Content

Appendix 1: Organizations and Interviewees Mentioned in This Book (Cornelis Hulsman) in:

Cornelis Hulsman (Ed.)

From Ruling to Opposition, page 183 - 208

Islamist Movements and Non-Islamist Groups in Egypt 2011-2013

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3837-6, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6739-0, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828867390-183

Series: Anwendungsorientierte Religionswissenschaft, vol. 9

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
Appendix 1: Organizations and Interviewees Mentioned in This Book (Cornelis Hulsman) In this appendix we provide a brief overview of all interviewees with their positions at the time of the interview. We have attempted to find out what happened with these interviewees after 2013. Sometimes this was easy, but often calls to old telephone numbers and email addresses were not answered. We also briefly describe the political parties to which people we interviewed in 2013 belonged, as well as what happened to them after 2013. Also oither political parties and movements that are mentioned in the book are listed here. This list was compiled with the help of Tugrul von Mende, Eline Kasanwidjodo, Quinta Smit, Jayson Casper, Nicholas Gjorvad and Khaled H. Zakaria. The people we interviewed in 2013 are listed under the names of the organ izations they represented. Information is presented in the following order: Name and position in 2013 Date of interview(s) Information obtained as to what happened to them after the interviews. Authors of different chapters tried to contact the people whom they had interviewed, but rarely succeeded. The anonymous former member of al- Watan Party responded and explained he and other former members of al- Watan Party are no longer active in politics. Dr. Jerome Drevon wrote that most of his contacts dating back to 2013 are now unavailable, or under surveillance. "M any had to leave the country and many others were incarcerated by the authorities. I am sporadically in touch with them, but they are not willing at the moment to meet anybody considering the risks (which is very understandable)."707 We also searched the internet and found a few people in the media or facebook or twitter. It is clear that the Muslim Brothers who had been interviewed were either imprisoned, in exile or no longer publicly active in politics. Some of the members of the Salafi al-Nür Party are still active in politics. Al-Nür Party members whom we had interviewed and who had left for al-Watan Party ceased to be active in politics after 2013. Leading members of al-Asäla, al- Fadila and al-Isläh Parties (all Salafi) were either abroad, arrested or their whereabouts are unknown to us. Preacher Safwat Hijazi is in prison. Izzat al-Salamüni of the al-Jamä 'a al-Islämiyya died in prison. Another member is in prison and of others we do not know where they are. Of the jihädi Salafis 707 Email November 18, 2015. 183 we interviewed, one is in prison and of the others we do not know their whereabouts. The Islamist scholars we interviewed in 2013 are still active. Of the non-Islamists, Jamäl al-Bannä (1920-2013) passed away, others are still active. Dr. George Masiha of the New al-Wafd Party left politics. Of oth ers, their whereabouts are unknown, which is likely to be an indication that they are no longer active in politics. 1 M uslim Brotherhood & Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) The Muslim Brotherhood was founded 1928 in opposition to Western polit ical dominance in Egypt and the Muslim World. In Chapter 2 several wings are mentioned: Al-Nizäm al-Khäss - the militant wing. Qutbis - members belonging to the more conservative political wing. Tilmisänis - members belonging to the reformist political wing. The Muslim Brotherhood provides grass roots services, and throughout the decades tried to increase its influence in society through Parliament, trade unions, NGOs and other organizations. In 2011, prominent members of the Muslim Brotherhood created the Freedom and Justice Party (FJP), which in turn became the dominant party in a coalition of political parties called al- Tahälufal-Dimuqräti min ajli Misr, Democratic Alliance for Egypt. In the first post-Revolutionary parliamentary elections in December 2011 - January 2012, the Hizb al-Hurriya wa-l- 'Adäla, Freedom and Justice Party (FJP) won 213 seats. With its allies in the Democratic Alliance it won 235 seats (47.2 percent). Their support declined in the first round of the presidential elections, when the combined Islamist candidates received only 43.77 percent of the vote. However, in the run-off between Muslim Brother candidate Muhammad Mursi and former airforce general Ahmad Shafiq they won with a disputed 51.7 percent.708 President Mursi was ousted after repeated warnings from the Minister of Defense, ‘Abd al-Fattäh al-Sisi, not to let tensions in society grow, and following massive demonstrations on July 3, 2013. Mursi's ouster led to the formation of the Anti-Coup Alliance, also known as the National Alliance Supporting Legitimacy, which is a Muslim Bro therhood led alliance of approximately 40 Islamist parties and groups who demand that Mursi be reinstalled as president. The composition of the al 708 Hulsman 2014 (b). 184 liance has changed and it seems their discourse changed to rejecting al- Sisi's regime, more than reinstalling Mursi. On December 25,2013, after the bomb attack on the security directorate in Mansüra, the Muslim Brotherhood was declared a terrorist organization, which caused ‘Amr Darräj, one of our interviewees, to immediately leave the country. On August 9,2014, the Supreme Administrative Court ordered the dissolution and liquidation of assets of the Freedom and Justice Party. The Anti-Coup Alliance was dissolved by Prime Ministerial decree on 30 October 2014. On June 16,2015, a court upheld the death penalty of former president Muhammad Mursi, which was followed by a bomb attack killing Hishäm Barakät, Egypt's Prosecutor General.709 1.1 Dr. ‘Issäm al-Haddäd (Essam el-Haddad) Position in 2013: Leading Muslim Brotherhood member, national security adviser to President Mursi. Interview: February 25, 2013 by Cornelis Hulsman, Eline Kasanwidjojo, Prof. Abdallah Schleifer.710 Position after 2013: In prison since President Mursi was ousted on July 3, 2013. 1.2 Dr. ‘Amr Darräj (Amr Darrag) Position in 2013: Professor of Civil Engineering at Cairo University since 1988. Muslim Brotherhood member, head of the Foreign Relations Commit tee of the FJP since 2012, Secretary-General of the Constituent Assembly of 2012, Member of a multi-party delegation to the Netherlands in October 2012,711 Minister of Planning and International Cooperation in the last cabi net of President Mursi. Interviews: March 25,2013, by Cornelis Hulsman and Diana Serödio, April 8 by D. Serodio712, July 22713 and October 22,2013 by Cornelis Hulsman and Esther Schoorel. Ahmed Deiab joined October 2 2 .714 Position after 2013: Dr. ‘Amr Darräj played a role in seeking a settlement between the Muslim Brotherhood and the interim government in the 709 Hulsman 2015 (a). 710 Kasanwidjojo 2013 (a) 711 Hulsman 2012 (f). 712 Serödio 2013 (d). 713 Hulsman and Schoorel 2013. 714 Hulsman, Deiab and Schoorel 2013. 185 second half of 2013 which failed. He also regularly met senior European officials and is since December 2013, with a large number of other Muslim Brotherhood and FJP leaders, in exile in Turkey. 1.3 Dr. W alid al-Haddäd (Walid el-Haddad) Position in 2013: Member Muslim Brotherhood, Foreign Relations Spokesperson of the FJP, not family of Dr. Issäm al-Haddäd. Interviews: December 11, 2012, by Diana Serödio715 and June 13, 2013, by Eline Kasanwidjojo.716 Position after 2013: He was arrested for "inciting violence" in October 2013717 and has been in prison since his arrest. 1.4 Dinä Zakariyya Husayn Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood sister, mother of two children, pre senter of social and religious programs on different satellite channels, 2001 2008, co-founder of the FJP, member of the Foreign Relations Committee of the FJP. Member of a multi-party delegation to the Netherlands in October 2012.718 Interview: November 19, 2012, by Eline Kasanwidjojo.719 Position after 2013: She is not responding to calls or e-mails. 1.5 Ishtishhäd al-Bannä, Sanä‘ al-Bannä Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood sisters, daughters of Hasan al-Bannä. Interview: July 11,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo and Quinta Smit.720 Position after 2013: The interviewers do not know where they are now. 1.6 D r.W afäH afn i Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood sister, daughter of Sanä‘ al-Bannä and professor at al-Azhar University. Interview: July 11,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo and Quinta Smit.721 715 Serödio 2013 (a). 716 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (f) 717 El Badil 2013. 718 Hulsman 2012 (f). 719 Kasanwidjojo 2013 (c) 720 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (d). 186 Position after 2013: Dr. Wafä Hafni did not respond to efforts of the inter viewers to contact her. 1.7 ‘Ali K hafäji (Aly Khafagy) Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood member and Youth leader of the FJP in the Giza Governorate in 2013. Interview: April 15, 2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo and Quinta Smit.722 Position after 2013: According to his twitter account, he is now living in Qatar.723 1.8 Muhammad Abd Allah Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood member and FJP Youth leader in Gi za Governorate. Interview: May 28,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo.724 Position after 2013: The interviewer does not know where they are now. 1.9 Ahmad Kamäl Position in 2013: Muslim Brotherhood member and FJP youth leader of Southern Cairo. Interview: June 10,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad and Eline Kasanwidjojo. Position after 2013: According to his Facebook account, he remained in Cairo.725 1.10 Anonymous Position in 2013: working member of the Muslim Brotherhood. Interview: April 16,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo. Position after 2013: According to his facebook he seems to be in Cairo. 721 Ibid. 722 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (e). 723 https://twitter.com/ alykhafagy 724 Kasanwidjojo 2013 (b). 725 https://www.facebook.com/ ahmad.elbab 187 1.11 Usama Farid Position in 2013: Businessman and head of international relations of the Muslim Brotherhood initiated Egyptian Business Development Association (EBDA). He stated that he does not represent Muslim Brotherhood thinking, though media associate him with the Muslim Brotherhood.726 Interview: June 14,2011 by Cornelis Hulsman. Farid introduced Hulsman on April 30, 2012, to Dr. Issäm al-Haddäd. Position after 2013: Member of a multi-party visit to the Netherlands in October 2012.727 Several meetings in 2012 and 2013. Left in 2013 for Istanbul where he now resides. 1.12 W a il Hadara (Wael Haddara) Position in 2013: Advisor to President Mursi, not a member of the Muslim Brotherhood but with sympathies for the Muslim Brotherhood. He came from Canada to Egypt to support the president and returned to Canada af ter Mursi had been removed. He described his views on the removal of President Mursi.728 Interview: Telephone interview with Cornelis Hulsman on September 15, 2013. Position after 2013: He is living and working in Canada. 2 Former Members of the M uslim Brotherhood Because membership of the Brotherhood is not public but secret, it is widely believed that former members of the Muslim Brotherhood are still members of the Brotherhood, or still have connections to the organization. Whether those beliefs are true or not is very difficult to ascertain. Former members of the Muslim Brotherhood can be found in: Hizb Misr al-Qawiyya (the Strong Egypt Party), formed in 2012, Hizb al-Tayyär al-Misri (the Egyptian Current Party), formed in 2011 by youth leaders who had been expelled from the Muslim Brotherhood (now dissolved, after a merger with the Strong Egypt Party) and Hizb al-Wasat (the Center Party), formed in 1996, legalized in 2011. 726 Casper 2011 (b). 727 Hulsman 2012 (f). 728 Hulsman 2013 (d). 188 2.1 Dr. ‘Abd al-M un’im Abu al-Futuh Position in 2013: Member of the Muslim Brotherhood in increasingly impor tant positions between the the 1970s and 2011. Reformist member of the Guidance Office of the Muslim Brotherhood until 2011, presidential candidate in 2012 and founder and leader of the Strong Egypt Party, secretary general of the Arab Medical Union. Interview: June 19,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo, Quinta Smit and Cornelis Hulsman.729 Position after 2013: Dr. Abü al-Futüh is sporadically writing for al-Shurüq. Lawyer Täriq Mahmüd filed complaints against him for "insulting the pres ident" and "inciting people to undermine state institutions." The complaint led to the Alexandria Prosecution opening an investigation in the com plaints on November 2 2 ,2015.730 2.2 Dr. Kamäl al-Hilbäw i Position in 2013: Former member of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Inter national Organization of the Muslim Brotherhood. Interviews: June 20, 2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo731 and July 10, 2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo and Quinta Smit.732 Position after 2013: Dr. al-Hilbäwi became a member of the Constituent As sembly in 2013. In 2013 he stated that he planned "to form a parallel apolitical body devoted exclusively to education and preaching."733 He is still talk ing to the media, and sometimes calls for reconciliation with the Muslim Brotherhood. He stated on November 11, 2015, that the Muslim Brother hood has not fielded any candidates in the Parliamentary elections and that those who claim otherwise are spreading rumors.734 On November 21,2015, he commented on the low turnout in Egypt's Parliamentary elections, and said that the reasons that people are not parti-cipating are the reasons that may result in another revolution.735 729 Hulsman, Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (b). 730 Mada Masr 2015 (a). 731 Kasanwidjojo, 2013 (d), 732 Kasanwidjojo and Smit 2013 (e). 733 AhramOnline2013 (b). 734 Zakariyyya 2015. 735 Hasan 2015. 189 2.3 Dr. Ibrähim al-Hudaybi Position in 2013: Writer, political researcher and former member of the Muslim Brotherhood, great-grandson of Hasan al-Hudaybi, second General Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood, 1951-1973 and grandson of Ma mün al- Hudaybi, sixth General Guide of the Muslim Brotherhood, 2002-2004. Interviews: April 1,2011 by Cornelis Hulsman, Arndt Emmerich and Judit Kuschnitzki736 and May 17,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo and Quinta Smit.737 Position after 2013: Dr. al-Hudaybi is freelance writer for al-Shurüq and Ahram Online and is affiliated with DGAP (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Auswaertige Politik e.v.). His main areas of study are: Shari 'a, Islamic movements and political economy of the Middle East. 3 Council of Trustees of the Revolution Organization promoting dialogue between different actors of the Revolu tion but mostly between Muslim Brothers and Salafis. Dissolved after July 3, 2013. 3.1 Ahmad N ajib Position in 2013: Founding member of the Council of Trustees of the Revo lution and a member of the Egyptian Current Party. Interview: June 18,2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo.738 Position after 2013: During the 2011 Revolution he was working with the Coordination Committee of the Masses. Since August 2011 he has been Corporate Social Responsibility Director at FinBi. In 2014 he was a board member of the National Committee for Defence of Civil Liberties and Rights on Egypt's constitution. 3.2 Dr. Safw ät H ijäzi (Safwat Hegazy) Position in 2013: Graduated from the Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University. Not a member of a specific political party, but an active Islamic preacher trying to bridge Salafis and the Muslim Brothers.739 Secretary- General of the Revolution's Board of Trustees, Member of the National Council for Human Rights during Mursi. Fiery preacher during the Räba 'a al- 'Adawiyya sit-in in July and August 2013. 736 Hulsman, Emmerich and Kutschnitzki 2011. 737 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (c). 738 Kasanwidjojo 2013 (d). 739 Interview with Usäma Farid June 14, 2011. 190 Interview: July 25,2013 by Cornelis Hulsman, Ahmed Deiab and Daniela De Maria,740 and August 1,2013 by Nicholas G jorvad.741 Position after 2013: Hijäzi fled after the violent dispersal of the Räba 'a al- 'Adawiyya sit-in to Siwa Oasis, where he was arrested on August 21,2013. A trial against him started in September 2013. He is in prison until now. 4 Salafi Associations and Political Parties The first Salafi association, Ansär al-Sunna, was founded in 1926. In the late 1970's, al-Da 'wa al-Salafiyya was founded, which focused on preaching. Un til the Revolution of January 25,2011, Salafis were not organized in political parties, but there was already a distinction between quietist and jihädi- Salafis. Most Salafis followed the quietist line. Prof. Abdallah Schleifer summarizes this, saying "all jihädis are Salafis, but most Salafis are not jihädi."742 Following the Revolution, al-Nür, al-Asäla, al-Fadila and al-Isläh parties were founded between May and September 2011. Al-Nür Party is the political arm of al-Da 'wa al-Salafiyya. Al-Isläh Party is the political arm of al-Tayyär al-Salafi (the Salafi Current). The Islamist Bloc, consisting of al-Nür, the Building and Development Party and al-Asäla, won 27.8% of the vote in the Parliamentary elections of De cember 2011-January 2012, resulting in their attaining 107,13 and 3 seats respectively. Al-Nür Party members, led by then Assistant President Imäd ‘Abd al- Ghafür, launched al-Watan Party on January 1, 2013, because they disagreed with the influence of al-Da 'wa al-Salafiyya shaykhs on al-Nür Party. In June 2013,130 leading members of the party resigned - including a member we interviewed- in response to conflicts over party leadership. Al-Watan Party sided with the Freedom and Justice Party after President Mursi was deposed on July 3, 2013 and became part of the Anti-Coup Alliance, but withdrew from this on 17 September 2014. In November 2014, opponents to religious parties tried to dissolve al-Watan Party, but the Alexandria Urgent Matters Court ruled that it lacked jurisdiction. Al-Nür Party had one representative in the 2013 Constituent Assembly and participated in the 2015 Parliamentary elections. Salafis are very divided politically. After the 2011-2012 Parliamentary elec tions Salafis founded al-Sha 'b Party (the People's Party) in 2012, the political arm of al-Jabha al-Salafiyya (the Salafi Front). Al-Räya Party (the Flag Party) 740 Hulsman, Deiab and De Maria 2013; De Maria 2013. 741 Gjorvad 2013 (b) 742 Interview Cornelis Hulsman with Prof. Abdallah Schleifer on November 22,2015. 191 was created in 2013. Al-Tayyar al-Thalith (the Third Current) is a Salafi polit ical organization that was also active in 2013. 5 a l-D a W a a l-S a la fiy y a 5.1 Muhammad Ism ä il al-M uqaddim Position in 2013: Leading Salafi shaykh of al-Da 'wa al-Salafiyya (Salafi Call). He rejects democracy and subsequent involvement in politics, declined to appear in public or speak about politics. Interview (telephone): December 3,2012 by Cornelis Hulsman. Position after 2013: He is still based in Alexandria and active in al-Da 'wa al- Salafiyya 6 H izb al-N ür (al-N ür/Light Party) 6.1 Bassäm al-Zarqä Position in 2013: Leading member of al-Nür Party, advisor to President Mursi. Interview: June 18,2013 by Quinta Smit.743 Position after 2013: He was a member of the 2013 Constituent Assembly, left the Assembly in disagreement over articles dealing with religion and was replaced by another member of al-Nür Party. He is currently the Deputy President of al-Nür Party.744 6.2 Nädir Bakkär Position in 2013: Spokesperson and co-founder of al-Nür Party, married to the daughter of Bassäm al-Zarqä. Interview: June 20,2013 by Quinta Smit745. Position after 2013: He is a columnist for al-Shurüq (according to his Twitter account). His first article appeared in January 2013.746 He is no longer involved in politics, obtained a MPA Student Scholarship for a study at Har vard since summer 2015. 743 Smit 2013 (a). 744 Al-Misriyyün 2015. 745 Smit 2013 (c). 746 Bakkär 2013. 192 7 H izb a l-W atan (the H om elan d Party) 7.1 Dr. Imad ‘Abd al-Ghafur Position in 2013: President Mursi's advisor and President of al-Nür Party. He left al-Nür Party and founded al-Watan Party with a group of followers in December 2012 and launched the party on January 1,2013. Interview: December 10,2012 Diana Serödio.747 Hulsman met with Imäd ‘Abd al-Ghafür on July 25, 2013, during the Raba 'a al- 'Adawiyya sit-in. Position after 2013: ‘Abd al-Ghafür left politics after the summer of 2013 and was not visible in the media until November 2015 with an article about a meeting with Judge Täriq al-Bishri, widely believed to be linked to the Muslim Brotherhood and architect of the referendum in March 2011.748 7.2 Dr. Ahmad al-Qadri ‘Abd al-Salam (Ahmed Kadry Abdelsalam) Position in 2013: Al-Qadri obtained his PhD in engineering at Strathclyde University in the UK and became a member of al-Nür Party upon its foun dation. He was nominated by al-Nür Party to be a member of a multi-party delegation to the Netherlands in October 2012.749 In December 2012 he be came one of the founders of al-Watan Party and became its English language spokesman. Interview: February 6, 2013 by Jayson Casper.750 Position after 2013: Since he left al-Watan Party in August 2013 he is no longer active in politics. He is assistant professor in the Faculty of Engineer ing at the Arab Academy of Science and Technology and Maritime Trans port, Electrical Engineering Department, Alexandria. He does not respond to email or phone calls. 7.3 Anonymous Former Member of al-NUr and al-Watan Parties Position in 2013: This person joined al-Nür Party when it was founded in 2011. In December 2013 he became one of the founders of al-Watan Party. In May 2013 he left politics. He was never involved in politics before 2012. Interview: May 15,2013 (just after he had left politics) by Quinta Smit.751 747 Serödio 2013 (a). 748 Muftäh 2015. 749 Hulsman 2012 (f) 750 Casper 2013 (a). 751 Smit 2013 (d). 193 Position after 2013: He is teaching at an Egyptian university and is no long er involved in politics. He is disappointed with politics in general, which is why he asked to keep this interview anonymous 8 H izb a l-A säla (The A uthenticity P arty) Founded in 2011. The party is still active on Facebook. On November 21, 2015 they wrote in commemoration of the Muhammad Mahmüd street riots in November 2011 that they had been abandoned.752 8.1 Ihäb Shiha Position in 2013: al-Asäla Party leader. Interview: April 12, 2013 by Quinta Smit, Eline Kasanwidjojo and Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: The interviewers were unable to get in contact with Ihab Shiha in December 2015. 8.2 ‘Issäm al-Sharif Position in 2013: al-Asäla Party representative in Warraq, Cairo. Interview: April 17,2013 by Quinta Smit and Jayson Casper.753 Position after 2013: The official Facebook page of the party posted on Au gust 14,2013 states that he had been arrested. 8.3 Häni Fawzi Position in 2013: Member of al-Asäla Party leadership and responsible for media. Interview: April 25, 2013 by Quinta Smit.754 Position after 2013: Smit was unable to get in contact with him in December 2015. 752 https://ar-ar.facebook.com/alasala.party 753 Smit and Casper 2013. 754 Smit 2013 (b). 194 9 H izb al-F adtla (Virtue P arty) The party was founded in March 2011 and is still active on Facebook. 9.1 Mahmüd Fathi Position in 2013: al-Fadila Party head. Interview: May 30 by Quinta Smit and Aidan Mascarenhas-Keyes and June 15, 2013 by Quinta Smit and Eline Kasanwidjojo.755 Position after 2013: Mahmüd Fathi fled to Turkey after June 3 0 ,2013.756 He is still in Istanbul, and wanted in Egypt for a number of trials. Mahmüd Fathi signed a statement in solidarity with Turkey in shooting down a Russian fighter jet in November 2015.757 Turkey is widely perceived an ally of Islamists while Russia is seen as an opponent to Islamists. 10 H izb a l-Isläh (Egyptian R eform Party) Founded September 11,2011. Still active on Facebook. The chairman of the party, Dr. ‘ Atiyya Adlan, issued a statement on May 6,2015 that the future of President Mursi should not be decided by the court, but by the people, after the success of the Revolution. This is an expression of the Islamist hope that the current government of Egypt will fall through a new revolu tion. Dr. ‘Adlan is a leader in the National Alliance Supporting Legitimacy. Based on what he says, he is likely to be residing outside Egypt. 10.1 Khälid Mansür Position in 2013: Founding member, member of the leadership and spokesperson of al-Isläh Party. Interview: July 9,2013 by Quinta Smit and Eline Kasanwidjojo.758 Position after 2013: Interviewers were unable to contact him in December 2015. 755 Smit and Mascarenhas-Keyes 2013. 756 Tariq 2015. 757 ‘ Awis 2015. 758 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (i). 195 11 A l-Jam a a a l-Is lam iy y a (Islam ic G roup)and H izb a l-b in a ' w a ltanm iyya (Building and D evelopm en t Party) Al-Jamä 'a al-Islämiyya was involved in violence mostly between 1992 and 1998, until the government crackdown on the organization after the No vember 17,1997, attack on Luxor which left 62 people dead, mostly tourists. The crackdown resulted in massive arrests, and a process of denouncing violence as tool to achieve objectives. The organization was dormant until 2011 and was re-activated after the January 25 Revolution and founded the Building and Development Party. 11.1 Muhammad Ahmad Position in 2013: Supporter of al-Jamä 'a al-Islämiyya, present at their 'No to Political Violence' rally on February 15, 2013. Interview: During the rally by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: It is not known where he is today. 11.2 Sharaf al-D in al-Jibali Position in 2013: Member of al-Jamä'a al-Islämiyya's Guidance office in Fayyüm present at their 'No to Political Violence' rally on February 15, 2013. Interview: During the rally by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: It is not known where he is. 11.3 Izzat al- Salamüni (Ezzat al-Salamony) Position in 2013: Member of al-Jamä 'a al-Islämiyya's Cairo Guidance Council. Interview: August 5 ,2012 by Jayson Casper.759 Position after 2013: Al- Salamüni died in Tura prison, August 2015.760 Jay son Casper wrote an in-memoriam in which he described al-Salamüni as "friendly, engaging, and eager to give a correct impression about Islam and al-Jamä 'a al-Islämiyya," but Casper found it difficult to reconcile that expe rience with al-Salamüni "angrily shouting before a crowd."761 759 Casper 2013 (c). 760 Al-Sharqäwi 2015. 761 Casper 2015. 196 11.4 A laA b u al-Nasr Position in 2013: Elected as Vice-President and Secretary General of the Building and Development Party of al-Jama 'a al-IsUmiyya’s Building and Development Party. Interview: May 11,2013 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: Abü al-Nasr was arrested and released in October 2015.762 11.5 Muhammad ‘Umar ‘Abd al-Rahmän Position in 2013: Member of al-Jama 'a al-Islamiyya. Son of the "Blind Sheikh" ‘Umar ‘Abd al-Rahmän, imprisoned in the USA. Interview: March 1,2012 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: It is not known where he is. 12 Jihädi Salafis Several jihadi Salafi organizations are active, including: Tanzim al-Jihad (Jihad Organization) - established in the 1970s. Al-Tawhid wa-l-Jihad - active between 1999 and 2004. Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis - one of the strongest militant groups in Sinai. Majlis Shüra al-M ujähidm fi-A km fBayt al-Maqdis - an early postrevolutionary militant group in Sinai. Ahl al-Sunna wa-l-Jama 'a. Interviewed members: 12.1 °Ahmad AshUsh Position in 2013: He described himself as "a leader in the jihadi-Salafis" Interview: February 27,2013 by Jayson Casper and Cornelis Hulsman.763 Position after 2013: ‘ Ashüsh was arrested in October 2013, for the terrorist attack that targeted the satellite telecomfacility in Ma adi, Cairo. According to al-Nahär he confessed that he had carried out this attack on instructions 762 Ismä‘il 2015. 763 Casper 2013 (d); Hulsman and Casper 2016. 197 of Khayrat al-Shätir of the Muslim Brotherhood and Salafi shaykh Saläh Abü Ism ä‘il.764 12.2 ‘Abd al-Bäsit al-Fashni Position in 2013: A supporter of the jihädi-Salafis. Interview: February 17,2013 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: His whereabouts are unknown. 12.3 Ashraf Position in 2013: An organizer at the jihädi Salafi protest at the French Embassy in Cairo on January 18,2013. He then declined to give his full name. Interview: January 18,2013 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: His whereabouts are unknown. 13 Islam ist scholars 13.1 Dr. Muhammad Saläh Position in 2013: al-Azhar educated Muslim scholar and well-known pre senter on the Islamic channel, Huda TV. Presenting himself as independent Muslim scholar, but widely seen as a Salafi shaykh opposed to jihädi-Salafism. Interviews: November 28,2012 by Shabana Basheer 765 and April 18,2013, by Quinta Smit and Eline Kasanwidjojo.766 Position after 2013: Presenter at Huda TV. 13.2 Dr. Nädiya Mustafä (Nadia Mustafa) Position in 2013: Professor of Political Science at Cairo University. Founding Director of Center for Civilizational Studies and Dialogue of Cultures at Cairo University.767 Later founded the Civilization Center for Political Stu dies as an independent organization with Dr. Sayf ‘Abd al-Fattäh. 764 Al-Nahär 2013. 765 Basheer 2012. 766 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (g). 767 https://www.facebook.com/Prof.Nadia.Mustafa 198 Interviews: March 3, 2013, by Diana Serödio768, May 28, 2013, by Quinta Smit, Eline Kasanwidjojo, and Aidan Mascarenhas-Keyes769, and December 9,2013, by Jayson Casper.770 Position after 2013: In January 2014 Dr. Mustafä criticized the referendum for the revised Constitution.771 In September 2014 executive director Midhat Mähir (Medhat Maher) was detained for six months for alleged links with the Muslim Brotherhood. Dr. Mustafä stated on October 5,2015, that the cofounder of the Civilization Center for Political Studies, Dr. Sayf ‘Abd al- Fattäh, was suspended from his position at Cairo University for political reasons.772 On February 29,2016 Midhat Mähir was detained again for the same reasons.773 14 Non-Islamist Organizations, Researchers, Authors and Journalists 14.1 Jam al al-Banna (Gamal el-Banna, 1920-2013) Position in 2013: Liberal Islamic thinker, author and brother of the founder of the Muslim Brotherhood. He was critical of the Brotherhood. Interview: November 25, 2012 by Eline Kasanwidjojo, Mette Toft Nielsen and Shabana Basheer.774, Position after 2013: He passed away on January 30,2013. 14.2 Dr. ‘Abd al-M un‘im al-M ashshat (Abdul-Monem al-Mashat) Position in 2013: Liberal scholar and Dean of the Faculty of Political Science at Future University in Cairo. Interview: June 11,2013 by Cornelis Hulsman. Position after 2013: He remains in the same position. 14.3 Abd al-Rahim 'Ali Position in 2013: Senior researcher on Islamist streams running his own think-tank. 768 Serödio 2013 (c). 769 Smit, Kasanwidjojo and Mascarenhas-Keyes 2013. 770 Casper 2014. 771 Middle East Monitor 2014. 772 Rassd 2015. 773 Mada Masr 2016. 774 Kasanwidjojo 2012. 199 Interview: June 22,2013 by Cornelis Hulsman. Position after 2013: He remains in the same position and was elected as Member of Parliament in the 2015 Parliamentary elections.775 14.4 ‘Imäd Shähin Position in 2013: Professor of political science, at the American University in Cairo. Interview: April 9,2013 by Quinta Smit and Eline Kasanwidjojo.776 Position today: Prof. Shähin still teaches at AUC. 14.5 Jerome Drevon Position in 2013: A French PhD researcher studying Islamist armed groups in Egypt. Interview: April 19,2013 by Quinta Smit, Cornelis Hulsman and Eline Ka sanwidjojo.777 Position after 2013: Drevon completed his PhD in June 2015. Following his PhD he became a research fellow at the University of Manchester who specializes in political violence and insurgencies. He publishes about jihädi- Salafis. 14. 6 Mamdüh Sarür Position in 2013: An Upper Egyptian freelance journalist with al-Misri al- Yawm and other media. He spoke of his good connections to all the local Islamist groups in Asyüt though he personally opposed them. Interview: May 2,2013 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: He is still working as a freelance journalist. 14. 7 Ismä il Alexanderni Position in 2013: A socio-political researcher and investigative journalist with three years of experience conducting field work in the Sinai. Interview: September 29,2013 by Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: He was taken into custody on November 29, 2015 by National Security Forces.778 775 http://www.abdelrehimaly.com/ 776 Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (a) 777 Hulsman, Smit and Kasanwidjojo 2013 (a). 200 14.8 Professor Abdallah Schleifer Position in 2013: Professor Emeritus, Mass Communication, American University Cairo, Chief Editor of the Muslim 500 and Senior Fellow Arab West Foundation. Interviews: November 22, 2015 and April 7,2016 by Cornelis Hulsman. Position after 2013: Professor of Political Science at Future University. 15 Non-religious political parties and coalitions Tahaluf al-Thawra Mustamirra (Revolution Continues Alliance), a leftleaning, mostly secular alliance established on 23th October 2011. Al-Hizb al-Watanial-Dimüqräti (National Democratic Party) - Political party founded by President Anwar al-Sädät in 1978 which was dissolved in 2011 after the Revolution. Jabhat al-Inqädh al-Watani (National Salvation Front) - an alliance of political parties opposing Muhammad Mursi, created in 2012 including the political parties listed below. Hizb al-Wafd (Wafd Party or Delegation Party) - Nationalist liberal party founded in 1919. Egypt's most influential party in the 1920s and 1930s. Dis solved in 1952. Hizb al-Wafd al-Jadid (New al-Wafd Party or New Delegation Party), a natio nalist liberal political party in Egypt, established in 1978 but building on the roots of al-Wafd Party before the 1952 Revolution. 16 New al-Wafd Party 16.1 Dr. George N aji M asiha Ibrähim (George Messiha) Position in 2013: Received an award in 2005 from the Egyptian Ministry of Industry for the best Egyptian industrial project at the World Economic Fo rum in Davos 2008, where he first met with Dr. Muhammad al-Baräda‘i. He founded Jetac Inks, and became a businessman with an interest in politics. In 2006 he joined Kifäya. In 2007 he formed Egyptians Against Discrimination. In 2011 he joined the National Society of Tahrir founded by Dr. al- Baräda i. Jetac Inks floundered after the Revolution in September 2011, due to Egyptian customers delaying payments, making it impossible for him to import raw materials. MP for the New al-Wafd Party in 2012, Member of a multi-party delegation to the Netherlands in October 2012.779 Member of 778 Mada Masr 2015 (b). 779 Hulsman 2012 (f). 201 the Constituent Assembly in 2012 but walked out in November 2012. On August 19, 2013, days after the burning of tens of churches in Egypt he wrote "I also hope that common sense leads the different parts to start a real dialogue. I feel like a very tiny element in this equation. Gen. El Sisi is determined to end the short history of the MB, and on the other hand the MB is fighting to break the army and police, and then take full control over Egypt through a strict theocratic rule. We true liberals are fighting a lot for common sense and dialogue."780 Interview: November 14,2012, by Cornelis Hulsman and Diana Serödio,781 November 28,2012, by Jaco Stoop782, February 20783 and March 24,2013 by Cornelis Hulsman, Diana Serodio and Jayson Casper. Position after 2013: He quit politics and runs a pharmacy in al-Qanatir. He resurfaced in 2014 as a member of the Munich Young Leaders in 2014, In ternational Affairs Committee, Security & Defense Committee. 16.2 ‘Abd Allah al-M ughäzi Position in 2013: Spokesman of the New al-Wafd Party, assistant to the Prime Minister. Interview: May 1,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He was the spokesperson of the Al-Sisi Presidential campaign in 2014.784 17 H izb M isr al-H urriyya (Freedom Egypt Party) A political party "committed to freedom and human rights,"785 founded May 18, 2011. 17.1 Dr. ‘Amr Hamzäwi (Amr Hamzawy) Position in 2013: Founder of the Free Egyptians Party, professor of political science, Department of Public Policy and Administration at the American University in Cairo (since 2011), author and human rights activist. He had a travel ban in 2014 but it was lifted shortly after. 780 Email to Cornelis Hulsman, August 19, 2013. 781 Serödio 2012. 782 Stoop 2012. 783 Casper 2013 (b). 784 Hamid 2014. 785 Smit, Kasanwidjojo and Gjorvad 2013. 202 Interview: April 16,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad, Eline Kasanwidjojo, Quinta Smit.786 Position after 2013: Prof. Hamzäwi still teaches at AUC and writes for al- Shurüq News. 18 H izb al-M isriyym a l - 'Ahrnr (Free Egyptians Party) Supports a liberal, democratic and secular order, founded by Näjib Säwiris on April 3, 2011.787 18.1 ‘Äsim Mimün (Assem Memon) Position in 2013: Deputy Managing Director of the party office of the Free Egyptians Party. Interview: June 5, 2014 by Omar Ali788 Position after 2013: Deputy Managing Director of the party office of the Free Egyptians Party. 19 H izb al-D ustür (C onstitution Party) Political party founded in 2012 by Muhammad al-Baräda‘i. 19.1 Khalid Dawüd (Khaled Daoud) Position in 2013: Spokesman for the Constitution Party, journalist, Assistant Editor-in-Chief of al-Ahram Weekly.789 Interview: April 29, 2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He resigned as spokesman for the Constitution Party in August 2015790 but is still Assistant Editor-in-Chief of al-Ahram Weekly. 20 H izb al-M u tam ar (Congress Party) 20.1 Muhammad ‘Abd al-Latif Position in 2013: Deputy President of the Congress Party. Interview: May 30,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. 786 Ibid. 787 Ali 2014. 788 Ibid. 789 http://www.mei.edu/profile/khaled-dawoud 790 Daily News 2015. 203 Position after 2013: He resigned in May 2014.791 It is not known if he is still politically active. 21 A l-H izb al-M isrt a l-D im ü qrätl a l-I jt im ä 'l (Egyptian Social Democratic Party) Social, Liberal Democratic Party founded in 2011 by Dr. Muhammad Abü al-Ghär.792 21.1 M ahä ‘Abd al-Näsir Position in 2013: Deputy Secretary General of the Egyptian Social Demo cratic Party Interview: May 28,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: According to the party's website, accessed November 26, 2015 she is still the Deputy Secretary General of the party.793 22 H izb a l-K aräm a (Dignity Party) Founded in 1996 by Hamdin Sabähi, presidential candidate in the elections of 2012 and 2014, and Amin Iskander. Left-wing Nasserist. Allied in the Parliamentary elections of 2011-2012 to the FJP in the Democratic Alliance for Egypt. During the reign of President Mursi of the FJP the party joined the National Salvation Front in opposition to the FJP and President Mursi. Al-Tayyär al-Sha 'bi al-Misri (Egyptian Popular Current) - created in 2012, advocates social justice. Closely allied with al-Karäma Party. The Egyptian Popular Current supports Hamdin Sabähi, but it is not a political party as such. It rather concentrates on social issues with its activism. 22.1 Sayyid al-Tükhi Position in 2013: Vice-President of the Dignity Party Interview: May 1, 2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He remained with the party, but according to the Facebook page of the party he is no longer the Vice-President.794 791 ‘Abdu 2014. 792 Al-Hizb al-misri al-dimüqräti al-ijtimä‘i 2015. 793 Ibid. 794 safha rasmiyya li-Hizb al-Karäma 2015. 204 23 H izb a l- A hrar (L ibera l Party) 23.1 Ahmad Talat (Ahmed Talaat) Position in 2013: Lawyer, former deputy head of the party. Interviews: March 5,2013 by Diana Serödio and Fouad Masoud795 and June 22, 2015 by Cornelis Hulsman and Cholpon Ramizova. Position after 2013: same as in 2013 24 Other Parties Mentioned in the Book but No M em bers Inter viewed Hizb al-Tahalufal-Sha 'bi al-Ishtiräki (Socialist Popular Alliance Party) - a leftist party, created in 2011. Hizb al-Tajammu' (National Progressive Unionist Party) - a socialist political party, founded in 1977. Al-Hizb al-Watanial-Dimüqräti (National Democratic Party, NDP) - The par ty of President Husni Mubärak, defunct since his ouster. 25 April 6 Youth Movement A democratization activist group created in 2008 following a major strike of industry workers in al-Mahalla al-Kubra, an industrial town in the Delta. They were active in the January 25 Revolution and against the rule of Presi dent Mursi. The movement was banned by an Egyptian court order on 28 April 2014.796 25.1 Ahmad ‘Abd Allah Position in 2013: Lawyer and a leader of the April 6 movement's political bureau Interview: April 29, 2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He did not respond to efforts to contact him in Decem ber 2015. 25.2 Rami al-Suw isi Position in 2013: Co-founder of the April 6 movement. Interview: May 2,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. 795 Serödio 2013 (e). 796 Ahram Online 2014 (b). 205 Position after 2013: He did not respond to efforts to contact him in December 2015. 25.3 ’Amal Sharaf Position in 2013: Co-founder of the April 6 movement, Foreign Media spokesman. Interview: May 2,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He did not respond to efforts to contact him in December 2015. 26 Tamarrud (Rebellion) A grass roots organization appealing to President Mursi for early presiden tial elections, supporting his removal on July 3,2013. Several founders and major organizers remained politically active after President Mursi had been deposed. 26.1 W alid al- Masri Position in 2013: Co-founder Tamarrud. Interview: May 30,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He did not respond to efforts to contact him in December 2015. 26.2 MahmUd Badr Position in 2013: Co-founder Tamarrud, official spokesman, Journalist at Al- Sabah Interview: May 30,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: He was elected in 2015 as a Member of Parliament on the 'For The Love of Egypt' list.797 26.3 Muhammad ‘Aziz Position in 2013: Co-founder Tamarrud. Interview: July 20,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: In 2015 he was in charge of political communication for Tamarrud and member of the Executive Office of the Egyptian Popular Cur rent Party.798 797 ‘ Afifi 2015; Abaza 2016. 206 26.4 Shim ä’ al-Tüni Position in 2013: Tamarrud activist. Interview: July 31,2013 by Nicholas Gjorvad. Position after 2013: She was volunteering for the Hamdin Sabähi presiden tial campaign in 2014 after which she left politics.799 27 Military/Security The Supreme Council for the Armed Forces (SCAF) - a statutory body, a council convening at times of war and crisis. 27.1 Anonymous Former Security Advisor for the Government in North Sinai Position in 2013: former security advisor for the governorate of Northern Sinai Interview: May 16,2013 by Jayson Casper.800 Position after 2013: His position remained unchanged 27.2 Sämih Sayf al-Yazal Position in 2013: Former Army General who turned political analyst. Interview: November 29, 2013 by Eline Kasanwidjojo. Position after 2013: Leader of the 'For the Love of Egypt' List in the Parlia mentary elections of 2015. He was elected in the Parliamentary elections of 2015 801 but passed away on April 4,2016, after a battle with cancer.802 27.3 Other Opposition to Islamists This includes the Kifäya movement, a grassroot democratization movement founded in 2004, primarily opposed to the expected transfer of power from Husni Mubärak to his son Jamäl, Süfi Muslims in various top positions in al-Azhar and others. We have interviewed people from many different po litical parties and movements but do not claim our list to be exhaustive. 798 https://twitter.com/ mohamedaziz25 799 Personal meeting Nick Gjorvad on July 15, 2014. 800 Casper 2013 (e). 801 ‘Abdel Zähir 2015. 802 Eleiba 2016; Daily News Egypt 2016. 207

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Abstract

In 2013, a group of researchers had the unique chance to interview 61 Egyptian Islamists and their opponents both prior to and after Egypt’s military ousted President Mursī on July 3. Up to that time, Islamists with very different political perspectives were hopeful that they would be able to realize the implementation of sharīa and to create a utopian Islamic state. After the coup, many of them rejected the transformation and a number became involved in militant attacks on police, military and the judiciary. This resulted in harsh government responses. Their criticism has been muted, but they still exist. The interviews document authentic voices during this period of major political transformations. A must read for anyone who wants to understand contemporary Egypt.