (B= -.778 Exp(B)= -.459 p < 0.0001) which has high interactivity and high vividness, was found to reduce the dependent variable of “likes” by 54% and to be negatively significant. Event and link which have high interactivity and medium vividness are found to be insignificant. Video (B= .746 Exp (B)= 2.108 p < 0.0001) %110.8 was found to increase the sharing and to be positively significant, while link and event were found to be insignificant. The reason why there is a positive significance between photograph and video on “likes” and a negative one on “sharing” is that in case of interactivity a similar difference should be observed on “event” or “link”, yet the level in between is insignificant. Moving from this, it is seen that the reasoning factor that makes the difference between photograph and video is vividness. In this context, H1a and H1b hypotheses were rejected for likes and comments, and H1a was accepted for sharing while H1b was rejected. 4.5 Content In the model designated to examine the post content, content was found to be a significant determinant on likes ( (2, N=417) = 45.629 p <0.0001) comments ( (2, N=417) =33.461 p <0.0001 ) and shares ( (2, N=417) = 45.900 p <0.0001). Compared to rewarding content, entertaining content increases likes (B= 1.016 Exp(B) = 2.762 p < 0.0001) by 176.2%, increases comments (B= 1.057 Exp (B)= 2.877, p < 0.0001) by 187.7 %, and increases shares (B= 1.321 Exp (B) = 3.748 p < 0.0001) by 274.8%, thus displaying a significant role. Compared to rewarding content, informative content increases likes (B= 1.379 Exp (B) = 3.97 p < 0.0001) by 297%, increases 131 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages comments ( B= 1.038 Exp(B)= 2.823 p < 0.0001) by 182.3% and increases sharing (B = 1.328 Exp (B) = 3.772 p < 0.0001) by 277.2%, thus displaying a positive significant role. Entertaining content, while achieving a higher value on comments than informative content, remained lower on likes and shares. In this context, H2a were rejected for likes and shares. While the informative content were expected to have higher values than remunerative content and lower values than entertaining content in the H2b hypothesis, informative content was higher than the both. Consequently, H2b, H2a, and H2b Hypotheses were accepted. 4.6 Posting Time In the designated model, the posting day was found to be a significant determinant on comments ( (2, N=417) = 5.326 p <0.05) and shares ( (2, N=417) = 6.569 p <0.05), and insignificant on likes. Compared to holidays, the workdays were found to increase comments ( B= 1.016 Exp (B) = 1.37 p < 0.0001) by 37%, and shares (B= 1.016 Exp (B) = 1.449 p < 0.0001) by 44.9%, thus displaying a positive significant effect. As a result, H3a hypothesis were rejected for likes, but accepted for comments and shares. In the designated model, the posting hour was found to be a significant determinant on likes ( (1, N=417) =15.699 p < 0.0001) and on sharing ( (1, N=417) = 9.115 p < 0.01). Compared to the other hours, the 3 hours following the work-end (17:00, 18:00, 19:00)decreases likes (B= -.575 Exp (B) = 0.563 p < 0.0001) by 43,7%, decreases shares (B= -.406 Exp (B) = 0.666 p < 0.01) by 33.4%, thus displaying a negative significant effect. In this context, H3b hypothesis was rejected for likes, comments, and shares. Table 13 Hypothesis Results H1a H1b H2a H2b H3a H3b Likes R R R A R R Comments R R A A A R Shares A R R A A R R = Rejected A = Acepted 132 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar 5 DISCUSSION This study is a pioneer research that examines the effect of media type, content and creating time of posts on the automobile industries Facebook brand pages in Turkey on OCE. For four months detailed data have been collected about the brand pages and user interactions of five brands which constitute 55% of the total personal automobile sales in the year 2015 in Turkey. Data in hand show a general view of the sector due to OCE. Depending on the sector and the country, different results are seen when posts created by brand pages are studied about the effect on OCE (Jayasingh & Venkatesh, 2015; Cvijikj & Michahelles, 2013; Golshani, 2015). In various countries when most favorite brand pages are studied, e. g. USA-Wall Mart(Retail), UK-Amazon.Co.Uk(e-Commerce), Brasil- Coca Cola(Beverage) (Anon., 2016) - though different in fields — a great effect of sector on OCE is also observed. There are differences in users’ social network usage and OCE motivations (socialization, entertainment, reward, identity seek and information search) among sectors (Park, et al., 2009, p.  729; Heinonen, 2011, p.  359; André, 2015, p.  13). For example, users’ reasons may vary to follow luxury brands or fast food companies (Kim, et al., 2015, p.  22). In this study, too, the expectancy is met for different results compared to the study done before (Food, (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013)) on OCE in different sector. Main reason for differences in OCE motivations, the research has been carried out with product groups in different sectors (favorable and easy). Contrary to easy products, in favorable products, the need for information in order to receive recommendations for use in post purchase, and comparing price, quality and features has been eliminated in pre purchase. The differences between product groups directly effect content type which brings forward entertainment in food and informative in car. In line with the findings of this study, a study carried out in Korea in automobile sector indicates that there is not a significant difference among brands (BMW, Mercedes-Benz, Renault-Samsung, Ford, Hyundai etc.). Rather than mentioning entertaining issues on their pages, these companies highlight brand awareness and brand name (Choi, 2012). Users welcome these posts which contain ads of new products, features 133 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages of existing products and the advantages they provide on the pages of companies in automobile sector and OCE is the most effective content that positively affects these posts. Media types in brand pages mostly consist of photographs which have low vividness and low interactivity (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013; Golshani, 2015; Jayasingh and Venkatesh, 2015; De Vries, et al., 2012). Photographs are preferred because photographs are less costly and can be loaded within low internet speed and quota and its effect on OCE have made photographs more preferable. The difference between sector and countries does not effect media type as photography but it can be a determinant factor on media types regarding OCE. In a study carried out on food, accessories, clothes, cosmetics, and mobile devices sector indicate that videos received more likes (De Vries, et al., 2012) whereas in another study conducted in India report that photographs received more likes in nineteen different sectors including automobile sector (Jayasingh and Venkatesh, 2015). This study supports the findings of earlier research in that photographs are the most widely used media type. However, different from previous research, it is found out that photographs have a positive effect on commenting as well as liking. When the results are analyzed regarding the day the posts are created, it has been seen that the posts which are created in weekdays have a more significant effect on OCE compared to posts which are created at the weekends (Cvijikj and Michahelles, 2013; Golshani, 2015; De Vries, et al., 2012). Different from earlier studies, although the effect of weekdays is evident, there is not a significant positive effect of end of business day (17:00, 18:00, and 19:00) on OCE. The on hand access to social networks by mobile technologies has made it difficult to specify the time which increases OCE. Here in this study, a survey is done on automobile sector brand page posts’ features in Turkey to determine their effect on OCE. The results of this study corroborate with previous literature regarding the effect of brand page posts in terms of media type, post creating time and the content on OCE. Besides, the results show that photograph at media type, informative at content and workdays at time dimension stand out. 134 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar 6 CONCLUSION It is possible to say that there is a positive relation between the highness of sales figures of brands and the highness of number of the likes, comments, and shares they have on their Facebook pages. For example, Fiat automobiles, liked by approximately a million of people on their Facebook Turkey page, have the fourth highest sales figures. On the other hand, their Facebook account has very much higher figures in comments, shares, and views than the others. Their view per post data is nearly ten times higher than the brand with the leading sales figures. It is observed that, during the period when the research data was collected, Fiat was advertising for a new product and applied the integrated marketing communication practices with success in a manner to include traditional media as well. In this scope, it is understood that brands should increase their OCE on their Facebook brand pages and use the other media instruments and traditional media altogether, in other words, they should manage the integrated marketing practices well. In this study, hypotheses that were created in order to measure the effects of media type, content, and posting time of the posts prepared by the automotive sector brand pages on the likes, comments, and shares of the users were tested. In consequence of the hypothesis tests conducted; it was seen that the low level interactivity has no significant effect on likes and shares, and vividness is only significant on shares. Thereby, it is understood that it would be more suitable for brands to make photograph posts when they wish to get likes, and video posts when they wish to be shared. It is also seen that media type is effective on comments on a post. It is seen that in the post design, entertaining and informative contents are more effective than rewarding contents. Entertaining and informative contents get more likes, comments, and shares compared to the rewarding contents. And when the informative and entertaining contents are compared, informative contents are clicked by the users significantly more times than the entertaining contents, in respect of likes. While the posts made on workdays receive more comments and shares, the same does not apply for the likes. The posts made during the 3 hours following the work-end (17:00, 18:00, and 19:00) were observed to be negative in respects of likes, comments, and shares. 135 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages Businesses that want to increase OCE should prefer photographs and videos as media types, and informative and entertaining contents as content types, and workdays as the posting time. Although both photographs and videos increase OCE, photographs draw attention per post from more people than videos in respect of likes, comments, and shares. For this reason businesses should prefer photographs more often. It is seen that informative contents which, have a positive effect on OCE, are preferred by the businesses more. However, the fact that there are advertisement blocker software such as AdBlocker today, the fact that more similar software may emerge in the future may cause problems in the word-of-mouth communication endeavors made in Facebook brand pages. In order to overcome this, the posts should be prepared in the framework of socializing and having a good time, the main motivations of social media users. Entertaining and informative contents should be presented together. From another point of view, informative messages should be place within entertaining contents. Most of the user comments happen in the first 24 hours, even though workday posts have a positive effect in increasing OCE, requires companies to designate more specific posting hours during the day by organizing the user data. 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The Social Media Marketing Book, O’Reilly Media, Inc., 2009. 139 Online Consumers Engagement on Facebook Brand Pages KEY TERMS Social Media Social Network Facebook Brand Pages Consumer Engagement Media Type Content Posting Time Online Consumer Engagement Automobile Industry QUESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDY 1. Is there any difference among different cultures in terms of online consumer engagement? 2. How can be measured the online consumer engagement in other social media sites (Twitter, YouTube etc.)? 3. Is there any difference in “like”, “comment” and “share” the effect on online consumer engagement? How can be measured? 4. What are the possible effects of Facebook emoji on online consumer engagement? EXCERCISES Suppose you are a social media manager in a company. Your manager wants you to design a Facebook brand page for a new product. What do you care about to make a successful design? As a social media user what kind of content are you interested in? Compare the different Facebook brand pages. What are the attractive characteristics of the popular contents for you? What are the possible consequences of any failure managing the social media site? Consider that in terms of relationship marketing perspective. 140 İbrahim Topal | Sima Nart | Cuneyt Akar FURTHER READING De Vries, N. J. & Carlson, J., 2014. Examining The Drivers And Brand Performance Implications Of Customer Engagement With Brands In The Social Media Environment. Journal of Brand Management, 21(6), pp.  495 – 515. Hollebeek, L. D., 2011. Demystifying Customer Brand Engagement: Exploring the Loyalty Nexus. Journal of Marketing Management, 27(7 – 8), pp.  785 – 807. Khobzi, H. & Teimourpour, B., 2015. LCP Segmentation: A Framework for Evaluation of User Engagement in Online Social Networks. Computers in Human Behavior, Cilt 50, pp.  101 – 107. Luarn, P. , Lin, Y.-F. & Chiu, Y.-P. , 2015. Influence of Facebook Brand-Page Posts on Online Engagement. Online Information Review, 39(4), pp.  505 – 519. Vohra, A. & Bhardwaj, N., 2016. A Conceptual Presentation of Customer Engagement in the Context of Social Media-An Emerging Market Perspective. International Journal in Management & Social Sciences, 4(1), pp.  351 – 366.

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The development of information technology has sped up the importance of management information systems, which is an emerging discipline combining various aspects of informatics, information technology and business management. Understanding the impact of information on today’s organisations requires technological and managerial views, which are both offered by management information systems.

This publication takes an interest in the cooperation of business management and management information systems. Its contributions focus on both research areas and practical approaches, in turn showing novelties in the area of enterprise and business management. Main topics covered in this book are technology management, software engineering, knowledge management, innovation management and social media management. This book adopts an international view, combines theory and practice, and is authored for researchers, lecturers, students as well as consultants and practitioners.