Content

Appendixes in:

Julian Heinz Anton Ströh

The eSports Market and eSports Sponsoring, page 124 - 184

1. Edition 2017, ISBN print: 978-3-8288-3891-8, ISBN online: 978-3-8288-6648-5, https://doi.org/10.5771/9783828866485-124

Tectum, Baden-Baden
Bibliographic information
124 Appendixes Appendix 1: Share of prize money by genre and discipline (top 25) in 2015 Appendix 2: Introduction of the game plays of the most important eSports genres Appendix 3: List of the most famous professional eSports players on Facebook, Twitter and Twitch Appendix 4: Top 30 of the most successful eSports teams ranked by total prize money won as of 22 August 2016 Appendix 5: Top organizers on Twitch by viewership hours August 2015 - May 2016 Appendix 6: Total global prize money and The International's prize money 2009-2015 Appendix 7: Lists of eSports events by highest prize money provided and by largest unique viewer numbers Appendix 8: Examples of venues dedicated to eSports Appendix 9: Sample of stream content of an event exemplified by ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 and Heroes of the Storm World Championship 2015 Appendix 10: Potentials and limitations of the WESA as analyzed by Fletcher and Blum Appendix 11: Major investments in the eSports ecosystem in 2015 Appendix 12: Wüstenrot online and offline branding at ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 Appendix 13:Wüstenrot information desk at ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 Appendix 14: Structure of the field study questionnaire Appendix 15: Structure of the online survey questionnaire - German part Appendix 16: Structure of the online survey questionnaire - international part Appendix 17: Promotion flyer used for the field study 125 Appendix 18: Results of the central Likert scales of the international online survey Appendix 19: Regional distribution of the international survey's respondents Appendix 20: Written interview with Malph Minns Appendix 21: Written interview with Alex Fletcher Appendix 22: Written interview with Marco Niemann Appendix 23: Written interview with Frank Dolipski Appendix 24: SPSS outputs of conducted statistical analyses 126 Appendix 1 Share of prize money by genre and discipline (top 25) in 2015 Source: Own Illustration based on data of www.esportsearnings.com 127 Appendix 2 Introduction of the game plays of the most important eSports genres Multiplayer Online Battle Arena: A MOBA is usually played 5vs5 and each player is controlling a character (hero or champion) with a certain amount of health points and distinct abilities. Mostly, the characters are being controlled from a bird's perspective such as in real time strategy, the genre it derived from. There are also MOBA-FPS hybrids with a FPS character control (such as Smite or Paragon) but are not yet as popular. One game can last up to more than an hour. During the game these characters are getting stronger by killing neutral minions and killing the opponents' minions (creeps), structures and characters to gain experience points. Furthermore, gold is being gained with which items can be purchased that improve a character in a certain way. The whole game is taking place in a virtual fantasy world (map). The basic composition of such a map is illustrated in the image on the left. Mostly, there are three different lanes on which the teams' minions are approaching one another and fight. The lanes are fortified by defense structure that can attack minions and characters. Between these lanes, there are paths with gaps containing neutral creeps. Killing these gives experience points, gold and/or positive effects. The teams try to make their way step by step towards the core structure by destroy- 128 ing defense structures and winning fights against the opponents' characters. A team takes the victory once it destroyed the core structure. These game play features differ in detail for each different MOBA. Fighter / Beat 'Em Up: Fighter games are mostly played 1vs1 from a thirdperson perspective. Each player controls a virtual fighting character. Depending on the specific game the fighter can be moved in two or three dimensions on the virtual battleground. By using the character's fighting moves and abilities, the players are trying to defeat the opponent warrior. The image shows a screenshot of two battling virtual fighters in Street Fighter 5. 129 First Person Shooter: First person shooters are mostly played either 1vs1 (e.g. Quake, Unreal Tournament) or 5vs5 (e.g. Counter-Strike). As the team management considering strategy and tactic is very important in a 5vs5 FPS, they are often referred to as 'tactical shooters'. In the game a player controls a virtual character from the first-person perspective with which he tries to defeat opponents by shooting with virtual guns or using other weapons like hand grenades. In Counter-Strike, one team is playing as 'terrorists' trying to plant and explode a bomb on specific spots on the virtual map before the time runs out. The other team is playing as 'Counter-Terrorists' trying to prevent the terrorists from planting the bomb or trying to defuse it in time once it was planted. The image shows a screenshot of the first-person perspective in Counter-Strike: GO. The provided information of the map (upper left) and the teams' current weaponry (middle right and middle left) are additional information provided by the observer mode. 130 Real Time Strategy: Real time strategy games are mostly played 1vs1 but can also include 2vs2 competitions. An RTS game is played from a bird's perspective. A player is not controlling a single character, but a whole 'economy' and armies. At the start of the game each player is provided with a first basic building and a few units to gather resources. A player spends the gathered resources to build further buildings in which units can be produced. The target is to create a superior army of units to destroy the opponent's army and structures. Next to the complex strategic skills needed in an RTS game, fast reactions and multi-tasking when controlling one's units/armies is required. Pro-gamers can reach up to 400 actions (pressing a keyboard or mouse key) per minute. The image shows an attack of an army on the opponent's buildings in StarCraft II. 131 Collectible Card Game: At the start of a match of a collectible card game, in this case Hearthstone, both players decide for a deck of cards that are representing e.g warriors or weapons. In a turn based system they can use their cards which appear on the battleground and are used to “fight” against the opponents’ cards. Each turn and each card has specific abilities, grants specific advantages and must be thoroughly chosen. Once a card is used, a player gets a new card from his deck by random chance, bringing in a certain factor of randomness/luck into the game. The target is to counter the opponent’s decisions with a superior strategy to finally destroy the opponent’s hero, which is constantly visible on the board. Special to this discipline is that aspects such as aiming and fast reactions are irrelevant. The game is only based on strategic and tactical abilities. Source: HS Esports (2015) 132 Appendix 3 List of the most famous professional eSports players on Facebook, Twitter and Twitch Source: Fletcher / eSports Marketing Blog (2016) 133 Appendix 4 Top 30 of the most successful eSports teams ranked by total prize money won as of 22 August 2016 Source: www.esportsearnings.com/teams 134 Appendix 5 Top organizers on Twitch by viewership hours August 2015 - May 2016 Source: Newzoo (2016b) 135 Appendix 6 Total global prize money and The International's prize money 2009-2015 Source: Own illustration based on data from Newzoo (2016a), p. 14 and www.esportsearnings.com 136 Appendix 7 Lists of eSports events by highest prize money provided and by largest unique viewer numbers Source: Own illustration based on data from www.esportsearnings.com; wiki.teamliquid.net; www.esportspedia.com Source: Own illustration based on Kresse (2016a) 137 Appendix 8 Examples of venues dedicated to eSports The sources are provided in the respective table segment 138 Appendix 9 Sample of stream content of an event exemplified by ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 and Heroes of the Storm World Championship 2015 ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016: Source: Own illustration based on screenshots of ESL Deutschland (2016a) 139 Heroes of the Storm World Championship 2015: Source: Own illustration based on screenshots of Heroes of the Storm (2015) 140 Appendix 10 Potentials and limitations of the WESA as analyzed by Fletcher and Blum Source: Own illustration based on Fletcher (2016b); Blum (2016) 141 Appendix 11 Major investments in the eSports ecosystem in 2015 Source: Kresse (2016a) 142 Appendix 12 Wüstenrot online and offline branding at ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 All photos taken by the author 143 144 Appendix 13 Wüstenrot information desk at ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 All photos taken by the author 145 Appendix 14 Structure of the field study questionnaire Field study online questionnaire I Welcome and information page Info Greeting, appreciation and general information about the survey and prize raffle Hallo eSports-Fan, willkommen zu meiner Umfrage zur ESL Meisterschaft 2016. Ich freue mich sehr, dass du dir 10 Minuten Zeit nimmst um meine Fragen zu beantworten und bedanke mich vielmals [...] To be measured Method Question II eSports related consumer behavior as 'hook' questions 2.1 Fav. genre (playing) Multiple choice Welche dieser eSports-Genres sind deine Favoriten zum selbst spielen? 2.2 Fav. genre (watch-ing) Multiple choice Welche dieser eSports-Genres sind deine Favoriten zum Zuschauen? 2.3 Consumption (playing) Time scale Wie viele Stunden spielst du eSports- Disziplinen in der Woche? 2.4 Consumption (watching) Time scale Wie viele Stunden eSports-Content wie z.B. Twitch-Livestreams oder Youtube-Videos schaust du pro Woche? 2.5 Reasons for event visit Multiple choice Aus welchen der folgenden Anlässen bist/warst du primär auf der ESL Meisterschaft 2016 in Duisburg? III Image of ESL Meisterschaft 3.1 Event image Semantic Diff. Welche der jeweils gegensätzlichen Eigenschaften würdest du dem Event ESL Meisterschaft zuschreiben und wie sehr? IV Bias control: general attitude towards (e)sports sponsoring 4.1 General attitude to-wards sponsoring Likert scale (degree of agreement) Bitte kreuze an wie sehr du folgenden Aussagen zustimmst bzw. nicht zustimmst:Das Sponsoring von Veranstaltungen, Teams oder Spielern im eSports und traditionellen Sport durch Unternehmen ist... 146 V Wüstenrot: Awareness of sponsorship and brand/product familiari-ty Info The next question should be an-swered immediately Bitte beantworte die Frage auf der nächsten Seite sofort ohne 'zu cheaten'. 5.1 Awareness of Wüstenrot as main sponsor Closed question with text field Weißt du wer der Hauptsponsor der ESL Meisterschaft 2016 ist? Info Revealing Wüstenrot as main spon-sor Der Hauptsponsor ist die Marke Wüstenrot. 5.2 Degree of attracted attention Interval scale Wie stark ist dir der Sponsor Wüstenrot bislang auf der ESL Meisterschaft aufgefallen? 5.3 Brand familiarity I Interval scale Wie gut kanntest du die Marke Wüstenrot bevor du ihr auf einem ESL- Stream oder der ESL Meisterschaft begegnet bist? 5.4 Brand familiarity II Multiple Choice Weißt du, dass Wüstenrot eine Bau-sparkasse ist und falls ja, seit wann? 5.5 Product/industry familiarity Ordinal scale Wie intensiv hast du dich bereits schon einmal mit Bausparen auseinandergesetzt? VI Attitude towards Wüstenrot and non-endemic sponsoring: deter- 6.1 Likert scale with seven dimensions (degree of dis/agreement) Bitte gebe an wie sehr du folgenden Aussagen zustimmst oder nicht zustimmst. 6.1.1 Acceptance Wüstenrot Ich finde es gut, dass Wüstenrot Spon-sor der ESL Meisterschaft ist. 6.1.2 Authenticity I Wüstenrot hat ehrliches Interesse an eSports. 6.1.3 Authenticity II Wüstenrot tritt als glaubwürdiger eSports-Sponsor auf. 6.1.4 Altruistic motives I Mit dem Sponsoring handelt Wüsten-rot vorrangig eigennützig. 6.1.5 Altruistic motives II Wüstenrot sponsort die ESLM um den deutschen eSports voranzubringen. 6.1.6 Altruistic motives III Wüstenrot sponsort die ESLM um den Spielern, Teams und Fans ein besseres Offline-Erlebnis zu ermöglichen. 6.1.7 In/decrease of sympathy Wüstenrot ist mir durch das Sponso-ring sympathischer geworden. 6.1.8 Acceptance non-endemic I Marken, die in keiner direkten Verbindung mit eSports stehen, gehören auch nicht dort hin. 6.1.9 Acceptance non-endemic II Ich freue mich, wenn eine Marke ohne direkte Verbindung zum eSports dennoch als Sponsor aktiv ist. 147 VII Perception of Wüstenrot at event 7.1 Brand perception Semantic Diff. Wie wirkt die Marke Wüstenrot auf der ESL Meisterschaft auf dich und wie sehr? Benutze wiederum den Schieberegler. VIII Comments 8.1 Comments Free text field Falls du weitere Anmerkungen zum Sponsoring von Wüstenrot und dessen Sponsorauftritt hast, kannst du diese gerne hier im freien Textfeld mitteilen. IX Basic demographics 9.1 Gender Dichotomous choice Du bist ein...? (weiblicher/männlicher eSports-Fan) 9.2 Age Two digit in-teger field ...und bist wie viele Jahre alt? X Acknowledgement and price raffle Info Acknoledgement and information about prize raffle Vielen herzlichen Dank für das Durchspielen meiner Umfrage. Wie versprochen kannst du hier als Dankeschön deine E-Mail-Adresse hinterlegen um am Gewinnspiel teilzunehmen. [...] 10.1 Prize raffle participation Dichotomous choice and email address text field Möchtest du am Gewinnspiel teilnehmen? Info Notice of confidentiality Datenschutzhinweis: Deine E-Mail- Adresse wird ausschließlich dafür verwendet [...] Info Conditions of participation Teilnahmebedinungen: Teilnahmebe-rechtigt ist jede Person, [...] XI End page Info Appreciation and recommendation request Vielen Dank und viel Spaß weiterhin auf der ESL Meisterschaft. Wenn dir die Umfrage gefallen hat, freue ich mich, wenn du sie deinen Nebenleuten weiterempfiehlst. 148 Appendix 15 Structure of the online survey questionnaire - German part Online survey questionnaire - German part I Welcome and information page + geographical split Info Greeting, appreciation and general information about the survey and prize raffle Hello eSports-Fan, welcome to my survey about eSports. I am very glad you take 10 minutes of your time to answer my survey questions and am very thankful for your support. [...] Info Photo of and information about the researcher, that was added due to very low click-through-rate 1.1 Geographical split: Germa-ny / Rest At first, please let me know where you are from. To be measured Method Question II eSports related consumer behavior Info Short definition of eSports Als "eSports" versteht sich in dieser Umfrage das ettbewerbsorientierte Spielen auf Amateur- und Profiebene. [...] 2.1 Fav. genre (playing) Multiple choice Welche dieser eSports-Genres sind deine Favoriten zum selbst spielen? 2.2 Fav. genre (watching) Multiple choice Welche dieser eSports-Genres sind deine Favoriten zum Zuschauen? 2.3 Consumption (playing) Time scale Wie viele Stunden spielst du eSports-Disziplinen in der Woche? 2.4 Consumption (watching) Time scale Wie viele Stunden eSports-Content wie z.B. Twitch-Livestreams oder Youtube-Videos schaust du pro Woche? 2.5 Significance of eSports Ordinal scale Wie wichtig ist eSports für dich? 2.6 Consump-tion of Time scale Am 7. und 8. Mai fand die ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016 statt. Wie viele Stunden 149 ESLM hast du diese per Livestream (z.B. bei ESL TV) verfolgt? III Image of professional eSports 3.1 Industry/scene image Semantic Diff. Welche dieser jeweils gegensätzlichen Eigenschaften würdest du der professionellen eSports-Szene zuschreiben und wie sehr? Benutze zum Antworten die Schieberegler. IV Wüstenrot: Awareness, familiarity and sponsor-fit 4.1 Brand fa-miliarity Interval scale Einige Fragen werden sich auf die Marke Wüstenrot beziehen. Wie gut kennst du diese Marke bzw. Unternehmen? 4.2 Awareness of youth campaign Interval scale Erinnerst du dich daran, kürzlich einen Werbespot von Wüstenrot im Fernsehen, auf einem Stream oder einer Internetseite gesehen zu haben und falls ja, wie gut? 4.3 Product/industry familiarity Ordinal scale Wie intensiv hast du dich bereits schon einmal mit Bausparen auseinandergesetzt? 4.4 Sponsor-fit Interval scale Wie gut/schlecht passt Wüstenrot deiner Meinung nach zu eSports? Falls du Wüstenrot nicht kennst, beziehe dich auf Bausparkassen allgemein. V Brand image Wüstenrot / Industry image home loan banks 5.1 Brand / industry image (before awareness of sponsorship) Semantic Diff. Welche der folgenden jeweils gegensätzlichen Eigenschaften würdest du der Marke Wüstenrot zuschreiben und wie sehr? Benutze dazu die Schieberegler. Sollte Wüstenrot dir nicht bekannt sein, beziehe dich bitte auf Bausparkassen allgemein. VI Bias control: general attitude towards (e)sports sponsoring 6.1 General attitude towards sports sponsoring Likert scale (degree of agreement) Das Sponsoring von Veranstaltungen, Teams oder Spielern im traditionellen Sport und eSports durch Unternehmen ist... 150 VII Random split into two equally sized groups (A and B) VIIA Information page about Wüstenrot's eSports engagement Info Wüstenrot is main sponsor of ESLM Wüstenrot ist Hauptsponsor der diesjährigen ESL Frühlings-meisterschaft, die als 'deutsche Meisterschaft' für die vertretenen eSports- Disziplinen gilt. VIIB Information page about Wüstenrot's eSports engagement and brand connection video clip Info Wüstenrot is main sponsor of ESLM Wüstenrot ist Hauptsponsor der diesjährigen ESL Frühlings-meisterschaft, die als 'deutsche Meisterschaft' für die vertretenen eSports- Disziplinen gilt. (+Image see above) Info Integrated video clip from Wüstenrot's campaign with StarCraft II player 'Lambo' (Available at: https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=1SgUEFfbwPs) Bitte schau dir dazu diesen kurzen Clip an. Bitte schaue bei den letzen 20 Sekunden besonders aufmerksam hin. Versuche dabei Lambo objektiv als eSportler/Pro-gamer anzusehen und nicht subjektiv als StarCraftoder Zergspieler und ob du dieses Spiel und diese Rasse magst oder nicht. 7.1B Perceived brandeSports connection Likert scale (assignment of attribute values) Bitte bewerte auf der unten vorliegenden Skala wie du die Verbindung zwischen Wüstenrot und eSports bzw. eSportlern in dem gezeigten Clip einschätzt. VIII Attitude towards Wüstenrot and non-endemic sponsoring: deter-minants of effectiveness 8.1 Likert scale with seven dimensions (degree of dis/agreement) Bitte gebe an wie sehr du folgenden Aussagen zustimmst oder nicht zustimmst. Bitte sehe die ESLM objektiv als eSports-Event an. 8.1.1 Acceptance Wüstenrot Ich finde es gut, dass Wüstenrot Sponsor ei-nes eSports-Events ist. 151 8.1.2 Authenticity I Wüstenrot hat ehrliches Interesse an eSports. 8.1.3 Authenticity II Wüstenrot ist ein glaubwürdiger eSports-Sponsor. 8.1.4 Altruistic motives I Mit dem Sponsoring handelt Wüstenrot vor-rangig eigennützig. 8.1.5 Altruistic motives II Wüstenrot sponsort die ESLM um den deut-schen eSports voranzubringen. 8.1.6 Altruistic motives III Wüstenrot sponsort die ESLM um den Spielern, Teams und Fans ein besseres Offline- Erlebnis zu ermöglichen. 8.1.7 In/decrease of sympathy Wüstenrot ist mir durch das Sponsoring sym-pathischer geworden. 8.1.8 Acceptance non-endemic I Marken, die in keiner direkten Verbindung mit eSports stehen, gehören auch nicht dort hin. 8.1.9 Acceptance non-endemic II Ich freue mich, wenn eine Marke ohne direkte Verbindung zum eSports dennoch als Sponsor aktiv ist. IX Basic demographics 9.1 Gender Dichotomous choice Du bist ein...? (weiblicher/männlicher eSports-Fan) 9.2 Age Two digit int. field ...und bist wie viele Jahre alt? X Acknowledgement and price raffle Info Acknoledgement and infor-mation about prize raffle Vielen herzlichen Dank für das Durchspielen meiner Umfrage. Wie versprochen kannst du hier als Dankeschön deine E-Mail-Adresse hinterlegen um am Gewinnspiel teilzunehmen. [...] 10.1 Prize raffle participatio n Dichotomous choice and e-mail address text field Möchtest du am Gewinnspiel teilnehmen? Info Notice of confidentiality Datenschutzhinweis: Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird ausschließlich dafür verwendet [...] Info Conditions of participation Teilnahmebedinungen: Teilnahmeberechtigt ist jede Person, [...] XI End page Info Appreciation and recom-mendation request Thanks a lot for participating. If you liked the survey, feel free to send it to your eSports friends. I'd really appreciate it. GL HF! URL of this survey to send to your friends: www.esports-survey.de 152 Appendix 16 Structure of the online survey questionnaire – international part Online survey questionnaire - international part I Welcome and information page + geographical split Info Greeting, appreciation and general information about the survey and prize raffle Hello eSports-Fan, welcome to my survey about eSports. I am very glad you take 10 minutes of your time to answer my survey questions and am very thankful for your support. [...] Info Photo of and information about the researcher, that was added due to very low click-through-rate 1.1 Geographical split: Ger-many / Rest At first, please let me know where you are from. To be meas-ured Method Question II eSports related consumer behavior Info Short definition of eSports Please note that the term "eSports" in this survey describes professional and amateur competitive gaming. Playing e.g. single player games or MMORPGs is not part of eSports. 2.1 Significance of eSports Ordinal scale How important is eSports to you? 2.2 Fav. genre (playing) Multiple choice Which eSports genres are your favorites to play? 2.3 Fav. genre (watching) Multiple choice Which eSports genres are your favorites to watch? 2.4 Consumption (playing) Time scale How many hours do you spend playing eSports games in a week? 2.5 Consumption (watching) Time scale How many hours do you spend watching eSports games a week, e.g. Twitch streams or Youtube videos? 153 III Image of professional eSports 3.1 Industry/scene image Semantic Diff. Which of these opposite characteristics would you attribute to the professional eSports-scene and in what extent? Please use the slider. IV General attitude towards (e)sports sponspring 4.1 General attitude towards sports sponsoring Likert scale (degree of agreement) Sponsoring of events/teams/players in traditional Sports or eSports is... VII Random split into two groups (A and B) V A Attitude towards and evaluation of general sponsors in eSports 5.1 Likert scale with seven dimensions (degree of dis/agreement) Please read the following statements carefully and mark the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement in general. 5.1.1 Altruistic motives Companies do sponsoring, because they want to support the eSports scene, teams and fans. 5.1.2 Authenticity Sponsors have honest interest in eSports. 5.1.3 Acceptance I appreciate the sponsoring of companies in eSports. 5.1.4 Attitute towards non-endemic sponsors I would like to see more brands as sponsors in eSports, that are not directly related to eSports. 5.2 Likert scale with seven dimensions (likelihood) Please mark how likely the following statements might be true for you in general. 5.2.1 Effect of eSports event spon-soring I evaluate a brand more favorable, when it sponsors an eSports event. 5.2.2 Effect of eSports player/team sponsoring I evaluate a brand more favorable, when it sponsors an eSports team or player. 5.2.3 Effect of eSports event spon-soring on brand preference I prefer a brand that sponsors an eSports event over a competitive brand. 5.2.4 Effectof eSports team/player sponsoring on brand preference I prefer a brand that sponsors an eSports team or player over a competitive brand. 5.2.5 Effect on degree of identifica-tion I can better identify with a brand, when it acts as sponsor in eSports. 154 V B Attitude towards and evaluation of non-endemic sponsors in eSports Info Explanation of the term "non-related companies/brands" Please read this information: Most sponsors in eSports are directly related to eSports, such as computer companies, gaming gear companies, etc. But some sponsors in eSports are not directly related to eSports. Examples: German home loan bank 'Wüstenrot' sponsoring ESL Meisterschaft, the German Championship Swedish fashion brand 'Björn Borg' sponsoring a 6,000$ CS:GO invitational U.S. American car insurance 'GEICO' sponsoring Team SoloMid and a Hearthstone championship series U.S. American beer brand 'Bud Light' setting up an All-Star team consisting of players from all famous eSports disciplines to sponsor These sponsors are called "non-related companies/brands" in the next parts of the survey. 5.1 Likert scale with seven dimensions (degree of dis/agreement) Please read the following statements carefully and mark the extent to which you agree or disagree with each statement in general. 5.1.3 Altruistic motives Non-related companies do sponsoring, because they want to support the eSports scene, teams and fans. 5.1.2 Authenticity Non-related sponsors have honest interest in eSports. 5.1.3 Acceptance of non-endemic sponsors I I appreciate the sponsoring of non-related companies. 5.1.4 Acceptance of non-endemic sponsors II I don't want non-related brands to enter eSports. 5.2 Likert scale with seven dimensions (likelihood) Please mark how likely the following statements might be true for you in general. 5.2.1 Effect of eSports event spon-soring I evaluate a non-related brand more favorable, when it sponsors an eSports event. 155 5.2.2 Effect of eSports player/team sponsoring I evaluate a non-related brand more favorable, when it sponsors an eSports team or player. 5.2.3 Effect of eSports event spon-soring on brand preference I prefer a non-related brand that sponsors an eSports event over a competitive brand. 5.2.4 Effectof eSports team/player sponsoring on brand preference I prefer a non-related brand that sponsors an eSports team or player over a competitive brand. 5.2.5 Effect on degree of identifica-tion I can better identify with a non-related brand, when it acts as sponsor in eSports. VI Basic demographics 6.1 Gender Dichotomous choice You are a...? (female eSports fan / male eSports fan) 6.2 Age Two digit int. field ...and are how many years old? VII Acknowledgement and price raffle Info Acknoledgement and infor-mation about prize raffle Thanks a lot for finishing my survey. GG! As promised, you can enter your e-mailaddress* below to participate in a price draw. The winner of the draw [...] 7.1 Prize raffle participation Dichotomous choice and e-mail address text field Do you want to participate in the price draw? Info Notice of confidentiality *Notice of confidentiality: Your e-mail address will only be used to send you the link to the VOD and to contact you in case you are the lucky winner. All e-mail addresses will be deleted after the drawing. Info Conditions of participation Participation Conditions: Able to participate is every person over 14 years old, who completed this survey [...] VIII End page Info Appreciation and recommen-dation request Thanks a lot for participating. If you liked the survey, feel free to send it to your eSports friends. I'd really appreciate it. GL HF! URL of this survey to send to your friends: www.esports-survey.de 156 Appendix 17 Promotion flyer used for the field study The flyer was designed by the author on the basis of a template provided by Vistaprint at www.vistaprint.de. 157 Appendix 18 Results of the central Likert scales of the international online survey The images have been generated with EFS Reporting+ within the Unipark Questback Enterprise Feedback Suite. Subsample A: 158 Subsample B: 159 Appendix 19 Regional distribution of the international survey's respondents 160 Appendix 20 Written interview with Malph Minns Interview via E-Mail with Mr. Malph Minns about eSports and sponsoring - conducted by the author Karlsruhe / London, 17.06.2016 Author: Hello Mr. Minns. First of all, I'd like to thank you a lot for contributing to my thesis with your expertise and knowledge. To start off the interview, please explain your job at Strive Sponsorship and your overall relation to eSports and sponsoring in eSports. Malph Minns: I’m Managing Director of Strive Sponsorship. Strive offers evidence based and insight led sponsorship, marketing and brand consultancy services to brands (i.e. sponsors) and rights holders (e.g. events, teams, leagues, venues etc) both directly, and through specialist strategic partners. We specialise in sport, music, eSports and film partnerships and also work with companies with interests in fashion, the arts, causes and broadcast sponsorship. We have a core internal sponsorship and marketing expertise built up over 16 years from working brand, agency and rights holder side. We have worked with global brands like Guinness, British Airways, Sky and 888.com and innovative rights holders like Team Sky. Our expertise is supplemented by a network of specialist strategic partners whom are called upon as the brief dictates, ensuring the best available bespoke solution is delivered to our clients. Specific to eSports, we have so far worked with Gfinity and hope to confirm a few more eSports clients soon. Malph Minns Founder & Managing Director Strive Sponsorship 161 Author: How important are agencies and consultancies for fixing partnerships of eSports players/teams/leagues/events and industry partners? Malph Minns: There are many different types of agency and consultancies. If you look at more mature sponsorship markets, like sports, you’ll see that agencies play a key role in four main areas: 1. Sponsorship rights sales (on behalf of the league, event, team etc) 2. Sponsorship strategy (advising the brand on which sponsorships can help them deliver their objectives. This may extend into negotiation of specific partnerships) 3. Sponsorship activation (bringing to life the relationship between the sponsor and the rights holder, through delivering communications to the audience) 4. Sponsorship research and insight (providing data to help influence and evaluate sponsorship decision making, for both brands and rights holders) Agencies can specialise in one of these areas, or a number of them. The nature of agencies is that they work with a number of different brands, and rights holders, across the various verticals of sponsorship (e.g. sport, music, eSports etc) giving them a better understanding of the broader sponsorship market than any single rights holder or brand. This context is important in understanding value, as an eSports team or event isn’t just competing against other eSports properties for sponsorship investment, but other rights holders in other in other verticals. This understanding is used by brands to help determine their own strategy. Agencies also play an important ‘bridging’ role between rights holders and brands. You tend to find rights holders, especially in emerging markets like eSports, are experts in their own area (i.e. esports), but not in articulating this for people who aren’t part of that scene. There isn’t the expertise in eSports business, generally speaking, to undertsnad what brands want and how to shape their proposition to this. Equally, on the brand side, they are experts in their business and what they want to achieve, but not in the world of eSports. Therefore there is a need for an entity, often an agency, which has an under- 162 standing of both sides to bring them together. Agencies play an especially valuable role for non-endemic brands who need more help. Furthermore, once a partnership has been established, agencies can (and do) play a vital role in ensuring the partnership delivers a return on investment for both sides, maximizing the opportunity of partnership renewals. The one watch out for non-endemic brands is hiring an agency based on its brand name rather than it’s specific eSports knowledge, capabilities and credentials. A brand doesn’t know, what it doesn’t know, and I have seen evidence before of agencies overstating their capabilities to brands purely to win the business. This is dangerous both to brands and rights holders as the chances of a successful relationship are seriously impacted. Brands need to do more due diligence before hiring agencies, and rights holders could assist non-endemic brands by recommending agencies whom they know understand the eSports market. Author: What characteristics define the target group "eSports fans"? What makes them especially valuable for sponsors/advertisers? What are the main advantages of an engagement in eSports to reach this target group? Malph Minns: There is no such thing as ‘an eSports fan’. There is no such thing as a ‘sports fan’. It is one of the common mistakes made by both rights holders and brands in sponsorship. Fanbases are generally quite diverse and you may find there are five or six different types of fan in any one sport, let alone across sport (or eSports) more generally. There may indeed be similarities between different fan sets, e.g. demographic information, but we would advise rights holders undertake segmentation research to identify the types of fans there are and how best to engage with them. What we do know, however, is that eSports attracts a concentrated millennial fanbase, of largely males. And that a large portion of this fanbase is highly engaged in both participation and viewership of eSports. Whilst the relative current spend of millennial is smaller than other generations, it is the fastest growing as this generation progresses in life. 163 This demographic is hard to reach through traditional channels because they tend to spend a lot of their time online. In addition, a large percentage of millennials use ad blockers, this is believed to be even higher amongst the eSports audience. What makes eSports valuable to brands as an opportunity to engage this millennial audience therefore, is that sponsorship messaging can be part of the fabric of the content (i.e. not subject to ad blocking), rather than trying to interrupt what millennials are doing online (which is what advertising does) Author: How important are industry partners as sponsors for the competitive eSports scene nowadays? Malph Minns: The importance of sponsors varies depending on which stakeholder you are within the eSports ecosystem. Suffice to say they will benefit stakeholders from a point of view of: - contributing to legitimacy of eSports - income/revenue - attracting new fans to the sport (non-endemic brands are likely to be larger, with more reach and capacity to make an impact that existing entities) - professionalism of eSports - positive change to the broader governance and integrity of the scene - attracting more talent from outside eSports into the industry - employment To name a few Author: How is the "landscape" of sponsors traditionally composed in eSports? What are their main reasons and motives to sponsor eSports teams, leagues or events? Malph Minns: Like many immature sponsorship marketplaces, the eSports sponsorship landscape is largely made up of endemic brands. You then have the usual non-endemic sponsorship early adopters of brands like Coca Cola and Red Bull, who are not risk averse and take the time to understand the landscape before making more serious plays. We’re now starting to see other non-endemic brands make light touch entries into the market whilst they feel their way in. Note that in a lot of cases the re- 164 ported value of some of these deals is largely made up from an ad spend rather than actually true sponsorship (e.g. ELeague partner value is delivered largely through traditional broadcast ad spots rather than genuine sponsorship activation) The motivation of brands in eSports sponsorship is no different to any other sort of sponsorship. Brands want to connect to audiences, via a passion point, in order to change a behaviour or attitude of that audience to their brand. The specific behavior or attitude that is being influenced could be be different for each brand and each element of the audience. It could be a simple brand awareness play, it could be a familiarity play, it could be to associate certain brand attributes (e.g. innovation, high tech etc) or for endemic brands, it could be more directly commercial purchasing. Author: What are the main differences between Asia and the Western world in terms of eSports sponsoring? How similar/different is the situation in Northern America and Europe? Malph Minns: I can’t talk to eSports specifically as I don’t have experience of working with eSport sponsor brands in Asia and the US. But if you look at how brands use sponsorship in Asia in sport, for them it is more of a badging exercise. By that I mean it is about getting their logo in as many places as possible – it’s more about visibility. In Europe there is generally a more integrated approach where sponsorship assets are used as part of a broader marketing strategy. Branding is only one element, but other assets are used in the delivery of campaigns to engage both current and potential customers within the fanbase. Author: How did the sponsor landscape develop in the past years? What role do non-endemic sponsors (3rd/4th degree) play today? Malph Minns: Endemic sponsors still dominate the landscape in terms of volume of brands involved, as you would expect. There is a growing family of nonendemic sponsors joining, more around event sponsorship than team at the minute. What you’ll find is that non-endemic sponsors may be less in number of brands, but their relative sponsorship investment will be far larger. Equally they 165 will do more to integrate the sponsorship into their marketing communications as they look to build affinity with the fanbase. This has yet to happen at any real scale, but we’ll see this in the next phases of maturity in the market. Author: What significance may non-endemic sponsors have in the future and what consequences and chances may an increase in their appearance have for the eSports ecosystem? Malph Minns: Non-endemic sponsor involvement is likely to trigger a few changes, including: 1. More agencies/third parties (e.g. law firms, wealth management, agents etc) coming into esports 2. More money coming in 3. Broadcasters developing their plays 4. Awareness of eSports outside of the existing gaming community These changes are likely to result in both positive and negative consequences, including: 1. Increase in value of sponsorship deals (could affect the value endemic sponsors are bale to generate) 2. Wider traditional broadcast and media coverage (in news as well as showing live events) 3. Increase in staff and player income 4. Aggregation of events and more structured seasons 5. More of a focus from country law makers 6. A more concerted push for independent and professional governance 7. New fans coming into eSports both from a point of view of participation and fandome 8. Reduction in stigma surrounding gamers 9. Unionisation of different stakeholder groups 10. Professionalisation of how different stakeholders are run e.g. fit and proper tests, better contracts etc 11. Outside investors and marketmakers coming in to try and own a piece of the ecosystem 166 12. Aggregation of businesses (e.g. more businesses buying one another or bing bought by external parties) Author: What prejudices and obstacles are there that hinder non-endemic brands/companies to start engaging in eSports? What do non-endemic brands need to consider to get highly accepted and positively recognized within the eSports scenes to have successful co-operations? Malph Minns: A lot of decision makers at non-endemic brands are of an age that they aren’t gamers and so can’t immediately relate to the scene and the fans. This causes an investment problem unless there is a concerted effort to educate these people and show them the opportunities and potential, rather than just telling them. They will carry with them prejudices of their youth around gaming being for people with no friends, it being unhealthy and restricting other more physical activity etc. Brands are very conscious about their own public image. This is both from a perspective of what they do as a business, and what they invest in. Therefore obstacles to eSports investment include: Violence of games Doping issues Match fixing issues Poor treatment of players and teams Lack of professional skills/expertise in certain eSports businesses Lack of infrastructure around discipline and dispute resolution Fragmented nature of eSports and no common rule sets etc Poor to little governance Lack of a single competition calendar Perceptions of addicition and how this is managed Diversity and equality issues The power of the publishers to essentially have veto over all and any elements of eSports (within the titles they govern) 167 They must show an understanding of the audience and either add value to their consumption of eSports as a fan, or solve an issue/challenge fans have with what they love. Meanwhile, they always need to act authentically and with respect. The same can be said of endemic brands though. Just being a brand that is more obviously relevant to eSports and the audience doesn't create a change in attitude and behaviour. Too many endemic brands get lazy with their sponsorship and think having a presence is enough. Like any brand you need to show why you're relevant and worth consideration. Author: What are the most significant differences between sponsoring in traditional sports and eSports? What is special about sponsoring in eSports in comparison? Malph Minns: Other than all the differences outlined above from a point of view of market maturity, the biggest difference is that eSports offers a fairly unsaturated market for brands to engage people in without the noise of loads of other brands trying to catch fans attention too. Brands have an opportunity in eSports to own part of the ecosystem and the relative costs of entry are much smaller than in traditional sports. In addition, eSports offers access to a global audience more readily. Engagement is also largely online, making it easier to measure the impact. It is one of the paradoxes of esports vs sport. Sport is trying to understand and leverage the benefit of digital, whist eSports is already digital and trying to work out how to leverage the value of traditional media and ‘tangible live experience’ e.g. stadia based. Finally, very few properties in sport have such a concentration of the same demographic of audience. Usually it’s a lot more diverse and so your messaging is only ever relevant to a portion of the audience. Author: What developments do you predict for the future of eSports (next 5-10 years) in Western culture? Which position to traditional sports may eSports gain in case it gets more "mainstream attention"? Malph Minns: There are many different aspects to answering this question. Unequivocally we’ll see more non-endemic brands entering. A lot of the challenges outlined earlier, will have been addressed or will be in the process of being 168 addressed (i.e. the obstacles), conversations about entering the Olympics will hold more weight, perceptions of eSports and gamers will have moved on considerably from where they are today, new titles and technologies will be part of the core of eSports (e.g. VR) playing and viewing experiences, aggregation will have taken place (and will continue to take place) with companies buying one another, publishers will be far more active in the space generating more direct revenues from eSports. There is too much to say! Author: Thanks a lot for your valuable insights and information. Good luck for the future to you and Strive Sponsorship. 169 Appendix 21 Written interview with Alex Fletcher Interview via E-Mail with Mr. Alex Fletcher about eSports - conducted by the author Karlsruhe / London, 24.06.2016 Author: Hello Mr. Fletcher. First of all, I'd like to thank you a lot for contributing to my thesis with your expertise and knowledge. To start off the interview, please explain your job at Entiva Group and your overall relation to eSports and sponsoring in eSports. Alex Fletcher: I am founder and managing director at Entiva Group, an eSports strategic consulting agency. We help customers achieve returns from the eSports marketplace, which includes advisory and strategic support for sponsorship programs. Part 1: Sponsoring Author: How important are agencies and consultancies for fixing partnerships of eSports players/teams/leagues/events and industry partners? Alex Fletcher: The main issue facing partnerships in eSports is the cultural and knowledge gap between those familiar with eSports, and the wider gaming industry, and those unfamiliar. Agencies and consultancies help bridge this gap. Author: How important are sponsors for the competitive eSports scene nowadays? Alex Fletcher: Competitive video game scenes are literally run on sponsorship fuel. Aside from a handful of game developers and tournament organizers, revenues are basically limited to sponsorship dollars. Alex Fletcher Founder and CEO Entiva Group 170 Author: What characteristics define the target group "eSports fans"? What makes them especially valuable for sponsors/advertisers? How will this group and its subgroups develop? Alex Fletcher: These audiences are largely under 34 years of age, largely tech savvy, digital natives and difficult to reach using traditional advertising methods. Unfortunately, “eSports fans” are being grouped into a collective that obfuscates the segmentation which drives its subgroups. For example, fans of League of Legends feature a different profile from those of Counter-Strike: Global Offensive. Author: How is the "landscape" of sponsors traditionally composed in eSports? What are their main reasons and motives to sponsor eSports teams, leagues or events? Alex Fletcher: The landscape is split between endemic and non-endemic sponsors, of which the former composes ~95%. For endemic sponsors, or those directly serving the market for video game play, competitive gaming is an essential channel for selling products. For non-endemics eSports is emerging as a cost-effective way to reach valuable audiences. Author: What are the main differences between Asia and the Western world in terms of eSports sponsoring? How similar/different is the situation in Northern America and Europe? Alex Fletcher: Despite the fact that eSports is a largely global landscape, these markets are fundamentally different. Mostly due to the attitudes and acceptance of video games within mainstream culture, e.g. Asia is far more open to professional gamers as potential endorsement candidates. Author: How did the sponsor landscape develop in the past years? What role do non-endemic sponsors (3rd/4th degree) play today? Alex Fletcher: The sponsor landscape in eSports has grown from an ecosystem of endemics to an emerging sponsorship platform for a growing number of brands outside the video game industry. 171 Author: What significance may non-endemic sponsors have in the future and what consequences and chances may an increase in their appearance have for the eSports ecosystem? What obstacles are there that are hindering nonendemic brands/companies to start engaging in eSports? Alex Fletcher: Despite increasing media buzz about the eSports opportunity, education is currently the biggest gap for non-endemic brands. Once this gap is bridged for more brands, sponsorship revenues will grow by 2-3 times current levels. Author: What prejudices and obstacles are there that hinder non-endemic brands/companies to start engaging in eSports? How can or will they be erased? What do non-endemic brands need to consider to get highly accepted and positively recognized within the eSports scenes? How can they build the 'connection' with eSports, that they don't have naturally like endemic brands? Alex Fletcher: Success for non-endemic brands begins with recognizing that eSports, more than anything else, is an export of gaming culture. Despite the push to recognize competitive video games as a sport, its core is a worldwide community of gamers. Approaching eSports like futbol, basketball, or tennis is an unsound strategy. Author: What are the most significant differences between sponsoring in traditional sports and eSports? What is special about sponsoring in eSports in comparison? Alex Fletcher: Segmentation is the biggest difference. The crossover in traditional sports is far different from that in eSports. Since video game titles form the basis of eSports, and there is a strong link between playing the game and watching it played, there is less general crossover between eSports audiences than in traditional sports. Author: Are there any other important aspects concerning sponsors and sponsoring in eSports? 172 Alex Fletcher: Commercial partnerships with eSports teams, events, leagues are a great learning tool. Sponsors should look at leveraging these agreements as a chance to establish a competitive edge in reaching eSports audiences; especially for establishing best practices and tools for future activations in the space. Part 2: Governing Author: How do you evaluate the situation of governing bodies in eSports? Which role do associations and publishers play? How will the role of them and their interaction with each other develop? Will associations gain power in the future? Which situation in matters of the relation between associations and a game's publisher (and their respective degree of influence) do you evaluate as the "healthiest situation" for the eSports scene of a game? How could such a best-case-situation be reached? Alex Fletcher: Effective governance is only possible through cooperation with game publishers. There is no eSport without the game. As a result, governing bodies that attempt to form without input from publishers will eventually run afoul of their control. The healthiest situation is non-profit groups that involve major publishers from the onset, even if just by proxy. This will be best achieved by learning and involving others outside the video game industry, including traditional sports. Part 3: Risk Factors Author: As investments and predicted growth rates of the industry are very high: do you see the risk of creating a "bubble" by 'over-investments'? What further risks are there for eSports (e.g. doping issues, match making,...)? Alex Fletcher: The biggest risk for eSports is unsustainable investment, where money is poured into areas with little-to-no defined return-on-investment. For example, outside investors are buying eSports teams but without the guidance of leagues and federations, successful outcomes are largely case-by-case. Match fixing represents a substantial issue but its solution will require widespread governance and integrity standards. 173 Part 4: Future development Author: What do you predict for the overall eSports scene for the next 5 years? Alex Fletcher: Electronic sports will continue to mature as an industry and phenomenon. Further penetration onto linear TV will bring content to more mainstream audiences and boost the number of fans. The landscape is due for a new, popular eSports title that is designed for competitive success. As a result, the concept of what is an eSport will continue to expand, for better or worse. Author: Thanks a lot for your valuable insights and information. Good luck for the future to you and Entiva Group. 174 Appendix 22 Written interview with Marco Niemann Interview via E-Mail with Mr. Marco Niemann about ESL, ESL Meisterschaft 2016, and its partners - conducted by the author in German Karlsruhe / Köln, 20.05.2016 Author: Hallo Herr Niemann. Zunächst möchte Ich mich recht herzlich für Ihre Unterstützung und das Zurverfügung-stellen von weiteren Informationen und Ihrer Expertise bedanken. Zum Beginn des Interviews, wäre es hilfreich, wenn Sie sich und Ihre Arbeitsstelle vorstellen könnten. Marco Niemann: Ich arbeite als Senior Sales Manager für Turtle Entertainment, dass ist die Firma hinter der ESL. In meiner Position unterstehen mir zwei Sales Manager sowie weitere Mitarbeiter, die dabei helfen, unsere Kooperationen mit Partnern umzusetzen. Ich selbst betreue vor allem wichtige Kunden der ESL, seien es globale Partner wie Logitech aber auch wichtige Partner im nationalen Bereich wie Wüstenrot. Author: Welches Leistungsspektrum umfasst das Angebot der ESL und in wie vielen Ländern ist sie in welchem Ausmaß aktiv? In welchen Bereich neben der Organisation von Ligen und Turnieren ist die ESL bzw. Turtle Entertainment noch tätig? Marco Niemann: Unser Angebots-Portfolio ist sehr umfangreich. Neben der Ausrichtung unserer großen Evens wie die ESL One oder Intel Extreme Masters und der damit verbundenen Möglichkeit für Unternehmen Sponsorings, Stände oder andere Brand-Aktivierungs-Maßnahmen einzubuchen, sind auch klassische Mediakampagnen (Banner etc.), Influencer-Kampagnen oder TV-Leistungen möglich. Wir haben mittlerweile ein Netzwerk von mehr als 400 Influencern, Marco Niemann Senior Sales Manager Electronic Sports League Turtle Entertainment GmbH 175 sprich Twitch- und YouTube-Größen, in unserem Netzwerk, welche wir mit den Produkten und Marken unserer Kunden zusammenbringen können. Da wir über all auf der Welt lokale Büros betreiben und in den wichtigsten Märkten (bspw. Deutschland, England, Niederlande, Polen, USA, Australien uvm.) voll ausgestatte TV-Studios haben, können wir unseren Kunden auch lokale Events anbieten. Author: Wie viele deutsche Spieler sind bei der ESL registriert? Marco Niemann: Insgesamt sind auf der ESL Plattform 6,1 Mio. User registriert. Ein Großteil davon kommt aus Deutschland. Author: Wie wichtig sind Sponsoren für die ESL insbesondere für das Durchführen von Veranstaltungen wie der ESL Meisterschaft und Großveranstaltungen wie der ESL One Cologne/Frankfurt/Katowice? Marco Niemann: Sponsoren gehören auch weiterhin zu einem extrem wichtigen Standbein beim veranstalten unsere Events. Sponsoring macht bei uns einen Anteil von 30-40% der Einnahmen aus. Dazu kommen dann Einnahmen von weiteren Lizenzen, Ticketing und Merchandising. Author: Welche Rollen spielen die Spielepublisher für die ESL und Ihre Angebote? Marco Niemann: Auch die Spielepublisher gehören zu unseren wichtigsten Partner. Am Beispiel der ESL One Cologne, wo Valve das Turnier als offizielles CS:GO Major mit einem Preisgeld in Höhe von $1 Mio. unterstützt, wird deutlich, wie eng wir mit den großen der Branche zusammenarbeiten. Author: Wer sind die wichtigsten/größten Sponsoringpartner der ESL? Marco Niemann: Generell sind alle unsere Partner wichtig für uns. Dabei geht es nicht primär um das Budget, welches hinter den Kooperationen steht. In diesem Jahr gehören aber sicherlich Intel, Logitech, paysafecard, HyperX, Red Bull aber auch ein Wüstenrot zu unseren wichtigsten Partnern. Author: Für die ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft wurde die Bausparkasse Wüstenrot als Hauptsponsor gewonnen. Bitte beschreibe den (auch historischen) Stellen- 176 wert der ESL Meisterschaft innerhalb des ESL Angebotsspektrums und des deutschen eSports. Marco Niemann: Die ESL Meisterschaft ist für uns ein sehr wichtiges Produkt, auch wenn es die Kommentare der Community auf einschlägigen Szene-Seiten manchmal anders aussehen lassen. Mit dieser nationalen Liga schaffen wir für deutsche Spieler eine Plattform, sich zu zeigen und nach oben zu spielen. Schließlich gibt es auch auf nationaler Ebene eine eSports-Szene. Natürlich kann die ESL Meisterschaft nicht mit unseren oder anderen europäischen oder globalen Events mithalten, was bspw. das Preisgeld angeht, dass muss sie aber auch gar nicht. Auch für viele nationale Werbetreibende ist die ESL Meisterschaft eine ideale Plattform, die sehr kaufkräftige deutsche Zielgruppe anzusprechen. Des Weiteren wächst die ESL Meisterschaft in der Zuschauerschaft von Saison zu Saison. Das zeigt uns, dass dieses Produkt definitiv eine Daseinsberechtigung hat. Author: Welche Bedeutung hat die Wüstenrot-Kooperation für die ESL? Marco Niemann: Diese Kooperation zeigt vor allem, dass auch Unternehmen, die nicht direkt auf dem Gaming- oder PC-Umfeld kommen, eSport als Kommunikationsplattform für sich entdecken. Wenn dann noch ein Kunde wie Wüstenrot eine ESL Meisterschaft unterstützt, ist das besonders schön. Wüstenrot ist für die ESL Meisterschaft ein sehr wichtiger und starker Partner, der die Kooperation auf vielen Wegen aktiviert und auch der Community durch Gewinnspiele oder besonders hochwertigen Content etwas zurückgibt. In Duisburg hatten die Besucher darüber hinaus die Chance, am Stand von Wüstenrot Autogramme von ihren Stars zu bekommen. Author: Zur medialen Reichweite der Meisterschaft: Wie viele Zuschauer waren in der Open-Air-Bühne Gießhalle 1 im Landschafts-Park Duisburg vor Ort? Wie viele (unique) Viewer wurden über die diversen ESL TV Streams erreicht? Wie viele (unique) Leute haben die Website der Meisterschaft im Kooperationszeitraum aufgerufen? Marco Niemann: Wir hatten insgesamt 1.500 Besucher in Duisburg, was für ein nationales Event mehr als gut ist. Der Sonntag war sogar restlos ausverkauft, was die Tickets anging. Was die Zahlen auf dem Stream angeht, kann ich leider 177 nicht allzu sehr ins Detail gehen, wir erreichen mit der ESL Meisterschaft allerdings eine niedrige siebenstellige Reichweite (Unique). Author: Wie kam es zum Kontakt und schließlich zur Kooperation mit Wüstenrot? Welche Argumente waren ausschlaggebend für ein erfolgreiches Zustandekommen der Partnerschaft von ESL-Seite her und wie konnte man Wüstenrot von der Attraktivität des Sponsorings und Werbens im eSports bzw. deutschen ESL-Umfeldes überzeugen? Marco Niemann: Die ESL ist im Werbemarkt breit aufgestellt und pflegt Kontake zu vielen Unternehmen, auch wenn sie bis dato noch nicht im eSport aktiv geworden sind. Dazu gehören auch bekannte Werbeagenturen, die im Falle von Wüstenrot ebenfalls involviert waren. Wir saßen gemeinsam an einem Tisch und haben uns die Bedürfnisse und Ziele von Wüstenrot angeschaut und dann ein Paket erarbeitet. Author: Wüstenrot ist eine Marke, die nicht direkt im eSports oder der Computer- und Telekommunikationsbranche angesiedelt ist. Hat die ESL weitere Partnerschaften mit nicht eSports verwandten Marken? Aus welchen Branchen gibt es weitere Anfragen? Welche Entwicklung erwartet man in Zukunft für das Interesse von nicht verwandten Marken und welche Chancen sieht man darin? Marco Niemann: Absolut. Unser Ziel ist es und muss es sein, zukünftig weiterer Marken in den eSports zu bringen, die bis dato nur im klassischen Sport werben. Wie oben erwähnt, stehen wir hierzu im ständigen Austausch mit Werbetreibenden und Agenturen. Und natürlich laufen bereits Gespräche im Hintergrund. Beispielsweise haben wir just heute GFUEL als neuen Energy-Drink Partner für die IEM vorgestellt. Author: Gibt es eine bestimmte Strategie den potentiellen Partnern aus anderen Branchen den häufig vorherrschenden "Skeptizismus" gegenüber eSports zu nehmen? Marco Niemann: Aufklärung. Wir sprechen mit diesen Partnern extrem viel über die aktuellen Geschehnisse aus dem Bereich. Wir halten Workshops ab und sind auf Fachtagungen mit Präsentationen präsent. Darüber hinaus wird der 178 eSport aktuell von klassischen Medien mehr und mehr wahrgenommen, was ebenfalls immens hilft. Author: Wird es auch in Zukunft Kooperationen mit Wüstenrot geben? Marco Niemann: Aktuell laufen Gespräche, wenn nicht in diesem Jahr, ganz bestimmt aber wieder in der Zukunft. Die Kooperation war für beide Parteien sehr erfolgreich, dementsprechend werden wir Wüstenrot ganz bestimmt auch zukünftig zu unseren Partnern zählen dürfen. Author: Vielen Dank für Ihre Unterstützung und die vielen Informationen. Ich wünsche Ihnen und der ESL eine erfolgreiche eSports-Zukunft. Marco Niemann: Vielen Dank für das Interview. 179 Appendix 23 Written interview with Frank Dolipski Interview via E-Mail with Mr. Frank Dolipski about Wüstenrot's engagement in eSports - conducted by the author in German Karlsruhe / Ludwigsburg, 20.04.2016 Author: Hallo Herr Dolipski. Zunächst möchte Ich mich recht herzlich für Ihre Unterstützung und das Zurverfügungstellen von weiteren Informationen und Ihrer Expertise bedanken. Zum Beginn des Interviews, wäre es hilfreich, wenn Sie sich und Ihre Arbeitsstelle vorstellen könnten. Frank Dolipski: Frank Dolipski, 43 Jahre alt, seit 6,5 Jahren für Wüstenrot & Württembergische AG im Bereich strategische Markenkommunikation tätig. Dies umfasst sowohl die Markenkommunikation mit Awareness-Zielen, als auch Performancekampagnen mit klaren Lead-/Sale-Zielen. Author: Welche Beteiligung haben Sie an der 'Endlich genau mein Ding- Kampagne' und an der Kooperation mit Turtle Entertainment bzw. der ESL und ESL Meisterschaft? Frank Dolipski: Die Kampagne und das Sponsoring der ESL Frühjahrsmeisterschaft ist in der Konzerneinheit Brandmanagement zusammen mit Agenturpartnern entstanden und umgesetzt worden – deren Bestandteil mein Aufgabenbereich auch ist. Author: Bitte beschreiben Sie den Prozess wie es zu der Idee und Entscheidung kam als Sponsor und Werbetreibender im Bereich eSports aufzutreten. Aus wel- Frank Dolipski Marketing Referent Wüstenrot und Württembergische AG KK Brandmanagement 180 chen Motiven entschied man sich dafür? Welche Potentiale wurden/werden darin gesehen? Frank Dolipski: Die erste Überlegung war ganz einfach: Welche Themen haben eine hohe Relevanz für die junge Zielgruppe? Wüstenrot möchte die Interessen und Bedürfnisse der Zielgruppe ernst nehmen und ihr dort auf Augenhöhe begegnen. E-Sports ist international aber auch gerade in Deutschland ein rapide wachsendes Feld, mit einer begeisterten und engagierten Anhängerschaft. Als Hauptsponsor der ESL Meisterschaft Frühlingssaison tritt Wüstenrot Bausparkasse positiv in den Fokus einer Zielgruppe, die bis dahin wenig mit der Marke in Berührung gekommen ist. Durch die Erstellung einer Videoserie, in der Wüstenrot authentisch und ehrlich mit bekannten Figuren der E-Sportsszene spricht, schafft das Sponsoring eine Brücke zur Jugendkampagne, und gewinnt echte Fürsprecher in der Zielgruppe. Author: Worin sieht Wüstenrot die Hauptvorteile als Sponsor und nicht als 'normaler Advertiser' aufzutreten? Frank Dolipski: In der Verbindung liegt die Kraft. Das Sponsoring wird mit „normalen“ Werbemittelveröffentlichungen zusätzlich unterstützt. Sponsoring schafft Markenpräsenz und Aufmerksamkeit, die flankierenden Werbemittel kommunizieren darüber hinaus den Produktvorteil von Jugend-Wohnsparen. Author: Weshalb entschied man sich für eine Kooperation mit der ESL- Meisterschaft und dem Hauptsponsorings dieses Events? Frank Dolipski: Weil eine Deutsche Meisterschaft und deren mediale Verbreitung dem Kommunikationsgebiet der Wüstenrot Bausparkasse entspricht und wir mit der ESL einen kompetenten Partner an der Seite haben. Author: Welche Sponsoring- und Werbemaßnahmen umfasst die Kooperation im Detail? Welche weiteren Werbemaßnahmen wurden/werden getätigt und wie ist die Kooperation in die Gesamtmarketingstrategie integriert? Frank Dolipski: Das Engagement wird über die Kanäle der ESL Deutschland (Social Media Kanäle, Website der ESL Meisterschaft, Live-Übertragung der Spiele), über die Social-Media Kanäle von Wüstenrot & Württembergische, über 181 die Social-Media Kanäle der Videoprotagonisten, Blogs und Gaming-Portale verbreitet. Als Linkziel und Kampagnenhub dient die Landingpage www.wuestenrot.de/ESL, auf der die Zielgruppe, die komplette Videoserie anschauen kann und durch ein Gewinnspiel die Chance auf ein exklusives VIP Erlebnis bei der gamescom 2016 hat. Die Aktivierung des Engagement findet rein digital und beim Finale der Meisterschaft durch einen Aktionsstand statt. Das Engagement ist in eine Jugendkommunikation eingebunden, die wiederum auch in TV und Kino erfolgt. Author: Welche Ziele (primär/sekundär, qualitativ/quantitativ, kurzfritig/langfristig) werden mit der Kampagne und speziell der Sponsoring- Kooperation mit der ESL-Meisterschaft verfolgt bzw. sollen erreicht werden? Frank Dolipski: a) Wüstenrot als Finanz-Partner für die Zukunft bekannt machen, b) Wüstenrot als Wunschverwirklicher mit dem Produkt Wohnsparen zu platzieren. Author: Möchte Wüstenrot ein bestimmtes Image in der Zielgruppe aufbauen, dass es von dem Image anderer Bausparkassen bzw. allgemein dem Image der Bausparbranche differenziert? Frank Dolipski: An erster Stelle steht, in der jungen Erwachsenen Zielgruppe, Markenbekanntheit aufzubauen. Ohne Bekanntheit hat eine Marke gar kein Image. Mit dem Sponsoring der ESL Frühlingsmeisterschaft – also dem eSport Bereich, ist natürlich auch das Ziel verbunden ein Image zu fördern, welches eher modern, dynamisch als verstaubt und träge wahrgenommen wird. Markensympathie ist hier ein wichtiger Faktor. Eine Marke aus dem Finanzbereich muss nicht zwingend als cool, jung, visionär wahrgenommen werden um erfolgreich zu sein – sympathisch und vertrauensvoll aber durchaus. Author: Wie wird eine Verbindung zwischen Wüstenrot und seinen Produkten/Dienstleistungen und dem eSports und der ESL hergestellt? Wo ist der "gemeinsame Nenner"? Frank Dolipski: Sein eigenes Ding machen, die eigenen Wünsche erfüllen, unsere fünf ProGamer/Influencer-Partner machen es vor. „Mach auch du dein Ding“ 182 - bei finanziellen Dingen kann Wüstenrot mit dem Produkt Wohnsparen für junge Leute helfen. Das ist die Verbindung zu den Interviewfilmen mit den ProGamern und Kennern. Diese Aussage wird über die begleitenden Werbemittel, in der das Wohnsparen präsentiert wird und über die Onlineseite, die mit allen digitalen Sponsoringelementen verbunden ist transportiert. Author: In welcher Art und Weise werden qualitative oder quantitative Erfolgskontrollen der Kooperation durchgeführt (werden)? Frank Dolipski: Das Engagement wird mit einer eigens aufgesetzten Marktforschung begleitet. Null-, Zwischen und Abschlussmessung werden uns im Nachgang genau Informationen über die Entwicklung der KPI's im Kommunikationsverlauf aufzeigen. Author: Für welchen Zeitraum läuft der momentan bestehende Kooperationsvertrag? Wird eventuell eine Verlängerung angedacht? Wird sich Wüstenrot auch in Zukunft weiterhin im eSports präsentieren? Frank Dolipski: Das Sponsoring umfasst die Frühlingsmeisterschaft 2016. Eine Verlängerung und ein weiteres Engagement ist nicht ausgeschlossen – bei positiver KPI-Entwicklung. Author: Vielen Dank für Ihre Unterstützung und die vielen Einsichten in Ihre Kampagne. Ich wünsche Ihnen und Wüstenrot viel Erfolg für die Zukunft und bin gespannt, ob und wie man Wüstenrot in Zukunft im eSports antreffen wird. 183 Appendix 24 SPSS outputs of conducted statistical analyses One-sided independent sample t-test (α = 0.05) for Q7.1 and Q5.1: Wüstenrot's perception at ESLM vs. Wüstenrot's image in the online survey Conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics 21 184 One-sided independent sample t-test for Q8.1: Subsample A vs. Subsample B Conducted with IBM SPSS Statistics 21

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Abstract

In the last decades, the market for digital games has grown to nearly $100 billion. During this growth, a special gaming segment and community formed surrounding the direct competitive aspect of games: eSports. The core of eSports is similar to traditional types of sport. Players train to become better, clubs are established, tournaments are organized and fans enjoy watching their game being played on the highest level of performance. With viewers and prize money in the millions, eSports have grown into an economically significant media sport ecosystem and a marketing landscape that started to attract non-endemic companies as advertisers and sponsors. This book analyzes the components of the eSports ecosystem as well as their interactions with each other. Furthermore, the attitude of eSports fans towards engagements of non-endemic companies is researched by using a real case study including the Electronic Sports League and German home loan bank Wüstenrot.