Part I: Approaching the Spatial Dimension in:

Denise Burkhard

Ancient Dwarf Kingdom or the Hoard of a Fiery Dragon?, page 15 - 30

J.R.R. Tolkien's Erebor as a Transformed and Dynamic Place

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3975-5, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6774-1,

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
‘Mu d’ ‘complex’ ‘entwined’ terms ‘place’ and ‘space’. Despite the fact that “[p]lace and its most frequent companion term, space, seem to be on everyone’s lips in culture” everyday familiarity with the concept [‘place’] that can give rise to diff The English ‘place’ carries a variety of senses and stands in close relation to a numb “its diate problem” “that space in narratives – – ” Abbott speculates “that the neglect of space ten” “ intensive” ‘spatial turn’. Greg Dickinson et al. “Introduction: Rhetoric/ Place.” Place and Experience regard to ‘space’ and claims that “ become generally accepted”. Gabriel Zoran. “Towards a Theory of Space in Narrative.”, 310. Place and Experience “Space in Narrative ”, 551. This is their second reason why the “consideration of space got off to a slow start” list “Gotthold Lessing’s characterisation of narrative literature as a ‘temporal’ art” as the first re The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative “encompassed a belief in an absolute space ” Des Espaces Autres (“Of Other Spaces”) in 1967 not only that “concepts of locality and position” – fact that the notions ‘place’ and ‘space’ have gained scholarly a cus on ‘place’, “ in the existing literature suggest that the notion is not at all clearly defined” – – Birgit Neumann. “Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur.”, 11 A View from Elsewhere Foucault. “Of Other Spaces.”, 22. Place and Experience “Place, in its literary ” Milford A. Jeremiah. “The Use of Place in Writing and Literature.”, 23. my analysis of Tolkien’s The Hobbit, because the characteristics of ‘place’ will use the term (narrative) place to refer to “an aspect of space, a smaller unit” en as a much broader concept that “will be used in a more general sense as referring to an ‘extended region’” his article “Place”, the social geographer and begins with the geographical sense of the word ‘place’: a definition, place “ of place” . While ‘loc tion’ refers to ‘locale’ “ ” ‘sense of place’ “the feelings and emotions a place s” emotions emphasises that “[p] per se ” argues that “[t] The Lord of the Rings Hogwarts” “a very strong sense of landscape” ’ “ Spaces and Places in Motion Cresswell. “Place.”, 1 Spaces and Places in Motion Cresswell. “Place.”, 1 The Fantasy Literature of England Zoran highlights this problem: “This set of concepts [‘ description narration space action’ action of the text from the phenomena relevant to space”. Gabriel Zoran. “Towards a Theory of Space in Narrative.”, 326, original emphasis. – ” Cresswell’s ‘sense of place’ elaborate on the character’s attitudes towards certain places. Given that “[t]he generation of space can also take place on a geographical scale, especially in stories structured as journeys or quests” Wolfgang Hallet’s and Birgit Neumann’s introduction to Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur h they assume that spaces (in literary texts) are “h manly lived spaces” (“menschlich erlebte Räume” claim that “[a]t its most basic level, narrative space is internal characters move about and live” protagonists’ [sic!] [or simply character’s] perceived spatial tagonist’s in the protagonist’s perceived world. the character’s the character’ gotiation of a character’s identity “is filled with memories and hopes” The Fellowship of the Ring The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative “Raum und Bewegung in der Literatur.”, 11. “Space in Narrative” A View from Elsewhere Ricardo Gullón. “On Space in the Novel.”, 12. In children’s literature, ‘ ’ in J.K. Rowling’s description of Hogwarts in the Harry Potter ’ depiction The Magician’s Nephew the Emerald City in L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz “home ” ‘home’ (which is assumed to be safe but boring) and ‘away’ (which is “[p]laces, too, are open and changing, related in pe manent exchange to other places” and Alethea Helbig. “Place in Children’s Literature.”, 9. The Pleasures of Children’s Literature Barrie’s Peter Pan , Lewis Carroll’s Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe , or Bilbo Baggins’ journey from the Shire in J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit The Pleasures of Children’s Literature “the binary opposition – white”. “Bina rism.” in: The Key Concepts Spaces and Places in Motion (“ ” ‘home/away/home pattern’ place is especially common in children’s literature. nalysing ‘home’ in the context of the ‘sanctuary topos’, Jane Suzanne Carroll highlights the pivotal role location. Her observation that “the conne tion between human and landscape is at its most intense” prevalence of ‘home’ in children’s stories three patterns that have emerged: “Although so deep and subtle a subject as theme in children’s fiction falls into three basic patter home as an evolving reflection of the protagonist” the ‘Odyssean pattern’, the ‘Oedipal pattern’ and the ‘Promethean pattern’, the ‘Odyssean pattern’ (which essentially “home ” ) “home is also usually an important theme. The Heimat, Space, Narrative The Pleasures of Children’s Literature Landscape in Children’s Literature In their article “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children’s Literature”, Melissa B. Wilson and Kathy G. Short draw attention to the fact “ children’s story. This is not to say that home is not problematic – is”. Wilson and Kathy G. Short. “Goodbye Yellow Brick Road: Challenging the Mythology of Home in Children’s Literature.”, 130. Lucy Waddey. “Home in Children’s Fiction.”, 13. The Pleasures of Children’s Literature beauty, because there they are safe and there they truly belong” which “home is the beginning, middle, and end, an objective reality, a place ere important things happen, unromanticized by distance” ‘Oedipal pattern’. “begin with no representation of home at all, but with the protagonist as a kind of exile” and where “the characters have ally through a good deal of work, create another” the ‘Promethean pattern’. In J.R.R. Tolkien’s The Hobbit story’s main themes. it’s on the notion of home and focus on ‘home’ and ‘belonging’ in the context of ‘diaspora’ “[f]irst nian times” “ ” ‘diaspora’ “Diaspora, then, is a word used in postcolonial studies to describe groups of Lucy Waddey. “Home in Children’s Fiction.”, 13. “be present in ing and expanding the reader’s ”. Ibid., 15. Bill Ashcroft et al. “Diaspora.”, 425. Avtar Brah. “Thinking through the Concept of Diaspora.”, 443. “ oppression”. Tobias Döring. Postcolonial Literatures in English and Tiffin also say that “the term has its origins in the Jewish diaspora”, but they Bill Ashcroft et al. “ .”, 426. forced migration or immigration” ‘ ’ and enumerates four reasons. Conflicts, such as “territorial di putes” and “war”, can arise between peoples or, since colonial times, between “forced migration” “immigration” that ‘immigration’ is connected with journeys from one country to another, ‘diaspora’ , “a scattering, dispersion” describes “the scattering throughout the world from one geographic location” ‘diaspora’ – ‘diaspora’ means ‘exile’, which is , Griffiths and Tiffin, this dispersion “leads to a splitting in the sense of home” : “ society of relocation” versus “a hom land that is connected to language, religion and a sense of cultural belonging” ‘diaspora’ “[d]iaspora ” the term ‘desiring’ and hints at a yearning or longing for a place which exists in it “is the sense of living in one country but looking across time and space to another” “[ exists primarily in the mind” home is dependent on the individual’s experiences and memories. It is Postcolonial Literature “Diaspora” in: Henry G. Liddell et al. A Greek-English Lexicon Bill Ashcroft et al. “Diaspora.”, 425. Postcolonial Literature James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 453. Beginning Postcolonialism idea These functions and meanings of the term ‘home’ already indicate why Rushdie’s essay “Imaginary Homelands”, in Midnight’s Children realised “how much and glorious Technicolor” as “a lost home in a lost city in the mists of lost time” , and he noticed that he “had a city and a history to reclaim” , the mental image of his home is “built from the ” – – Beginning Postcolonialism Cf. Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 9. Beginning Postcolonialism Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 10. This view is shared by “‘home’ is a mythic place of desire in the diasporic imagination. In this sense These “fictions”, as he calls them, produce their own “version” “f qualities” “[m]emory and fictional creation” ‘nostalgia’, “the yearning for a different and previous time/place/experience remains fundamental” the term “ nostos – algia – but it is also a romance with one’s own fantasy” “more than ‘mere past’ is involved way we juxtapose it to certain features of our present lives” “ positive affects of being” “[t]he logic of nostalgia dictates that nothing can really be recovered, only re imagined” seen as the place of ‘origin’” Beginning Postcolonialism Salman Rushdie. “Imaginary Homelands.”, 10. “‘ [M]y’ India, a version and no more than one version of all the hundreds of millions of possible versions”. Ibid., 10. Postcolonial Nostalgias The Future of Nostalgia traces the origin of the term back to “the Greek nostos algai ful condition”, which makes it “a painful yearning to return home”. Fred Davis. “Nosta ent Nostalgia Wave.”, 414, original emphasis. Fred Davis. “Nostalgia, Identity and the Current Nostalgia Wave.”, 418. S.D. Chrostowska “Consumed by Nostalgia?”, 54. states that the “use of remembering” can be found in diverse “lite – ” – – “[n]ostalgia and national identity are inextricably entwined” term ‘nostalgia’ also – I will consider ‘diaspora’ as a situation in w “ tangible matter of beliefs, traditions, customs, behaviours and values” beliefs, traditions and values become a vital part of their definition of ‘home’ that the “ and there, makes ‘home’ seem far imagination” is connected with the words ‘origin’ and ‘belonging’. “‘the old country’ – – Postcolonial Nostalgias In this respect, Boym goes a step further and maintains that “[u]nlike melanch personal and collective memory”. Svetlana Boym. The Future of Nostalgia Postcolonial Nostalgias Beginning Postcolonialism individuals’] loyalty and emotions” “ loss and hope as a defining tension” Beginning Postcolonialism James Clifford. “Diasporas.”, 454.

Chapter Preview



In J. R. R. Tolkien’s “The Hobbit” (1937), Erebor is both the ancient home of the dwarves, which has been conquered and is now occupied by the dragon Smaug, and the destination of the quest of thirteen dwarves and a hobbit, who aim at regaining Erebor from the claws of the dragon. On their way to the mountain, the dwarves constantly remember the old days in which their ancestors mined and crafted beautiful objects inside the walls of Erebor. Their thoughts are, however, frequently overshadowed by concerns about Smaug, who transformed the dwarf kingdom into a dragon hoard and is now sleeping on the gold.

Denise Burkhard delves into Tolkien’s children’s novel and Peter Jackson’s “The Hobbit” trilogy (2012–2014) and explores the depiction of Erebor. The analysis focuses on the dwarves’ reconstruction of the old kingdom, the ideas of home and belonging in the context of the dwarves’ diasporic situation as well as on the destruction and the reshaping(s) of the mountain. The adverse depictions of Erebor as dwarf kingdom and dragon hoard are examined by having a closer look at the dwarves, the sinister dragon and the enormous hoard in the novel as well as in Peter Jackson’s audio-visual interpretations.