Appendix 3: Chronology of Events (Cornelis Hulsman) in:

Cornelis Hulsman (Ed.)

From Ruling to Opposition, page 221 - 224

Islamist Movements and Non-Islamist Groups in Egypt 2011-2013

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3837-6, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6739-0,

Series: Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft, vol. 9

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Appendix 3: Chronology of Events (Cornelis Hulsman) 2011 [anuary 25 Mass demonstrations in Tahrir Square. [anuary 28 Muslim Brothers join the Revolution, prisons where Mus lim Brothers and other Islamists had been imprisoned are opened. February 11 President Mubärak steps down. SCAF assume executive powers. Second half of February The Muslim Brotherhood announces the establishment of the Hizb al- Hurriya wa-l- 'Adäla (Freedom and Justice Party). March Foundation Hizb al- Fadila (Virtue Party). March 29 Foundation al-Hizb al-Misrial-Dimüqrätial-Ijtimä 'i (Egyp tian Social Democratic Party). April 3 Foundation Hizb al-Misriyyin al-Ahrär (Free Egyptians Party). May 12 Foundation Hizb al-Nür (Light Party). May 18 Foundation Hizb Misr al-Hurriyya (Freedom Egypt Party). June Foundation Hizb al-Tayyär al-Misri (Egyptian Current Par ty). June 6 The FJP receives official legal status. June 20 Foundation Hizb al-Binä ’ wa-l-Tanmiyya (Building and Development Party). July Al-Asäla Party splits from al-Fadila Party. September 11 Foundation Hizb al-Isläh (Egyptian Reform Party). November 28- January 11 Elections for People's Assembly: 68.95 percent for Islamist parties with non-Islamist parties receiving 31.05 percent. 2012 January 23 The first session of the People's Assembly is held. January 29 - February 22 Elections for Shürä Council: 73.67 percent for Islamist par ties with non-Islamist parties receiving 16.68 percent. March 17 The People's Assembly nominates first the Islamist dominated Constituent Assembly. In the following 11 days non-Islamists walk out. April 10 First Constituent Assembly dissolved by the Supreme Administrative Court. April 21 FJP leader al-Shätir presents the political (Nahda or Re naissance) plans of his party. April 28 Foundation of Hizb al-Dustür (Constitution Party). 221 May 23-24 First round of presidential elections including Mursi, Abü al-Futüh, Shafiq, Sabähi, Müsä. Islamist candidates received 43.77 per cent of the vote, non-Islamist candidates received 56.23 percent. [une 12 Islamist dominated People's Assembly elects second Constituent Assembly. [une 15 The Supreme Constitutional Court dissolves People's As sembly. June 16-17 Second round of Presidential election held; Mursi vs. Shafiq. June 24 The Presidential Election Committee announced Mursi to be the winner with 51.73 per cent against 48.27 percent for Shafiq. Shafiq disputes the results. June 30 Mursi inaugurated as president. July 5 Foundation Hizb Misr al-Qawiyya (Strong Egypt Party). September Foundation Al-Tayyar al-Sha 'bi al-Misri (Egyptian Popular Current). September 18 Foundation Hizb al-Mu ’tamar (Congress Party). October 14 Draft of the 2012 Constitution published. October 20 Foundationof the Hizb al-Sha 'b (the People's Party). November 12-20 Non-Islamists and civil society figures walk out of Con stituent Assembly. November 22 Mursi issues Presidential Decree giving him immunity to judicial oversight and with this avoid the Supreme Con stitutional Court from dissolving the Constituent Assem bly. November 24 Foundation National Salvation Front, an alliance of polit ical parties rejecting Mursi's Presidential Decree and policies to establish political control for Islamists. November 30 Second Constituent Assembly votes on draft constitution. December 8 Mursi revokes declaration of November 22. December Violence in front of the Presidential Palace prior to the referendum. December 15 Referendum approves Constitution with 63.8 per cent majority by a 31 per cent voter turnout. 2013 January 1 Al-Watan Party announces its split from al-Nür Party. February 21 President Mursi issues Presidential Decree announcing elections for People's Assembly; Shüra Council, taking the role of the Peolple's Assembly, prepares new elections law. February 27 Foundation of the Hizb al-Raya (the Flag Party). 222 March High Constitutional Court dismisses February 21 Presi dential Decree on grounds of constitutionality. April Foundation Tamarrud Movement. January 28 - July 3 Repeated warnings Minister of Defence ‘Abd al-Fattäh al- Sisi that consensus is needed if Egypt is not to fall apart. June 30 Mass protests organised by Tamarrud movement occupy public spaces across Egypt. July 3 Minister of Defence ‘Abd al-Fattäh al-Sisi deposes Mursi and announces new transitional roadmap. July4 Head of the Supreme Constitutional Court, ‘Adly Mansür, sworn in as Interim President. July 5 Mansür issues Presidential Decree dissolving the Shürä Council. July 8 Mansür outlines a new roadmap and suspends the 2012 Constitution. 51 pro-Mursi supporters killed outside of Republican Guard. July 27 Security forces open fire on pro-Mursi supporters near Räba 'a al- 'Adawiyya square, killing 82 and wounding more than 280. August 14-16 Interim government clears the Nahda and Räba 'a al- 'Adawiyya squares of pro-Mursi sit-ins, resulting in the killing of at least 817 people, mostly demonstrators. Revenge attacks on police, security and Christians occur across Egypt. Government announces State of Emergency. September 1 Mansür announces Committee of Fifty to amend the 2012 Constitution. September-ongoing until today Frequent attacks on police and army personnel, massive arrests of Muslim Brothers and other Islamist leaders fol lowed by verdicts including imprisonments and death penaties. November 4 Mursi stands trial for inciting violence and murder. November 12 State of Emergency lifted. December 14 Mansür announces national referendum for 2014 Consti tution. December 25 Muslim Brotherhood declared a terrorist organization after an attack on police headquarters in Mansüra. 2014 January 14-15 2014 Constitution approved by 98.1 per cent by 38.6 per cent of voters. January 18 2014 Constitution takes effect. 223

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In 2013, a group of researchers had the unique chance to interview 61 Egyptian Islamists and their opponents both prior to and after Egypt’s military ousted President Mursī on July 3. Up to that time, Islamists with very different political perspectives were hopeful that they would be able to realize the implementation of sharīa and to create a utopian Islamic state. After the coup, many of them rejected the transformation and a number became involved in militant attacks on police, military and the judiciary. This resulted in harsh government responses. Their criticism has been muted, but they still exist. The interviews document authentic voices during this period of major political transformations. A must read for anyone who wants to understand contemporary Egypt.