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Titelei/Inhaltsverzeichnis in:

Katja Lenz

Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Literature, page 1 - 12

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3964-9, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6743-7, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828867437-1

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Katja Lenz Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Literature Katja Lenz Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Literature Tectum Verlag Katja Lenz Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Literature © Tectum – ein Verlag in der Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft, Baden-Baden 2017 Zugl. Diss. Philipps-Universität Marburg 2016 ISBN: 978-3-8288-6743-7 (Dieser Titel ist zugleich in gedruckter Fassung unter der ISBN 978-3-8288-3964-9 beim Tectum Verlag erschienen.) Umschlagabbildung: shutterstock.com © patrice6000 Alle Rechte vorbehalten Besuchen Sie uns im Internet www.tectum-verlag.de Bibliografische Informationen der Deutschen Nationalbibliothek Die Deutsche Nationalbibliothek verzeichnet diese Publikation in der Deutschen Nationalbibliografie; detaillierte bibliografische Angaben sind im Internet über http://dnb.ddb.de abrufbar. 5 Acknowledgements I would like to thank my supervisor, Prof. Dr. Jürgen Handke for his support, guidance, and patience. Likewise, I wish to thank Prof. Dr. Erich Poppe for his continuous interest in the project and his unbroken willingness to discuss my work’s progress. Their input and feedback have been most valuable and I am grateful for their ongoing assistance. Many of my colleagues and friends at Marburg University have supplied encouragement and inspiration. A special thanks goes to my former colleagues at the Modern Language Center who accompanied me for a long part of the way, motivated me when I needed it, and helped me with so many things big and small. I especially wish to thank Susan Bickel for putting me in touch with her friends and family in Australia. Their thoughts on Kevin Gilbert’s use of slang and non-standard language have been highly appreciated. I have also greatly benefitted from the experience of those who have gone through the same process of writing a doctoral thesis before me. Susanne, it’s like you always say: it takes 10% brains and 90% perseverance. This thesis would not have been possible without my family and friends who have consistently supported me and my work. I cannot mention everyone here, but I would particularly like to thank Simone Hofmann who always found the time to listen to my problems and doubts and never ceased to encourage me to keep going. She has further provided helpful comments on the final draft of this thesis. While I received help from a lot of people, it should be understood that all mistakes and shortcomings are entirely mine. Finally, all my love goes to Artur Kerner. You are not only a wise and sensible critic, more importantly, you have stood by me throughout all this time and always believed in me. 7 Table of Contents Acknowledgements .......................................................................................................... 5 Table of Contents .............................................................................................................. 7 Abbreviations .................................................................................................................. 11 List of Illustrations .......................................................................................................... 12 1 Introduction .............................................................................................................. 13 2 Studies of Aboriginal English – Where Do We Stand? ....................................... 19 Part One: Setting the Stage – Old and New Australian Language Ecologies 3 The Situation Prior to Colonisation ....................................................................... 25 3.1 Australia’s Indigenous Population Before 1788 ............................................ 25 3.2 The Pre-Contact Language Ecology ............................................................... 28 3.2.1 Our Lack of Knowledge ............................................................................. 28 3.2.2 The Language-Dialect Distinction ............................................................ 29 3.2.3 Classification of the Australian Languages ............................................ 32 3.3 The Relation between Language, Language Speakers, and Land ............. 36 4 Indigenous Australia in the 21st Century .............................................................. 39 4.1 Australia’s Indigenous Population: Census Data ......................................... 39 4.2 The Post-Contact Language Ecology .............................................................. 40 4.2.1 Kriol .............................................................................................................. 45 4.2.2 Torres Strait Creole and Torres Strait English ........................................ 47 4.2.3 Aboriginal English ...................................................................................... 50 4.3 Assessment of the Endangerment Situation .................................................. 52 4.4 Maintaining Cultural Identity in the Face of Language Loss ..................... 56 5 Contact-Induced Changes to the Traditional Language Ecology ..................... 61 5.1 Sociohistorical Effects of Contact .................................................................... 61 5.1.1 The Early Period of European Colonisation ........................................... 63 5.1.2 Protection and Segregation and the Advent of Missions ..................... 64 5.1.3 Assimilation Strategies .............................................................................. 66 5.1.4 Aboriginal Resistance and Self-Control .................................................. 67 5.2 Linguistic Effects of Contact: Post-1788 Contact Varieties .......................... 68 5.2.1 The Sydney Jargon and NSW Pidgin English ........................................ 70 5.2.2 Colonial Expansion and the Spread of NSW Pidgin English .............. 71 5.2.3 The Birth of Northern Territory Kriol ..................................................... 74 5.3 The Emergence of an Aboriginal Dialect of English .................................... 77 8 Part Two: Aboriginal English(es) – an Aboriginal Code in an English Guise? 6 Aboriginal English ................................................................................................... 85 6.1 The AborE Continuum ..................................................................................... 85 6.2 The Role of AborE in the Post-Contact Aboriginal Language Ecology .... 90 6.3 Feature Description of AborE .......................................................................... 93 6.3.1 Phonological Features ................................................................................ 97 6.3.2 Morphological and Syntactic Features .................................................. 100 6.3.3 Pragmatic Features ................................................................................... 106 6.3.4 Lexico-semantic Features ........................................................................ 108 6.4 Aboriginal English: An Aboriginal Language ‘in Disguise’? ................... 118 6.4.1 Cultural Conceptualisations in an English-derived Lexicon ............. 118 6.4.2 Aboriginal Language Terms ................................................................... 124 6.4.3 Negotiating the Bicultural Experience .................................................. 128 7 Aboriginal English as a Medium for Creative Expression ............................... 133 7.1 Writing and Aboriginalities ........................................................................... 133 7.2 Australian Aboriginal Drama ........................................................................ 137 7.3 Language Use in Aboriginal Literature ....................................................... 138 7.4 Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Drama ........................... 141 Part Three: Empirical Analysis – Forms of Lexical Appropriation in Australian Aboriginal Literary Texts 8 The Indexation of a Distinctive Cultural Identity in Australian Aboriginal Texts ......................................................................................................................... 147 8.1 Focus of Research ............................................................................................ 147 8.2 The Corpus ....................................................................................................... 153 8.3 Jack Davis ......................................................................................................... 156 8.3.1 The Play: The Dreamers (1982) ................................................................. 158 8.3.2 Interlude: Borrowing vs. Code-switching ............................................. 159 8.3.3 Analysis of The Dreamers ......................................................................... 165 8.3.4 The Results ................................................................................................. 173 8.3.5 The Dreamers and the Creation of a Nyoongah Cultural Identity ..... 184 8.4 Kevin Gilbert .................................................................................................... 190 8.4.1 The Play: The Cherry Pickers (1971/1988) .............................................. 192 8.4.2 Analysis of The Cherry Pickers ................................................................. 193 8.4.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 200 8.4.4 On the Fringe of Society: The Cherry Pickers’ World ........................... 210 8.5 Eva Johnson ...................................................................................................... 216 8.5.1 The Play: Murras (1988/1989) ................................................................. 218 8.5.2 Analysis of Murras .................................................................................... 219 8.5.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 222 9 8.5.4 Murras – These Hands Were Made for Carving .................................. 228 8.6 Jimmy Chi ......................................................................................................... 233 8.6.1 The Play: Bran Nue Dae (1990/1991) ...................................................... 235 8.6.2 Analysis of Bran Nue Dae ......................................................................... 236 8.6.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 240 8.6.4 On Our Way to a Bran Nue Dae – The Celebration of Diversity on a Journey ‘Back to the Roots’ ..................................................................... 248 8.7 John Harding .................................................................................................... 252 8.7.1 The Play: Up the Road (1997) .................................................................... 254 8.7.2 Analysis of Up the Road ............................................................................ 255 8.7.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 256 8.7.4 Up the Road – Seeing the World “Through a Family” ......................... 261 8.8 David Milroy .................................................................................................... 265 8.8.1 The Play: Windmill Baby (2005/2007) ..................................................... 267 8.8.2 Analysis of Windmill Baby ..................................................................... 268 8.8.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 273 8.8.4 Windmill Baby – A Tale of Life in the Kimberley .................................. 280 8.9 Wesley Enoch ................................................................................................... 285 8.9.1 The Play: The Story of the Miracles at Cookie’s Table (2007) ................... 286 8.9.2 Analysis of The Story of the Miracles at Cookie’s Table (2007) ............... 287 8.9.3 The Results ................................................................................................. 291 8.9.4 “The Story Goes...” Family History and Murri Identity Seated at Cookie’s Table .............................................................................................. 298 Part Four: Findings and Conclusions 9 Put in a Nutshell: Lexical Appropriation in a Corpus of Australian Plays ... 307 9.1 Frequency of Occurrence of Lexical Appropriations in the Corpus ........ 307 9.2 Lexical Appropriation across Different Conceptual Domains ................. 314 9.3 Recurrent Concepts ......................................................................................... 317 9.4 Recurrent Lexical Items .................................................................................. 325 10 Lexical Appropriation in a Wider (Post-)Colonial Context: Findings from M ori and Canadian First Nations Drama ..................................................... 339 10.1 Lexical Appropriation in M ori Drama ....................................................... 340 10.1.1 A Brief Colonial History of New Zealand ............................................ 340 10.1.2 Te Reo M ori and M ori English ........................................................... 341 10.1.3 Briar Grace-Smith: Purapurawhet (1997/1999) .................................... 344 10.2 Lexical Appropriation in Canadian First Nations Drama ......................... 349 10.2.1 A Brief Colonial History of Canada ....................................................... 350 10.2.2 The Language Situation in Canada ........................................................ 352 10.2.3 Tomson Highway: The Rez Sisters (1986/1988) .................................... 353 10.3 Lexical Appropriation in M ori and First Nations Drama ...................... 356 10 11 Summary and Conclusion: Lexical Manifestations of Cultural Distinctiveness in Indigenous Playwriting .................................................................. 361 12 Zusammenfassung .............................................................................................. 381 Bibliography .................................................................................................................. 393 Primary Sources ............................................................................................................ 393 Secondary Sources ........................................................................................................ 393 Appendix 1. Australian language families. ............................................................... 425 11 Abbreviations AborE Aboriginal English ABS Australian Bureau of Statistics AIATSIS Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies AND Australian National Dictionary AusE Australian English CanE Canadian English FATSIL Federation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Languages HRA Historical Records of Australia ME M ori English NILS National Indigenous Language Survey NSW New South Wales NT Northern Territory NTPE Northern Territory Pidgin English NZE New Zealand English OED Oxford English Dictionary Qld Queensland SA South Australia SAPE South Australian Pidgin English SOIL State of Indigenous Languages in Australia (Report) StAusE Standard Australian English StE Standard English TSE Torres Strait English Vic. Victoria WA Western Australia 12 List of Illustrations List of Diagrams Diagram 1. Developmental Paths of Aboriginal English ........................................... 81 Diagram 2. Variation in Aboriginal English .............................................................. 89 Diagram 3. The Language Iceberg .............................................................................. 96 List of Maps Map 1. The OHW Pama-Nyungan – Non-Pama-Nyungan division ......................... 33 Map 2. Kriol Speaking Region ..................................................................................... 46 Map 3. The Spread of NSW Pidgin ............................................................................. 73 Map 4. A Corpus of Australian Aboriginal Plays ..................................................... 155 List of Tables Table 1. Documentation of Australian languages ....................................................... 29 Table 2. Post-contact languages spoken by Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Peoples in Australia. ..................................................................................................... 44 Table 3. Most commonly spoken Indigenous languages ............................................. 55

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Abstract

Today, virtually all Aboriginal people in Australia use English in their daily interactions. This is not surprising: in a situation in which many Aboriginal languages are lost beyond retrieval, English, as the official language of education, administration, law, and generally the language of the Australian mainstream society, has become the major medium of communication for the Australian Aboriginal community. Still, Aboriginal English, the variety most commonly spoken by Aboriginal people, often differs in many aspects from what is the accepted linguistic standard in Australia. Adapted to their communicative needs, it allows its speakers to express values, beliefs, and attitudes which are strongly influenced by their socio-cultural background.

Katja Lenz investigates how the lexico-semantics of Aboriginal English provide the means needed to express concepts not shared with speakers of Australian English. Approaching these questions from both the angle of Cultural Linguistics and that of Post-colonial Studies, she further shows how these tools are employed by Australian Aboriginal playwrights, who exploit the lexical resources of AborE for the linguistic construction and assertion of their own and their characters’ Aboriginality.