Denise Burkhard

Ancient Dwarf Kingdom or the Hoard of a Fiery Dragon?

J.R.R. Tolkien's Erebor as a Transformed and Dynamic Place

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3975-5, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6774-1, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828867741

Tectum, Baden-Baden
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Denise Burkhard Ancient Dwarf Kingdom or the Hoard of a Fiery Dragon? Denise Burkhard Ancient Dwarf Kingdom or the Hoard of a Fiery Dragon? J. R. R. Tolkien’s Erebor as a Transformed and Dynamic Place Tectum Verlag Denise Burkhard Ancient Dwarf Kingdom or the Hoard of a Fiery Dragon? J. R. R. Tolkien’s Erebor as a Transformed and Dynamic Place © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017 eISBN 978-3-8288-6774-1 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich als gedrucktes Werk unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-3975-5 im Tectum Verlag erschienen.) Umschlaggestaltung: Tectum Verlag, unter Verwendung des Bildes # 279005717 von Bon Appetit | www.shutterstock.com Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum-verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar. “‘ ’” A Brief Introduction to the Depiction of Dwarves in Tolkien’s Peter Jackson’s Visual Creation of Erebor ’ A Brief Introduction to Tolkien’s Dragons The Dwarves’ Antagonist: Smaug Eerie, Creepy and Dangerous: The Dragon’s Lair son’s Visual Destruction and Reshaping of Erebor Appendix: ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ “Part I: Approaching the Spatial Dimension” “‘ ’” ’ children’s novel The Hobbit, or There and Back Again “‘ ’” “the reached the ears of the dragons” quered the dwarf kingdom, dispersed the mountain’s inhabitants and converted “a bed of gold” The Hobbit ‘Erebor’ is the Sindarin (Elvish) word for ‘Lonely Mountain’ The Hobbit Tolkien explained his idiosyncratic spelling of the plural of ‘dwarf’ in a letter to the ditor of the ‘Observer’: “Grammar prescribes dwarfs dwarrows dwarves elves elf gnome goblin dwarf tions of the Old Elvish names for beings of not quite the same kinds and functions”. Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien ‘Observer’, February 1938], original emphasis. I will, thus, ad pt Tolkien’s spelling and The Return of the King that in contrast to scholars’ keen interest in language in Tolkien’s writings “there is comparatively little critical interest in the role of is fiction”, and encourages the analysis of the depiction of landscape by o serving that “Tolkien was acutely aware of the significance of topography, and the wealth to this awareness”. Jane Suzanne Carroll. “A Topoa ”, comes to life in the dwarves’ memories, as a dragon’s hoard, I assume that “the fantasy ‘other’ world structures and mai a ” in his lecture “On Fairy Stories” that the secondary world, ‘Faëri ’, “contains many things besides elves and fays, and besides dwarfs, witches, earth, and all things that are in it” respect to Tolkien’s writings, Liam Campbell notices a striking emphasis on … Tolkien’s world The aim of ‘Part I: Approaching the Spatial Dimension’ ‘home’ in children’s literature. This discussion will be based on the “in intertwined” the term ‘diaspora’ in “is ” “can A View from Elsewhere The Hobbit J.R.R. Tolkien. “Tree and Leaf.”, 38. “Nature.”, 431. Spaces and Places in Motion Place and Experience Postcolonial Literatures in English refer to ‘any body of people liv ’” “I do think of the ‘Dwarves’ like Jews: at once native and alien in their habitations, vate tongue” Tolkien’s statement company are caught in a ‘diasporic state’ out of which they his ‘diasporic state’ nently in Tolkien’s The Hobbit. ‘ ’ ‘Part III: The Dragon’s Hoard’ on the depiction of Erebor in Tolkien’s The Hobbit and in Peter Jackson’s ada The Hobbit – An Unexpected Journey The Hobbit – The Desolation of Smaug The Hobbit – The Battle of the Five Armies their origins in Tolkien’s world in the chapter “ piction of Dwarves in Tolkien’s Wri ” the dwarves’ ‘ ’ – – song’s importance by stating that it is “[t]he best Postcolonial Literature Shorter Oxford Dictionary Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien Beginning Postcolonialism context and suggests that they are almost inseparable: “It is of course pos memory more generally”. Postcolonial Nostalgias This comparative approach seems to be particularly promising, because “[t]he setting of The Hobbit ” P. Riga, Maureen Thum and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to Epic Prequel.”, , it is crucial to acknowledge that “[t]he narrative may not be written from a side”, which makes it possible to assess the dwarves’ story. Gerard Hynes. “From Nauglath to Durin’s Folk.”, 25. roduction that we get to the dwarves” dwarves’ Jackson’s the stone’s “Heart of the Mountain” analyse the visual creation of Erebor in Jackson’s An Unexpected Journey Tolkien’s story The Hobbit Thror’s throne ‘built’ an entire city within the Lonely Mountain that ‘ Dragon’s Hoard’ with the kingdom’s destru h the dwarves’ fiery antagonist ’ characteristics in Tolkien’s writings “A Brief Introduction to Tolkien’s Dragons” ‘ ’, which deals not only with the dragon’s attack but Erebor’s ‘the Golden’ – ‘ ’ the mountain’s ‘ ’ ‘ ’ in both Tolkien’s novel Peter Jackson’s The Hobbit Exploring The Hobbit Ármann Jakobsson. “Talk to the Dragon.”, 27 Emily Midkiff. “Uncanny Dragons.”, ‘Mu d’ ‘complex’ ‘entwined’ terms ‘place’ and ‘space’. Despite the fact that “[p]lace and its most frequent companion term, space, seem to be on everyone’s lips in culture” everyday familiarity with the concept [‘place’] that can give rise to diff The English ‘place’ carries a variety of senses and stands in close relation to a numb “its diate problem” “that space in narratives – – ” Abbott speculates “that the neglect of space ten” “ intensive” ‘spatial turn’. Greg Dickinson et al. “Introduction: Rhetoric/ Place.” Place and Experience regard to ‘space’ and claims that “ become generally accepted”. Gabriel Zoran. “Towards a Theory of Space in Narrative.”, 310. Place and Experience “Space in Narrative ”, 551. This is their second reason why the “consideration of space got off to a slow start” list “Gotthold Lessing’s characterisation of narrative literature as a ‘temporal’ art” as the first re The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative “encompassed a belief in an absolute space ” Des Espaces Autres (“Of Other Spaces”) in 1967 not only that “concepts of locality and position” – fact that the notions ‘place’ and ‘space’ have gained scholarly a cus on ‘place’, “ in the existing literature suggest that the notion is not at all clearly defined” – – Birgit Neumann. “Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur.”, 11 A View from Elsewhere Foucault. “Of Other Spaces.”, 22. Place and Experience “Place, in its literary ” Milford A. Jeremiah. “The Use of Place in Writing and Literature.”, 23. my analysis of Tolkien’s The Hobbit, because the characteristics of ‘place’ will use the term (narrative) place to refer to “an aspect of space, a smaller unit” en as a much broader concept that “will be used in a more general sense as referring to an ‘extended region’” his article “Place”, the social geographer and begins with the geographical sense of the word ‘place’: a definition, place “ of place” . While ‘loc tion’ refers to ‘locale’ “ ” ‘sense of place’ “the feelings and emotions a place s” emotions emphasises that “[p] per se ” argues that “[t] The Lord of the Rings Hogwarts” “a very strong sense of landscape” ’ “ Spaces and Places in Motion Cresswell. “Place.”, 1 Spaces and Places in Motion Cresswell. “Place.”, 1 The Fantasy Literature of England Zoran highlights this problem: “This set of concepts [‘ description narration space action’ action of the text from the phenomena relevant to space”. Gabriel Zoran. “Towards a Theory of Space in Narrative.”, 326, original emphasis. – ” Cresswell’s ‘sense of place’ elaborate on the character’s attitudes towards certain places. Given that “[t]he generation of space can also take place on a geographical scale, especially in stories structured as journeys or quests” Wolfgang Hallet’s and Birgit Neumann’s introduction to Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur h they assume that spaces (in literary texts) are “h manly lived spaces” (“menschlich erlebte Räume” claim that “[a]t its most basic level, narrative space is internal characters move about and live” protagonists’ [sic!] [or simply character’s] perceived spatial tagonist’s in the protagonist’s perceived world. the character’s the character’ gotiation of a character’s identity “is filled with memories and hopes” The Fellowship of the Ring The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative “Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur.”, 11. “Space in Narrative” A View from Elsewhere Ricardo Gullón. “On Space in the Novel.”, 12. In children’s literature, ‘ ’ in J.K. Rowling’s description of Hogwarts in the Harry Potter ’ depiction The Magician’s Nephew the Emerald City in L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz “home ” ‘home’ (which is assumed to be safe but boring) and ‘away’ (which is “[p]laces, too, are open and changing, related in pe manent exchange to other places” and Alethea Helbig. “Place in Children’s Literature.”, 9. The Pleasures of Children’s Literature Barrie’s Peter Pan , Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe , or Bilbo Baggins’ journey from the Shire in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit The Pleasures of Children’s Literature “the binary opposition – white”. “Bina rism.” in: The Key Concepts Spaces and Places in Motion (“ ” ‘home/away/home pattern’ place is especially common in children’s literature. nalysing ‘home’ in the context of the ‘sanctuary topos’, Jane Suzanne Carroll highlights the pivotal role location. Her observation that “the conne tion between human and landscape is at its most intense” prevalence of ‘home’ in children’s stories three patterns that have emerged: “Although so deep and subtle a subject as theme in children’s fiction falls into three basic patter home as an evolving reflection of the protagonist” the ‘Odyssean pattern’, the ‘Oedipal pattern’ and the ‘Promethean pattern’, the ‘Odyssean pattern’ (which essentially “home ” ) “home is also usually an important theme. The Heimat, Space, Narrative The Pleasures of Children’s Literature Landscape in Children’s Literature In their article “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children’s Literature”, Melissa B. Wilson and Kathy G. Short draw attention to the fact “ children’s story. This is not to say that home is not problematic – is”. Wilson and Kathy G. Short. “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children’s Literature.”, 130. Lucy Waddey. “Home in Children’s Fiction.”, 13. The Pleasures of Children’s Literature beauty, because there they are safe and there they truly belong” which “home is the beginning, middle, and end, an objective reality, a place ere important things happen, unromanticized by distance” ‘Oedipal pattern’. “begin with no representation of home at all, but with the protagonist as a kind of exile” and where “the characters have ally through a good deal of work, create another” the ‘Promethean pattern’. In J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit story’s main themes. it’s on the notion of home and focus on ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ in the context of ‘diaspora’ “[f]irst nian times” “ ” ‘diaspora’ “Diaspora, then, is a word used in postcolonial studies to describe groups of Lucy Waddey. “Home in Children’s Fiction.”, 13. “be present in ing and expanding the reader’s ”. Ibid., 15. Bill Ashcroft et al. “Diaspora.”, 425. Avtar Brah. “Thinking through the Concept of Diaspora.”, 443. “ oppression”. Tobias Döring. Postcolonial Literatures in English and Tiffin also say that “the term has its origins in the Jewish diaspora”, but they Bill Ashcroft et al. “ .”, 426. forced migration or immigration” ‘ ’ and enumerates four reasons. Conflicts, such as “territorial di putes” and “war”, can arise between peoples or, since colonial times, between “forced migration” “immigration” that ‘immigration’ is connected with journeys from one country to another, ‘diaspora’ , “a scattering, dispersion” describes “the scattering throughout the world from one geographic location” ‘diaspora’ – ‘diaspora’ means ‘exile’, which is , Griffiths and Tiffin, this dispersion “leads to a splitting in the sense of home” : “ society of relocation” versus “a hom land that is connected to language, religion and a sense of cultural belonging” ‘diaspora’ “[d]iaspora ” the term ‘desiring’ and hints at a yearning or longing for a place which exists in it “is the sense of living in one country but looking across time and space to another” “[ exists primarily in the mind” home is dependent on the individual’s experiences and memories. It is Postcolonial Literature “Diaspora” in: Henry G. Liddell et al. A Greek-English Lexicon Bill Ashcroft et al. “Diaspora.”, 425. Postcolonial Literature James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 453. Beginning Postcolonialism idea These functions and meanings of the term ‘home’ already indicate why Rushdie’s essay “Imaginary Homelands”, in Midnight’s Children realised “how much and glorious Technicolor” as “a lost home in a lost city in the mists of lost time” , and he noticed that he “had a city and a history to reclaim” , the mental image of his home is “built from the ” – – Beginning Postcolonialism Cf. Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 9. Beginning Postcolonialism Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 10. This view is shared by “‘home’ is a mythic place of desire in the diasporic imagination. In this sense These “fictions”, as he calls them, produce their own “version” “f qualities” “[m]emory and fictional creation” ‘nostalgia’, “the yearning for a different and previous time/place/experience remains fundamental” the term “ nostos – algia – but it is also a romance with one’s own fantasy” “more than ‘mere past’ is involved way we juxtapose it to certain features of our present lives” “ positive affects of being” “[t]he logic of nostalgia dictates that nothing can really be recovered, only re imagined” seen as the place of ‘origin’” Beginning Postcolonialism Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 10. “‘ [M]y’ India, a version and no more than one version of all the hundreds of millions of possible versions”. Ibid., 10. Postcolonial Nostalgias The Future of Nostalgia traces the origin of the term back to “the Greek nostos algai ful condition”, which makes it “a painful yearning to return home”. Fred Davis. “Nosta ent Nostalgia Wave.”, 414, original emphasis. Fred Davis. “Nostalgia, Identity and the Current Nostalgia Wave.”, 418. S.D. Chrostowska “Consumed by Nostalgia?”, 54. states that the “use of remembering” can be found in diverse “lite – ” – – “[n]ostalgia and national identity are inextricably entwined” term ‘nostalgia’ also – I will consider ‘diaspora’ as a situation in w “ tangible matter of beliefs, traditions, customs, behaviours and values” beliefs, traditions and values become a vital part of their definition of ‘home’ that the “ and there, makes ‘home’ seem far imagination” is connected with the words ‘origin’ and ‘belonging’. “‘the old country’ – – Postcolonial Nostalgias In this respect, Boym goes a step further and maintains that “[u]nlike melanch personal and collective memory”. Svetlana Boym. The Future of Nostalgia Postcolonial Nostalgias Beginning Postcolonialism individuals’] loyalty and emotions” “ loss and hope as a defining tension” Beginning Postcolonialism James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 454. in Tolkien’s Writings ‘Long ago in my grandfather Thror’s time our family – ’ From Thorin’s retrospective account o pansion, the reader can draw many conclusions about the nature of Tolkien’s with dwarves more generally, scholars claim that Tolkien’s fiction tends to “[ preference” is “still in many ways very different from them” makes the analysis of Tolkien’s Tolkien’s early stories (‘The Nauglafring’, ‘Beren and Lúthien’, ‘Túrin’ and ‘The Coming of Men’), John D. Rateliff explains that “[t]hroughout these early perspective” The Hobbit the dwarves’ growing The Hobbit The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit Paul Acker, Matthew Bardowell and Jeffrey A. Weinstock. “Dwarf.”, 199. They further note that this can be seen in Tolkien’s plural of the word ‘ ’ Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien, 383 [Letter 297: Drafts for a Letter to ‘Mr Rang’, August 1967]. The History of The Hobbit Rateliff’s “Anchoring the – The Hobbit on Tolkien’s Legendarium” “[i]n previous ‘Silmarillion’ material, if not outright evil, treacherous, and avaricious”, which reinforces their negative n. “Introduction.”, 1. “However, Tolkien’s image of Dwarves improved markedly in The Lord of the Rings Glóin”. Renée Vink. “‘Jewish’ Dwarves: Tolkien an Semitic Stereotyping.”, 128. of Tolkien’s dwarves and claims that “[t]heir depiction in The Hobbit development” children’s story “may mark a point dwarves as honorable rather than merely mercenary” The Lord of the Rings his “small, stout and bearded” eople are “lovers of stone, of gems, of things that take shape ” in Thorin’s The Silmarillion Renée Vink even argues that “[t]he Dwarves are also given a creation story of their own” “ ” the dwarves share his ‘profession’ The Lord of the Rings Stanton notes that “[w]e may suppose that like all great skill” some of the ‘professions’ It is said that “[h]is [Aulë’s] are the gems ” Michael N. Stanton remarks that “Dwarves mark one of the strongest elements of cont The Hobbit The Lord of the Rings”. Michael N. Stanton. Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards see John D. Rateliff. “Anchoring – The Hobbit Tolkien’s Legendarium.” 6 19; and Gerard Hynes. “From Nauglath to Durin’s Folk – The Hobbit and Tolkien’s Dwarves.”, Gerard Hynes. “From Nauglath to Durin’s Folk.”, 20. “Dwarves.” in: J The Tolkien Companion The Return of the King “‘Jewish’ Semitic Stereotyping.”,125. the ‘Valar’ ( “[t]he Guardians of the World” “Valar.” in: J The Tolkien Companion The Silmarillion Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards The Fellowship of the Ring The Silmarillion to the dwarves’ creation of The Hobbit. According to Thorin’s statement created without his permission, he concludes that the dwarves “shall sleep now in the darkness under stone” explains the dwarves’ preference dom by Thorin’s ancestor Thrain still live “under stone” ’s “‘ ’” “easily de ” remarks, “but – – ” in Tolkien’s Middle In the first part of Peter Jackson’s adaptation An Unexpected Journey Bilbo’s voice “‘ ’” the dwarves’ Grimm’s fairy tale “Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs”. Cf. P stock. “Dwarf.”, 199. The Silmarillion The Hobbit “‘ , […] [d]ark for dark bus ’”. The Hobbit The Silmarillion The Hobbit “Erebor.” in: J The Tolkien Companion The Return of the King An Unexpected Journey Peter Jackson’s adaptation shows an almost flat plain that is encircled by mountains Jackson’s adaptation which conveys the idea of diaspora, but also Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings From a ‘historical’ point o which Moria is best known, as its founder Durin was the “eldest and most royal ” that “many dispossessed ” “the breaking of Thangorodrim” “the Great Battle” , the kingdoms’ former inhabitants “flocked” to M . Although this movement led to an increase of Moria’s dragon’s attack An Unexpected Journey Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien tween Jews and the dwarves and uses Tolkien’s 1965 BBC interview with Denys The History of The Hobbit The Return of the King “ .” in: J The Tolkien Companion “Dwarves.” in: J The Tolkien Companion Ibid. In “The Quest of Erebor” bor. Cf. J.R.R. Tolkien. “The Quest of Erebor.”, 415. The Return of the King “ .” in: J The Tolkien Companion “ .” in: J The Tolkien Companion Postcolonial Literature “‘ ’” “‘ ’s Bane [the Balrog of ’” dwarves’ greed the Balrog, Peter Jackson’s The Hobbit The Lord of the Rings ntain because “the rumour of the wealth of Erebor spread abroad” While Tolkien focused primarily on the dragon’s greedy nature as the reason for Smaug’s attack on Erebor by making the dwarves’ desire for gold and ge ent also the dragon’s greed) the reason of the attack. ‘wandering folk’ in both the novel and the adaptation. “‘ Bill Ashcroft et al. “Diaspora.”, 425. The Fellowship of the Ring The Lord of the Rings “ ”, as “it by the malice of Sauron”. The Return of the King The Return of the King In Jackson’s adaptation, Bilbo’s voice “‘ ’” An Unexpected Journey ’” “‘ ’” Thorin’s ‘we’ Tolkien’s works, especially in the appendi The Lord of the Rings following the dragon’s attack went with their family and some of their kinsmen south “into long and homeless wandering” “just a stage in ” pect is enhanced by the term “wandering”, which in Tyler’s The Tolkien Companion in which he uses the terms “scattered”, “dispossessed” “dispersed” to describe the dwarves’ situation. “Thráin and Thorin with what remained of their following … made a home in exile ” The Hobbit Moreover, in Peter Jackson’s An Unexpected Journey “‘ ’”. An Unexpected Journey The Return of the King Postcolonial Literatures in English Cf. “Dwarves.” in: J The Tolkien Companion ’ situation: “ our racial identity and what we feel is spiritually ours by right. That’s why we’re up for ” The Desolation of Smaug – Official Movie Guide The Return of the King the “ cultural belonging” and was guarded “as a treasure of the past” “ spoke ever of the Lonely Mountain far away” John McLeod’s statement that people in diaspora are “ ” people and are partly the reason for and expression of the dwarves’ communal “[i]n the summer before Frodo’s fiftieth birthday, West Road that crossed the Shire” that the dwarves’ movements have not ceased afte The Lord of the Rings in which the narrator points out that “Frodo often met seeking refuge bled, and some spoke in whispers of the Enemy and of the Land of Mordor” in Tolkien’s children’s novel The Hobbit situated “in a lived te desiring another place” ‘ ’ which they sing in Bilbo’s hobbit the dwarves’ quest Postcolonial Literature The Return of the King Beginning Postcolonialism In the records of “The Quest of Erebor”, Thorin informs Gandalf that “‘ ’” J.R.R. Tolkien. “The Quest of Erebor.”, 430. Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards The Fellowship of the Ring James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 453. In her analysis of songs in Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings Raduege claims that “[t]he songs and stories of Middle ” ‘ ’ kingdom and the dragon’s attack. When Bilbo Baggins hears this song for the “ ” Thorin’s subsequent pros “ ” kingdom from the dwarves’ present perspective, which is reminiscent of Salman Rushdie’s reconstruction of India , their ‘Erebor of the mind’. Bilbo’s hobbit “‘Far over the misty mountains cold ’” Exploring “‘Worthy of a Song’: Memory, Mortality and Music.”, 114. The Hobbit There and Back Again An Unexpected Journey to some of the songs sung in Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings “‘Worthy of a Song’: Memory, Mo tality and Music.”, 114. Postcolonial Nostalgias “‘Worthy of a Song’: Memory, Mortality and Music.”, 118. Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 1. , Moria. Thus, the adjective “cold” can also be seen in the context of the Balrog’s attack “‘dungeons deep and caverns old’” , which stress that “[t]he settings ” dwarves’ “‘pale enchanted gold ’” “pale” is rather unusual. “‘The forge’s fire is ashen-cold ’” The Fellowship of the Ring Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, Exploring means of foreshadowing: “The dwarves enlarge the prefiguration potential of incidents as the party’s capture by goblins in ‘dungeon’s deep and caverns old,’ escape from wargs through the ‘flaming spread’ of Gandalf’s fire, unleashing of ‘the dragon’s ire’ on Dale, and the ‘dying fall’ of Thorin in the final battle”. Steve Walker. The Power of Tolkien’s Prose Appendix: “Son onely Mountain”, l. 3. “‘Da ziehn wir hin, da lockt Gewinn / An Gold und Silber und Geschmeid’”. Das große Hobbit Buch The Hobbit to “The Quest of Erebor”, “‘ secretly’” day on purpose, as the roads are usually empty. J.R.R. Tolkien. “The Quest of Erebor.”, ix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 4. Beowulf ‘The Second Lay of Sigurd Fafnicide’ The Edda of Sæmund the Learned ‘ ’ Olsen remarks that this personal claim “is important, for at this point [in stanza five] the focus of the song turns from the treasure alone to the dwarves’ relationship with it” “‘pale enchanted gold ’” “‘long-forgotten gold ’” “‘To win our harps and gold from him’” ntire treasure, the tenth stanza expresses the dwarves’ ultimate ims that “ song it is to seek ‘pale enchanted go ’” dwarves’ “‘made mighty spells’” connection is, for instance, established in John Keats’ ballad “La Belle Dame Sans Merci”: in the ballad, the dyi “saw pale kings and Princes too / Pale warriors, death pale were they all”, who warn him of the s Keats. “La Belle Dame Sans Merci.”, 167, ll. 37 Cf. Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l Exploring Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 20. There and Back Again Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 5. “‘ringing bells’” “‘hollow halls’” “[s]tanzas three and four speak of a king of the elves in ancient times, who – ” “‘a gleaming golden hoard ’” Rateliff even claims with regard to these lines that they speak “not es’ skill but of the elves’ recognition thereo ” tion implies that the dwarves’ skills have been admired by the elves and hig Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 6. Cf. Gerard Hynes. “From Naug h to Durin’s Folk.”, 22. He exemplifies the close focusing on Thorin’s description of the Arke stone, which highlights the stone’s beauty rather than its value, as well as on Fili and Kili, There and Back Again ndix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 10. This clearly is an outdated point of “‘pale enchanted gold ’” “‘gleaming golden hoard ’” John D. Rateliff. “Anchoring the Myth.”, 14. is more doubtful about his elvish origin. Cf. “Bladorthin.” in: J The Tolkien Companion, 66.; cf. “Bladorthin.” in: Robert Foster. A Guide to Middle-Earth The Hobbit the two stanzas that there is a commissioner for the dwarves’ objects. On the dwarves’ skills that are “[a]lthough the home of the dwarves sounds dark and gloomy, the works of craft ” “‘meshed the light of moon and sun’” “ ” “[ ‘gleaming golden hoard’ is their sun and moon, the focus of their love and their ” Tolkien’s The Silmarillion rion’s light was si Laurelin’s golden to ‘heal’ them Exploring Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 16. There and Back Again Exploring This connection is prominently used in fairy tales, as Max Lüthi explains: “But because probably always been a symbol of the sun, or at least been connected with the sun”. Max The Fairytale The Silmarillion The Silmarillion Fëanor “pondered how the the glory of the Blessed Realm able” “‘flowering stars’” ‘ ’ a ‘ ’ of the dwarves’ famous objects, the sixth stanza entres on the dwarves’ sign for the dwarves’ can be seen when Thorin plays his “b harp” stanza are a strong focus on the dwarves’ remote habitat and the items they arves’ “secrecy and possessiveness” “‘where no man delves’” “‘[w]as sung un- The Silmarillion their own accord, which is why they were guided by two Maiar: “The maiden whom the oon was Tilion”. Ibid., 110. Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 14. The idea of starlight caught in gems is picked up in Peter Jackson’s The Desolation of Smaug “‘ ’” The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies “‘ ’” The Battle of the Five Armies Cf. Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, ll. 13 The Hobbit The Hobbit Exploring Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 22. heard by men or elves’” son’s adaptation suggests that the dwarves’ ‘Odyssean pattern’ as identified by Lucy Waddey, because the dwarves “romanticize their […] [home]” dwarves’ determination to reclaim their home The Lord of the Rings Thorin’s answer to Thrain’s question whether he would like to go back to the anvil or “‘ … ’” “‘ … again’” “remembering/ ” The Hobbit upon the king’s return “ gates” “ ” Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 24. the song and argues that “[t]he song also emphasizes that dwarves have a culture and a adition of art of which humans and elves are entirely ignorant”, which demonstrates that “From Nauglath to Durin’s Folk.”, 25. goblin’s cave, when Bofur says: “‘No, no, you can’t turn back now, eh? You’re part of the company. You’re one of us’” “‘I’m not, though, am I? ’” An Unexpected Journey in Thorin’s choice of words when refers as ‘the burglar’. Jackson’s An Unexpected Journey, in which he sings that the dwarves have “ echoes on”. Ibid., “Home in Children’s Literature.”, 13. “Diasporas.”, 454. The Return of the King James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 453. The Hobbit “‘The woods shall wave on mountains / And grass beneath the sun; / His wealth shall flow in fountains / And the rivers golden run. / The streams shall run in gladness, / The lakes shall shine and burn, / All sorrow fail and sadness / At the Mountain-king’s return!’” Corey Olsen’s words, “[u]nder fabled dwarvish Kingdom Under the Mountain” ng about in the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’, own kingdom. The kingdom in the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ “‘ ’” – The Hobbit Exploring Spaces and Places in Motion The Hobbit (Girion’s necklace and the Arke ‘ ’ – “‘hilt of sword ’” the items have been made are “long dead”. Girion’s necklace or the Thror’s cup. The Hobbit Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 12. Thorin when they explore the dragon’s hoard. Cf. J.R.R. Tolkien. The Hobbit Peter Jackson’s adaptation, Thorin stresses the protective powers associated with “‘ No blade can pierce it’” The Battle of the Five Armies days is made explicit: “Long hours in the past days Thorin had spent in the treasury, and about which were wound old memories of the labours and the sorrows of his race”. J.R.R. Tolkien. The Hobbit Rushdie’s experiences in India. Cf. Salman Rushdie. “Imag nary Homelands.”, 9 “‘ ’” In his analysis of this “great white gem of brilliant translucency” erton analyses the Arkenstone’s The Lord of the Rings The Silmarillion enstone “is a source of enchantment, the focus of men’s desires and sel the story have to play” whole hoard, but also part of his family’s inheritance and his Jackson’s audio visual adaptation, in which the Arkenstone is also named ‘The King’s Jewel’ and linked with ruler “‘ ’” “ made with his desires, will and emotions” “is bound up with the lust for power that has been projected artisan Sauron” and the Silmarils, which “are ” “‘ … ’” “[ rain; and this is the crux: the Arkenstone is a natural phenomenon” The Hobbit The Desolation of Smaug “Arkenstone.” in: J.E.A. Tyler. The Tolkien Companion There and Back Again The History of the Hobbit Rateliff also includes a subchapter on “The Arkenstone as Silmaril”, in which he has a closer look at the origins of the Arkenstone in Tolkien’s legendarium and even speculates The History of The Hobbit There and Back Again An Unexpected Journey There and Back Again The Hobbit There and Back Again statement can also be expanded, since Thorin’s comparisons are not only natural ultimately leads to the Arkenstone’s appearance “was ” ‘ ’ : “Thorin’s love for the Arkenstone is not a reflection of his reverence ” ‘ ’ , since the dwarves “cut and fashioned” , so that Olsen’s Arkenstone’s ‘ ’ “to a certain extent with personality” the Lonely Mountain, it has “its dark head in a torn cloud” ems “to frown at him [Bilbo] and threaten him as it drew nearer” [i]n Tolkien’s fiction, especially perhaps in his tales of Middle The Hobbit it over to Bard: “It was as if a globe had been filled with moonlight and hung be stars”. Exploring Judith Kollmann assume that in Peter Jackson’s adaptations “Thorin is obsessed with the because of its symbolic value”. Frank P. Riga, Maureen Thum and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to Epic Prequel.”, 113 The Hobbit There and Back Again The Hobbit Liam Campbell. “Nature.”, 440. he mountain’s ‘ ’ ‘body metaphor’. This metaphor in the mountain’s ‘ ’ dragon’s attack took place only of the Arkenstone resulted in the dragon’s attack. In both the novel and the “beneath ountain” s connected with greed is ‘dragon sickness’, the love for gold that resulted in the destruction of Erebor. It seems as if the dwarves’ “‘mighty spells’” “ … ” There and Back Again notes that Bilbo is often ‘drawn’ to the treasure; he argues that “[t]he past participle drawn agent – him towards it” and uses Bilbo’s findi upports Atherton’s assumption. Cf. Paul Acker, Matthew Bardowell and Jeffrey A. Weinstock. “Dwarf.”, 200. Despite the fact that Bilbo’s voice “‘ ’” An Unexpected Journey 2:52. Two scenes in Jackson’s An Unexpected Journey ‘throne room’ Thror’s throne. Secondly, when the miners, who are digging f The Hobbit Smaug’s and the Balrog’s desire is similar, the mithri Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 5. The Hobbit in all dwarves: “a e fierce”. J.R.R. Tolkien. The Hobbit Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards “ back through their fingers with a sigh” further and observes with focus on Peter Jackson’s adaptations that Thorin “becomes crazed by the ‘dragon sickness’, an ugly greed that pervades the place ” that the destination of the dwarves’ journey ‘ ’ owever, the actual ‘encounter’ with the mountain ‘ ’ ‘ ’ “‘ [Thorin’s gran father’s] ’” the treasure’s – similar to Rushdie’s experiences in India – “capable of reclaiming precisely the thing that was lost” “‘win our harps and gold ’” from the dragon, as the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ Peter Jackson’s ‘ ’ The Hobbit Kate Muir. “One Film to ll.” The Hobbit “Imaginary Homelands.”, 10. Appendix: “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. Das große Hobbit Buch ing dragon. He expands Tolkien’s novel “by not only completing the work, but hildren’s novel to adult film” Tolkien’s Jackson’s adaptation gives considerable recognition movie does not solely rely on Thorin’s d the temporal gap between the dragon’s attack focalizer in Tolkien’s novel. At the beginning of The Hobbit e is “sharing their [the dwarves’] exper ” An Unexpected Journey addresses the dwarves’ . By implication, the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ the dwarves’ nostalgia movie, the viewer is introduced to the dwarves’ diasporic situation, their dete Bilbo’s frame narration, which, in terms of Thorin’s Frank P. Riga, Maureen Thum and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to Epic Prequel.”, 98. The Return of the King Exploring the dwarves’ situation and contextualises the Jackson’s introduction ‘ ’ Thorin’s subsequent explanation “‘ ’” “‘ ’” “‘ ’” Similar to the stanzas of the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’, which ‘ ’ The Hobbit An Unexpected Journey The Hobbit Lord of the Rings that dwarf women “seldom walk abroad except at great need” and on journeys they are “so like dwarf men that the eyes and ears of other peoples cannot tell them apart”. The Return of the King women; she shares the dwarves’ corpulence and wears a is reminiscent of Nori’s. An Unexpected Journey nt at the dwarves’ secretiveness the dwarves’ craf , the dwarves’ ’s ‘ ’ “‘ ’” of words used in Bilbo’s voice “‘ ’” “‘ ’” e, Thror’s throne room is lined with e dwarves’ ‘pillars’ on which the kingdom massive stalactite, crossed by golden ‘veins’, that merges with Thror’s throne is another element that reinforce suggests that the gold is ‘flowing’ from the mount may be seen as a first hint at Thror’s avarice. The Desolation of Smaug “‘ ’” An Unexpected Journey An Unexpected Journey The throne’s position riches that accumulate underneath him. Thus, he is, similar to the dragon, ‘si ting’ on the hoard and treasures Erebor. Thror’s “wears a tunic of midnight blue, studded with silver and a large silver th a sword at his side” highlighted by Bilbo’s voice “‘ ’” ’s texture of Erebor’s walls, his drawing ‘Conversation with Smaug’ dwarf kingdom in Peter Jackson’s adaptation is reminiscent of what Dorothy sees when she arrives in the Emerald City in L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Desolation of Smaug Frank P. Riga, Maureen Thum and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to Epic Prequel.”, 113. While Thorin’s clothes hardly display An Unexpected Journey The Battle of the Five Armies wears his grandfather’s crown, with golden applications. The change of his clothes already hints at Thorin’s dragon sickness and his avarice. In this context, he also begins to refer to himself as ‘King’ and The Battle of the Five Armies An Unexpected Journey Das große Hobbit Buch The effect on the viewer of Jackson’s Hobbit introduction of Erebor is similar to Dorothy’s first impression of the Emerald City, which is likewise associated with wealth and prosperity. As in Baum’s “‘hollow halls beneath the fells’” ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’. They transforme workshops. In Bilbo’s voice one of Jackson’s huge city within the mountain, it does not adopt the novel’s emphasis on co “‘sung unheard by men or elves’” The Wonderful Wizard of Oz “‘But isn’t everything here green?’ asked Dorothy. ‘No more than in any other city,’ replied Oz; ‘but when you wear ’” fairy tales that elaborate on the setting: “[a] city or a bridge […] of metal – – is […] not a curiosity but rather, with its abstract un formity and timelessness, in its way a perfect creation” The Fairytale and the dwarves’ skill by foregrounding the materials that have been used to build it. : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 8. ’ A Brief Introduction to Tolkien’s Dragons … … dragon’s the word ‘dragon’ are not restricted to the dragon’s characteristics and – “ used in different ways and given different functions” briefly refers to J.K. Rowling’s Harry Potter Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone Despite Hagrid’s “causes so much trouble [that] he agrees to sen it away” Ron’s remark, who explains to Harry and Hermione after having been bitten by “‘I tell you, that dragon’s the most horrible animal I’ve ever met, but the way Hagrid goes on about it, you’d think it was a fluffy little ’” , which points to Hagrid’s fondness of dangerous Cf. Roz Kaveney. “Dragons.”, 295. cf. “Dragons.” in: David Leeming. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology “Dragons.” in: David Leeming. The Oxford Companion to World Mythology Sandra Unerman. “Dragons in Twentieth Century Fiction.”, 94. Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone Kushner’s A Book Dragon eir marginal role in Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings eral of his other works feature dragons “as real and very danger coldly calculating and fiercely intelligent” Tolkien’s works “the fire of high royalty” and “‘ ’ alone” “all Dragons were large ” Tolkien’s dragons his tale “Farmer Giles of Ham” who “was of ancient and imperial lineage, and very rich. He was ” “a fire ” “Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics”. In this Beowulf “ ” ‘draconitas’ ‘draco’ “ ” The Silmarillion There and Back Again “Dragons.” The Tolkien Companion The History of The Hobbit into three groups: 1.) dragons “who remain undifferentiated from one another in the en masse may be of importance”, 2.) “dragons who are merely a name […] or deed [...] but who are given no line of dialogue r any characteristic that would mark them as individual personalities”, 3.) those “who works”. John D. Rateliff. The History of The Hobbit “Dragons.” The Tolkien Companion For a more detailed account on Tolkien’s dragons see John D. Rateliff. The History of The Hobbit J.R.R. Tolkien. “Farmer Giles of Ham.”, 116. Sandra Unerman. “Dragons in Twentieth Century Fiction.”, 96. J.R.R. Tolkien. “Beowulf: The Monsters and the Critics”, n.p. The Silmarillion ’ : “In ” n Peter Jackson’s The Desolation of Smaug Smaug’s Sauron’s silhouette Smaug’s awareness of the One Ring becomes apparent “‘ ’” Tolkien’s original tale, Smaug’s “ ” be seen in his role as ‘ of Erebor’ The Dwarves’ Antagonist: ‘ ’ – the dragon’s character “ one of the strongest portraits of any dragon in modern fiction” The Silmarillion The Desolation of Smaug “‘Oakenshield’s quest will fail. The darkness is coming. It will spread to every corner of ’” at Sauron’s increasing powers. These Unerman. “Dragons in Twentieth Century Fiction.”, 96. ’ ’ ’ It is not only that “[t]he quarrels over his [Smaug’s] hoard lead to as much trouble and danger for the hobbit as Smaug did when he was alive”, but even to Tolkien’s fiction. Cf. Rudolf Simek. Mittelerde en notes that “[i]t is in the context of their kingdom” the dwarves’ nostalgia is the horror of the dragon’s attac “the focus [of the song] them” reinforces that the song is bound to the dwarves’ perspective The dragon’s raid “‘The pines were roaring on the height’” he word “ ” “ not a character in this poem” the dragon’s nocturnal activity, which Exploring : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 25. Exploring : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, dragon’s “nocturnal nature” is a prominent feature in the Old English epic poem Beowulf She explains that “[t]he Beowulf asleep during the day”. Christine Rauer. Beowulf and the Dragon : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, “‘[t]he bells were ringing in the dale’” “‘[t]he mountain smoked beneath the moon’” dragon’s fury is compared at a later point with Thorin’s prose account o “the the dragon” nor does it explain the dragon’s motives peculates that the dwarves “seem almost to of their story” Thorin’s account the dragon’s attack ‘ ’ ‘ ’ ‘ ’. “‘ … : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 29. The Hobbit : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l Exploring ’” the dragon’s longe destroys the dwarves’ hope that the dragon might be dead an “ ” reason for the dragon’s with the dwarves’ ‘ ’ ’ “ ” Smaug’s The Hobbit The Road to Middle-earth This is, for instance, also addressed in C.S. Lewis’ The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (1952), in which Eustace Scrubb comes across a treasure in a dragon’s cave and is turned come a dragon, the narrator explains that “[s]leeping on a dragon’s hoard with greedy, dragonish thoughts in his heart” is the reason why “he had become a dragon himsel ”. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader The Hobbit The Road to Middle-earth The Hobbit In Peter Jackson’s final or rather ‘dragon sickness’ is The Battle of the Five Armies lected in Beorn’s garden when Thorin’s voice ’s avarice “‘ ’” – The Desolation of Smaug – characters’ greed. In Tolkien’s The Hobbit Smaug’s “‘ ’” “ ” Furthermore, it highlights that Smaug’s strength Sandra Unerman observes that “[w] used and his greed for treasure” ‘ ’ The Battle of the Five Armies The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies The Hobbit Roz Kaveney. “Dragons.”, 295. Unerman. “Dragons in Twentieth Century Fiction.”, 9 Tolkien’s Art s Smaug’s wickedness in the context “expresses ‘spiritual sin’ chiefly ” of these characteristics are already indicated by his name, ‘Smaug the Golden’, ‘ ’, Tolkien explains that “[t]he dragon bears a – – Smugan : a low philological jest” ‘ ’ ‘ ’ and becomes ‘king’ In the chapter “Fire and Water”, ‘King under the Mountain’: “‘ ’” capitalised ‘K’ “‘ ’” ‘king’ Tolkien’s Art Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien ‘Observer’, February 1938], original emphasis. smjúga (“sich schmiegen, sich zwängen”, smaug (“ist eingedrungen”, penetrated, invaded). Mittelerde “a vast golden dragon”. The Hobbit coloured, as can also be seen in Tolkien’s illustration “Conversation with Smaug” Das große Hobbit Buch “Tolkien calls his dragon Smaug ‘King under the Mountain’ kings” Tolkien’s Art The Hobbit ’s “‘ ’” marked This instance shows Bard’s attitude towards the dwarf king, in whom he “[g]enerati Mountain and to Dale, and the events are now regarded as ancient legends”. Corey Olsen. Exploring Erebor’s fiery inhabitant ‘ ’ several other “spiritual sin[s]” Smaug’s greed “‘Yes, it is rare and wonderful, indeed,’ absurdly pleased ” Smaug’s behaviour and speech him “ way” He argues that “[t]he ” . Smaug’s ambivalent nature Tolkien’s Art Cf. “Smaug the Golden.” in: J The Tolkien Companion Exploring The Hobbit The parallel between Smaug’s waistcoat and Bilbo’s mithril coat is striking: even Bilbo However, Smaug’s he is constantly surrounded by gold and precious objects, so that terms like “costly bed” or “golden couch” feature prominently wh “[t]he dragons also use language to fight for the speaking, dominant verbal battle that occurs at the death of the dragon Fáfnir”. . “Uncanny Dragons.”, 46, my emphasis. Tolkien admitted that Bilbo’s Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien Ármann Jakobsson. “Talk to the Dragon.”, 2 his dominant characteristic of ‘wiliness’, and what the narrator calls with … his ‘overwhelming personality’. This “wiliness” “[t] human” In his article “Monster Theory (Seven Theses)”, Jeff This refusal to participate in the classificatory ‘order of things’ is true of monsters gene Smaug’s hybrid nature and the danger he poses to the “‘ ’” the dwarves’ ‘ ’ The Road to Middle-earth Ármann Jakobsson. “Talk to the Dragon.”, 34. In addition, Tom Shippey notes that “nothing could be more archaic or fantastic than a dragon brooding on its gold, and yet strong sense of familiarity in this one’s speech puts it back into the ‘continuum of greed’, makes it just dimly possible – even real historical human ones”. Tom Ship The Road to Middle-earth “the dragons’ intensely possessive gaze and their cle speech” that makes them appear dangerous and uncanny. Emily Midkiff. “Uncanny Dragons.”, 43. Jeffrey Jerome Cohen. “Monster Culture (Seven Theses).” The Hobbit the dragon’s ’s Smaug’ , the dragon’s lair dragon’s gaze or his intelligent and manipulative description of his ‘lair’ within the mountain the halls’ ‘glorious’ past state and scriptions of the mountain’s interior ribes as the ‘ pace’: The Hobbit The Hobbit : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l ’ The Hobbit Ármann Jakobsson. “Talk to the Dragon.”, Landscape in Children’s Literature tions of the mountain’s surroundings and in particular the depiction of the “ ” yet fully recovered from Smaug’s attack. The “broken and blackened stumps” “bleak and barren” cou reminiscent of the dragon’s “[ desolate region in the eastern range of the Grey Mountains” ’s surroundings is emphasised in Tolkien’s ‘ ’ The description of the mountain’s surroundings an observation made by Liam Campbell: “Whether rich in floral place and nature” In this respect, the place is “like a palimpsest, with ruins that are traces bearing witness to earlier, erased, suppressed or forgotten ‘texts,’ i.e. histories and life situations” “ every now and again a black and ominous crow” ormed into a “perilous waste” “ of the more interesting bits of Tolkien’s dragon The Hobbit The Hobbit “Withered Heath.” The Tolkien Companion The Hobbit Liam Campbell. “Nature.”, 435. Spaces and Places in Motion The Hobbit ” the dragon’s attack laid – in the “ quiet” which becomes the dwarves’ hide “grassy bay” however, this symbol of hope is destroyed by the rampaging beast, when “[h]is hot breath shrivelled the grass before the door” Olsen notes that “[t]he thrush is a sy even the wise and goodly birds were ‘tame to the hands’ of Thorin’s father and ” hole, its appearance is rather dismal: “[t]here on the grey stone in the grass was spots” “‘ listening, and I don’t like the look of him’” the descriptions of the mountain’s exterior. Despite The Hobbit “ Gothic fiction” The History of The Hobbit The Hobbit “‘ ’” Exploring The Hobbit Encyclopedia of Gothic Literature Gothic Literature “‘ ’” “‘many-pillared halls of stone / With golden roof and silver floor’” , “monstrosity” can be found in the of “Tolkien’s menacing breed” the dragon’s lair pression of the dragon’s lair described as “a yawning mouth leading in and down” The Hobbit referred to as a ‘r ’/‘ruins’ dragon left its lair and which is “worn and splintered and blackened”. The Fellowship of the Ring The Hobbit Emily Midkiff. “Uncanny Dragons.”, 42. At least to some extent, Peter Jackson’s adaptation also depicts a form of insanity by idea of ‘dragon sickness’ that afflicted in particular Thorin’s grandf The Desolation of Smaug The Hobbit the novel and Peter Jackson’s adaptations: ‘swallowing’ is implied in the wood elf king’s perceives as a “cavern mouth”, An Unexpected Journey ’ – dwarves’ skill on e more. The ‘entrance’ into the goblin caves is merely “[a] crack [that] had opened at the back of the cave” of “huge doors of stone” on the dwarves’ skill, thus and stresses the idea of a ‘homecoming’ of the dwarves, “‘dungeons’” ‘ ’ and which reappears as “dungeon hall” “‘hollow halls’” During the dwarves’ “dreadful echoes” “ ’s]” Ricardo Gullón argues that “[s] o observes it or experiences it” perceives the place as what it is, namely a dragon’s lair, Thorin’s perspe The Hobbit An Unexpected Journey The Hobbit : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 2. The Hobbit : “Song of the Lonely Mountain”, l. 8. The Hobbit Ricardo Gullón. “On Space in the Novel.”, “‘ ’” “[a]t the beginning of the chapter [‘Not at Home’], Thorin himself is feeling different” . He further notes that throughout the chapter, “Thorin [...] now feels he s ‘not at home,’ but rather in the lair of the dragon” refers to the dragon’s lair as a “‘ ’” “‘ ’” that “ but were not of Durin’s line” The difference in Thorin’s and Bilbo’s perspectives partly) from “memories and hopes” “ and dust” ter, I examined the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ and its transition from the depiction of the dwarf kingdom to the dragon’s attack, which follows one of the most private stanzas, i.e., the The Hobbit The Fellowship of the Ring, Gimli’s pers “‘ ’” “‘ ’” The Fellowship of the Ring Exploring The Hobbit The Return of the King Ricardo Gullón. “On Space in the Novel.”, The Hobbit and which is now in ruins: “The bridge that Balin had spoken of they found long stream” “ and no sign of them remained” “ monstrous crow” his ‘nest’ and left his ‘aviary’ through the gate “ ” d it into a dragon’s lair, Erebor becomes subject to a further r “began to labour hard in fortifying the ” of the place and even build something ‘new’. “contrived a sm the new wall” and “altered the narrow bed” the mountain, they see “the Gate new The Hobbit Exploring The Hobbit ” “Thorin’s immovable of Thorin’s kingdom so far and it falls well short of anyone’s hopes for the restoration of the kingdom of old” closer to the mountain is significant, as “Thorin’s own mindset is clearly articulated in the song” song is reminiscent of the ‘Song of ’ “‘The sword is sharp, the spear is long, / The arrow swift, the Gate is strong; / The heart is bold that looks on gold; / The dwarves no more shall suffer wrong’” namely that “the stanza about harps and song has been squeezed into a single their resolution to ‘suffer wrong’ no more” Thrain’s kingdom Peter Jackson’s destruction of Erebor are explained in Thorin’s “‘ ’” Erebor, Tolkien’s descriptions leave room for part of Bilbo’s frame narrative, which is based on Thorin’s explanation in The Hobbit highlights Smaug’s cruelty order of settings in the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’, the exterior of the mountain is destroyed first. The Hobbit Exploring The Hobbit Exploring The Hobbit Similar to the descriptions in the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’, Smaug is never shown during Bilbo’s frame narrative, t ’s wings “‘ ’” the dragon’s dwarves’ song, the attack takes place during ’s “‘ ’” At the beginning of the dragon’s attack, An Unexpected Journey The Hobbit The Hobbit “Smaug’s attack ” The Desolation of Smaug – Official Movie Guide town at the beginning of Jackson’s The Battle of the Five Armies “‘ hey’ve [the dwarves] brought an apocalypse upon our ’” The Battle of the Five Armies The Hobbit An Unexpected Journey An Unexpected Journey Mountain and see the ruins of the city. The blackened stone hints at Smaug’s fiery breath. The Desolation of Smaug Exploring An Unexpected Journey , it does not withstand the dragon’s Smaug’s claws as well as The Desolation of Smaug Smaug’s eye is revealed. Sleeping under a blanket of gold, , which can be regarded as one of “the bling the mountain” the dragon’s rule. When Bilbo enters the treasure have, just as the gold, become ‘pale’. Thus, as in Tolkien’s story, An Unexpected Journey Another significant object made of stone that has been damaged by Smaug is Thror’s the partial destruction of the throne, as the symbol of a king’s reign, Jackson indicates The Battle of the Five Armies Gollum’s cave. Kate Muir. “One ll.”, n.p. The Desolation of Smaug original colour when they are illuminated by the dragon’s fire. By contrast, the end of An Unexpected Journey Bilbo’s exploration of the hoard, as can be “‘ – – live dragon down there, don’t waken it’” – An Unexpected Journey shows him sitting on his throne, before it pans and shifts into a bird’s The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies e gold and the mountain’s walls, In the context of Smaug’s destruction and the dwarves’ exploration of the blance to Peter Jackson’s depiction of Moria in The Lord of the Rings The Desolation of Smaug An Unexpected Journey The Desolation of Smaug The Battle of the Five Armies The Desolation of Smaug “‘ t’s a ’” The Hobbit “‘ ’” An Unexpected Journey dwarves’ “‘ ’” tack and the company’s “[s]kulls and bones” The Hobbit death. Balin’s statement that they were “‘ ’” “‘ ’” ‘ ’ the dragon’s wrath company have relit the furnaces with the help of Smaug’s fiery breath, they fill The Fellowship of the Ring The Hobbit The Desolation of Smaug 2:11:44. The dwarves’ pity and loss The Hobbit The Desolation of Smaug “‘ ’” ‘Smaug the Golden’ when the statue collapses and the gold covers him Given the fact that Peter Jackson’s The Battle of the Five Armies turns into “a minute CGI battle” In ‘decapitating’ the ‘ ’ and ‘rebuild’ the The Desolation of Smaug “One Film to End Them All.”, n.p. The Battle of the Five Armies n Tolkien’s The Hobbit company’s collective memories are, however, restricted to their ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’, in which the create their ‘Erebor of the mind’. the dwarves’ Raduege, namely that “songs and stories of the past, especially in pre ing” , the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ is used to dwarves’ The dwarves’ tunnelling and mining their kingdom. While the mountain retains its ‘natural’ look ‘Heart of the Mountain’, Bilbo’s Erebor, which is based to a great extent on the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ and Thorin’s prose account, transform into a ‘ ’ “‘Worthy of a Song’: Memory, Mortality and Music.”, 115. its depiction as a dragon’s lair is informed by waste and destruction Liam Campbell claims that “Tolkien gave as much detail and passion to the glimmer of his green and vibrant lands” gon has on the desolate land. The depiction of the dragon’s wasteland is also informed by Tolkien’s use of the dragon’s lair is compared a ‘yawning mouth’ that leads into pitch dragon’s lair. “‘ ’” Liam Campbell. “Nature.”, 434. Cf. Emily Midkiff. “Uncanny Dragons.”, 43. cf. Ármann Jakobsson. “Talk to the Dragon.”, 34. The Hobbit the dwarves’ reshaping Transformation is also at the core of Peter Jackson’s “well imaginative reinterpretation” The Hobbit nt destruction are based on the ‘Song of the Lonely Mountain’ and Thorin’s dragon’s attack. Apart from being a symbol of warfare and the dwarves’ will to defend the selves, they also reflect the dwarves’ and contribute to Erebor’s majestic appearance dwarves’ habitat in the mountain is reminiscent of a city that has been the spatial arrangement, the position of Thror’s Frank P. Riga, Maureen Thum and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to Epic Prequel.”, 114. hand, a huge stalactite, which is traversed by golden ‘veins’, gold is flowing directly into the throne of the ‘King under the Mountain’. On the In Peter Jackson’s adaptations the dwarves’ kingdom is destroyed when the an emblem of the dwarves’ cul ate and Thror’s . In the context of Smaug’s attack, bot In Peter Jackson’s The Desolation of Smaug reminiscent of Jackson’s depiction of Moria in The Lord of the Rings the ‘chamber of ’ The Hobbit trance in Jackson’s adaptation and reshapes the mounta The Battle of the Five Armies ’ During the dragon’s rule The Desolation of Smaug The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative Weinstock. “Dwarf.” The Ashgate Encyclopedia of Literary and Cinematic Monsters “‘Worthy of a Song’: Memory, Mortality and M sic.” Middle-earth Minstrel – Essays on Music in Tolkien. Das große Hobbit Buch. and Alethea Helbig. “Place in Children’s Literature.” Children’s Literature Association Quarterly Post-Colonial Studies: The Key Concepts “Diaspora.” The Post-Colonial Studies Reader There and Back Again – J R R Tolkien and the Origins of The Hobbit. The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The Annotated Wizard of Oz The Future of Nostalgia , Avtar. “Thinking Through the Concept of Diaspora.” The Post-Colonial Studies Reader and Manfred Jahn. “Space in Narrative.” Routledge Encyclopedia of Narrative Theory , Liam. “Nature.” A Companion to J.R.R. Tolkien. Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien – A Selection Edited by Humphrey Carpenter with the Assistance of Christopher Tolkien Landscape in Children’s Literature “A Topoanalytical Reading of Landscapes in The Lord of the Rings The Hobbit.” J.R.R. Tolkien – and Tolkien’s Art – A Mythology for England , S.D. “Consumed by Nostalgia?” SubStance Clifford, James. “Diasporas.” The Post-Colonial Studies Reader , Jeffrey Jerome. “Monster Culture (Seven Theses).” Monster Theory – Reading Culture “ ” International Encyclopedia of Human Geography , Fred. “Nostalgia, Identity and the Current Nostalgia Wave.” Journal of Popular Culture L. 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Tolkien’s A View from Elsewhere: The Spatiality of Children’s Fantasy Fiction The History of The Hobbit – One-Volume Edition. . “Anchoring – The Hobbit on Tolkien’s Legend rium.” The Hobbit and Tolkien’s Mythology – Essays on Revisions and Influences Beowulf and the Dragon – Parallels and Analogues and Judith Kollmann. “From Children’s Book to n’s Transformation of Tolkien’s The Hobbit.” Mythlore Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone lman. “Imaginary Homelands.” Imaginary Homelands – Essays and Criticism 1981-1991 Spaces and Places in Motion – Spatial Concepts in Contemporary American Literature The Road to Middle-earth The Hobbit: The Desolation of Smaug – Official Movie Guide Mittelerde – Tolkien und die germanische Mythologie Gothic Literature. Encyclopedia of Gothic Literature. Hobbits, Elves, and Wizards – Exploring the Wonders and Worlds of J.R.R. 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Short. “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Cha lenging the Mythology of Home in Children’s Literature.” Children’s Literature in Education “Towards a Theory of Space in Narrative.” Poetics Today ‘ ’ Far over the misty mountains cold To dungeons deep and caverns old We must away ere break of day To seek the pale enchanted gold. The dwarves of yore made mighty spells, While hammers fell like ringing bells In places deep, where dark things sleep, In hollow halls beneath the fells. For ancient king and elvish lord There many a gleaming golden hoard They shaped and wrought, and light they caught To hide in gems on hilt of sword. On silver necklaces they strung The flowering stars, on crowns they hung The dragon-fire, in twisted wire They meshed the light of moon and sun. Far over the misty mountains cold To dungeons deep and caverns old We must away, ere break of day, To claim our long-forgotten gold. Goblets they carved there for themselves And harps of gold; where no man delves There lay they long, and many a song Was sung unheard by men or elves. The Hobbit The pines were roaring on the height, The winds were moaning in the night. The fire was red, it flaming spread; The trees like torches blazed with light. The bells were ringing in the dale And men looked up with faces pale; The dragon’s ire more fierce than fire Laid low their towers and houses frail. The mountain smoked beneath the moon; The dwarves, they heard the tramp of doom. They fled their hall to dying fall Beneath his feet, beneath the moon. Far over the misty mountains grim To dungeons deep and caverns dim We must away, ere break of day, To win our harps and gold from him!

Abstract

In J. R. R. Tolkien’s “The Hobbit” (1937), Erebor is both the ancient home of the dwarves, which has been conquered and is now occupied by the dragon Smaug, and the destination of the quest of thirteen dwarves and a hobbit, who aim at regaining Erebor from the claws of the dragon. On their way to the mountain, the dwarves constantly remember the old days in which their ancestors mined and crafted beautiful objects inside the walls of Erebor. Their thoughts are, however, frequently overshadowed by concerns about Smaug, who transformed the dwarf kingdom into a dragon hoard and is now sleeping on the gold.

Denise Burkhard delves into Tolkien’s children’s novel and Peter Jackson’s “The Hobbit” trilogy (2012–2014) and explores the depiction of Erebor. The analysis focuses on the dwarves’ reconstruction of the old kingdom, the ideas of home and belonging in the context of the dwarves’ diasporic situation as well as on the destruction and the reshaping(s) of the mountain. The adverse depictions of Erebor as dwarf kingdom and dragon hoard are examined by having a closer look at the dwarves, the sinister dragon and the enormous hoard in the novel as well as in Peter Jackson’s audio-visual interpretations.

References

Abstract

In J. R. R. Tolkien’s “The Hobbit” (1937), Erebor is both the ancient home of the dwarves, which has been conquered and is now occupied by the dragon Smaug, and the destination of the quest of thirteen dwarves and a hobbit, who aim at regaining Erebor from the claws of the dragon. On their way to the mountain, the dwarves constantly remember the old days in which their ancestors mined and crafted beautiful objects inside the walls of Erebor. Their thoughts are, however, frequently overshadowed by concerns about Smaug, who transformed the dwarf kingdom into a dragon hoard and is now sleeping on the gold.

Denise Burkhard delves into Tolkien’s children’s novel and Peter Jackson’s “The Hobbit” trilogy (2012–2014) and explores the depiction of Erebor. The analysis focuses on the dwarves’ reconstruction of the old kingdom, the ideas of home and belonging in the context of the dwarves’ diasporic situation as well as on the destruction and the reshaping(s) of the mountain. The adverse depictions of Erebor as dwarf kingdom and dragon hoard are examined by having a closer look at the dwarves, the sinister dragon and the enormous hoard in the novel as well as in Peter Jackson’s audio-visual interpretations.